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Queen Charlotte's Island, trading and exploring until September. During this time he examined many inlets and passages between the 54th and 56th parallels. He penetrated one of
of these channels, afterwards named by Vancouver Portland Canal, in latitude 54 degrees 33 minutes, about one hundred miles. Gray was first to explore this part of the northwest coast, and gave the United States additional right to the celebrated line, “Fifty-four-Forty.”
30. Second Vessel Built on the Coast. After these explorations Gray returned to Clyoquot, where during the winter he built a block-house on the shore, which he named Fort Defiance. He also constructed and launched the second vessel ever built on the North Pacific coast, which he named the Adventure.
31. Vancouver's Voyage to the North Pacific. The British government sent Captain George Vancouver to the northwest Pacific coast to treat with the Spanish at Nootka and to examine and survey the west coast of the American continent from the 35th to the both parallels of latitude.
Vancouver reached the American coast near Cape Mendocino in April, 1792, and sailed northward to the Strait of Fuca, examining the shore as he went.
He noticed that the water off the opening, named by Meares Deception Bay, had changed from its natural to river-colored water, but passed on without discovering the river, and when he reached the Strait of Fuca he made an entry in his journal, stating that
"the whole coast formed one compact and nearly straight barrier against the sea."
32. Vancouver Meets Gray. On the 29th of April, 1792, Vancouver met Gray in the ship Columbia near the entrance to the Strait of Fuca, who informed him that he had just penetrated the strait to the distance of about fifty miles and returned to the ocean. Gray also informed Vancouver of his having been off the mouth of a river in latitude 46 degrees 10 minutes, where the outset was so strong as to prevent his entering it. The English captain gave little attention to Gray's account of the river. He was not willing to believe the Yankee captains more skillful in exploration than himself. The two captains parted company, Vancouver to do his important work of surveying Puget Sound, and Gray to complete his important discoveries, which gave the United States government the best right to the Valley of the Columbia,
33. Discovery of Gray's Harbor. After the interview with Vancouver Gray sailed southward along the coast of the continent, and on the 7th of May, 1792, he saw an entrance which had a very good appearance of a harbor," in latitude 46 degrees 58 minutes. Gray passed through this entrance and found himself in a bay “well sheltered from the sea by long sandbars and spits," where he remained at anchor three days. Gray named this bay Bulfinch's Harbor, in honor of one of the owners of his ship, and it is so called on the old maps, but is now called Gray's Harbor in honor of its discoverer.
34. Discovery of the Columbia River. After leaving Gray's Harbor, at daybreak on the 11th of May, 1792, Gray observed “the entrance of his desired port, bearing east-south-east, distant six leagues," and running into it, with all sails set, between breakers, he anchored at one o'clock “IN A LARGE RIVER OF FRESH WATER,” ten miles above its mouth. Here he remained three days and then sailed up the river about fifteen miles along the northern shore, and again came to anchor. Here Gray remained about a week and then sailed out, and as he passed over the bar he named the river Columbia-after his ship-a name it is destined to always bear. The cape on the south side of the mouth of the Columbia he named Point Adams, and the one on the north side, Cape Hancock. Gray returned to Nootka and there informed Captain Ingraham and the Spanish commandant of the discovery of the harbor and the river, and gave them charts and descriptions of his discoveries.
35. Observations on the Discovery of the Columbia. The following observations on the discovery of the Columbia should be noted :
1. The opening through which the Columbia discharges its waters was first seen by the Spanish navigator, Heceta, in August, 1775.
2. Captain Meares examined this entrance in July, 1788, and departed convinced that no river existed there. 3.
Vancouver asserted in 1792 that no opening, harbor, or place of refuge for vessels was to be found between Cape Mendocino and the Strait of Fuca.
4. The Columbia River was actually discovered and entered by Robert Gray on the Ith of May, 1792.
All the honor of the discovery of this, the greatest river on the Pacific coast, belongs to Gray, and the service which he rendered our country by his indomitable energy and courage cannot be overestimated.
36. The Survey of Admiralty Inlet. On the ist of May, 1792, Vancouver entered the Strait of Juan de Fuca and sailed along the coast eastward about one hundred miles, where he entered a harbor which he named Port Discovery. A little to the east he found another opening to the south, which he named Admiralty Inlet. The Spanish had named it Canal de Caamano. Vancouver entered this inlet, which he
, penetrated southerly about a hundred miles. He found that it consisted of three principal arms branches. He named the one on the west Hood's Canal, the one on the east Possession Sound, and the one on the south Puget Sound, a name now generally given to the entire inlet. Having completed the survey of these arms, Vancouver landed on Possession Sound, near where the city of Everett now stands, and celebrated the birthday of the British sovereign-the 4th of June—by taking possession in his name, and "with the usual formalities, of all that part of New Albion, from latitude 39 degrees 20 minutes south, and longitude 236 degrees 26 minutes east, to the entrance of the inlet of the sea and all the islands within the inlet and both its shores, etc., and named the
country New Georgia. This bombastic ceremony was about as potent as the parade of a drum major who marches at the head of a band, but produces no music.
37. Geographical Names in Washington.
Many of the geographical names in Washington were bestowed by the early settlers and chosen from the beautiful appellations used by the Indians, for their rivers, islands, bays, and mountains. The custom of retaining the musical native names is to be commended. But Vancouver was an enthusiastic geographical godfather, and delighted to name the territories, straits, bays, etc., in honor of the royal family, the ministry, the parliament, the army and the navy of Great Britain. Hence we find many geographical names bestowed by Vancouver still clinging to places in Washington, such as Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Hood's Canal, Whidby Island, and Mount Ranier.
38. Expedition of Lewis and Clarke. In 1803 the United States government, by advice of President Jefferson, commissioned Captain Meriwether Lewis and Captain William Clarke to explore the new territory of Louisiana, which had been just purchased from Napoleon by President Jefferson. Captain Lewis was commander of the expedition. The exploring party, consisting of about thirty men, passed up the Missouri River in the spring of 1805, passed over the divide into the valley of the Columbia and down that river to its mouth, where they arrived on the 15th of November, 1805. This was the first overland journey