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rotund ifolia (harebell), Cornus Canadensis (dwarf cornel), Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bearberry), Potentilla tridentata (mountain cinquefoil), Pteris aquilina (common brake). At old camps, carries, and logging-paths: Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Prunella vulgaris (common self-heal), clover, herds-grass, Achillea millefolium (common yarrow), Leucanthemum valgare (white-weed), Aster macrophyllus, Halenia deflexa East Branch (spurred gentian), Antennaria margaritacea (pearly everlasting), Aetata rubra and alba, wet carries (red and white cohosh), Desmodium Canadense (tick-trefoil), sorrel.

The handsomest and most interesting flowers were the great purple orchises, rising ever and anon, with their great purple spikes perfectly erect, amid the shrubs and grasses of the shore. It seemed strange that they should be made to grow there in such profusion, seen of moose and moosehunters only, while they are so rare in Concord. I have never seen this species flowering nearly so late with us, or with the small one.

The prevailing underwoods were: Dircapalustris (moosewood), Acer spicatum (mountain maple), Viburnum lantanoides (hobblebush), and frequently Taxus baccata, var. Canadensis (American yew).

The prevailing shrubs and small trees along the share were: osie rouge and alders (before mentioned); sallows, or small willows, of two or three kinds, as Salts humilis, rostrata, and discolor ?, Sambucus Canadensis (black elder), rose, Viburnum opulus and nudum (cranberry-tree and withe-rod), Pyrus Americana (American mountain-ash), Corylus rostrata (beaked hazel-nut), Diervilla trifida (bushhoneysuckle), Prunus Virginiana (choke-cherry), Myrica gale (sweet-gale), Nemopanthes Canadensis (mountain holly), Cephalanthus occidentalis (button-bush), Ribes prostratum, in some places (fetid currant).

More particularly of shrubs and small trees in swamps: some willows, Kalmia glauca (pale laurel), Ledum latifoHum and palustre (Labrador tea), Ribes lacustre (swamp gooseberry), and in one place Betula pumila (low birch). At camps and carries: raspberry, Vaccinium Canadense (Canada blueberry), Prunus Pennsylvania f also along shore (wild red cherry), Amelanchier Canadensis (shad-bush), Sambucus pubens (red-berried elder). Among those peculiar to the mountains would be the Vaccinium vitis-id&a (cow-berry).

Of plants commonly regarded as introduced from Europe, I observed at Ansel Smith's clearing, Chesuncook, abundant in 1857: Ranunculus acris (buttercups), Plantago major (common plantain), Chenopodium album (lamb'squarters), Capsella bursa-pastoris, 1853 (shepherd's-purse), Spergula arvensis, also, north shore of Moosehead, in 1853, and elsewhere, 1857 (corn-spurry), Taraxacum dens-leonis

— regarded as indigenous by Gray, but evidently introduced there — (common dandelion), Polygonum Persicaria aud hydropiper, by a logging-path in woods at Smith's (lady's-thumb and smart-weed), Rumex acetosella, common at carries (sheep-sorrel), Trifolium pratenset 1853, and carries frequent (red clover), Leucanihemum vulgar e, carries (white weed), Phleum pratense, carries, 1853-7 (herd'sgtass), Verbena hastata (blue vervain), Cirsium arvense, abundant at camps 1857 (Canada thistle), Rumex crispus ft West Branch, 1853? (curled dock), Verbascum thapsus, between Bangor and lake, 1853 (common mullein).

It appears that I saw about a dozen plants which had accompanied man as far into the woods as Chesuncook, and had naturalized themselves there, in 1853. Plants begin thus early to spring by the side of a logging-path,

— a mere vista through the woods, which can only be used in the winter, on account of the stumps and fallen trees,

— which at length are the roadside plants in old settlements. The pioneers of such are planted in part by the first cattle, which cannot be summered in the woods.


The following is a list of the plants which I noticed in the Maine woods, in the years 1853 and 1857. (Those marked * not in woods.)

1. Those Which Attained The Height Of Trees

Alnus incana (speckled or hoary alder), abundant along streams, &c.

Thuja occidentals (American arbor-vitse), one of the prevailing.

Fraxinus sambucifolia (black ash), very common, especially near dead water. The Indian spoke of " yellow ash" as also found there.

Populus tremuloides (American aspen), very common, especially on burnt lands, almost as white as birches.

Populus grandidentata (large-toothed aspen), perhaps two or three.

Fagus ferruginea (American beech), not uncommon, at least on the West Branch (saw more in 1846).

Betula papyracea (canoe-birch), prevailing everywhere and about Bangor.

Betula excelsa (yellow birch), very common.

Betula lenta (black birch), on the West Branch, in 1853.

Betula alba (American white birch), about Bangor only.

Ulmus Americana (American or white elm), West Branch and low down the East Branch, i. e., on the lower and alluvial part of the river, very common.

Larix Americana (American or black larch), very common on the Umbazookskus, some elsewhere.

Abies Canadensis (hemlock-spruce), not abundant, some on the West Branch, and a little everywhere.

Acer saccharinum (sugar maple), very common.

Acer rubrum (red or swamp maple), very common.

Acer dasycarpum (white or silver maple), a little low on East Branch and in Chesuncook woods.

Quercus rubra (red oak), one on an island in Grand Lake, East Branch, and, according to a settler, a few on the east side of Chesuncook Lake; a few also about Bangor in 1853.

Pinus strobus (white pine), scattered along, most abundant at Heron Lake.

Pinus resinosa (red pine), Telos and Grand Lake, a little afterwards here and there.

Abies balsamea (balsam fir), perhaps the most common tree, especially in the upper parts of rivers.

Abies nigra (black or double spruce), next to the last the most common, if not equally common, and on mountains.

Abies alba (white or single spruce), common with the last along the rivers.

Pinus Banksiana (gray or Northern scrub-pine), a few on an island in Grand Lake.

Twenty-three in all (23).

2. Small Trees And Shrubs

Prunus depressa (dwarf-cherry), on gravel bars, East Branch, near Hunt's, with green fruit, obviously distinct from the pumila of river and meadows.

Vaccinium corymbosum (common swamp blueberry), Bucksport.

Vaccinium Canadense (Canada blueberry), carries and rocky hills everywhere as far south as Bucksport.

Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum (dwarf-blueberry ?), Whetstone Falls.

Betula pumila (low birch), Mud Pond Swamp.

Prinos verticillata (black alder, '57), now placed with Ilex by Gray, 2d ed.

Cephalanthus occidentalis (button-bush). Prunus Pennsylvania (wild red cherry), very common at camps, carries, &c, along rivers; fruit ripe August 1, 1857.

Prunus Virginiana (choke-cherry), river side, common. Cornus alternifolia (alternate-leaved cornel), West Branch, 1853.

Ribes prostratum (fetid currant), common along streams, on Webster Stream.

Sambucus Canadensis (common elder), common along river sides.

Sambucus pubens (red-berried elder), not quite so common, roadsides toward Moosehead, and on carries afterward, fruit beautiful.

Ribes lacustre (swamp-gooseberry), swamps, common Mud Pond Swamp and Webster Stream; not ripe July 29 1857.

Corylus rostrata (beaked hazel-nut), common. Taxus baccata, var. Canadensis (American yew), a common under-shrub at an island in West Branch and Chesuncook woods.

Viburnum lantanoides (hobble-bush), common, especially in Chesuncook woods; fruit ripe in September, 1853, not in July, 1857.

Viburnum opulus (cranberry-tree), on West Branch; one in flower still, July 25, 1857.

Viburnum nudum (withe-rod), common along rivers. Kalmia glauca (pale laurel), swamps, common, as at Moosehead carry and Chamberlain swamp.

Kalmia angustifolia (lamb-kill), with Kalmia glauca. Acer spicatum (mountain maple), a prevailing underwood.

Acer striatum (striped maple), in fruit July 30, 1857;

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