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severe short he diarogy : tha
joints themselves, in many plants, maintain a regular number.
In vegetable composure, the unition of prominent parts seems most to answer the apophyses or processes of animal bones, whereof they are the produced parts or prominent explanations. And though in the parts of plants which are not ordained for motion, we do not expect correspondent articulations : yet in the setting on of some flowers and seeds in their sockets, and the lineal commissure of the pulp of several seeds, may be observed some shadow of the harmony, some show of the gomphosis3 or mortise-articulation.
As for the diarthrosis4 or motive articulation, there is ex. pected little analogy; though long-stalked leaves do move by long lines, and have observable motions, yet are they made by outward impulsion, like the motion of pendulous bodies, while the parts themselves are united by some kind of symphysis unto the stock. .
But standing vegetables, void of motive articulations, are not without many motions. For, besides the motion of vegetation upward, and of radiation unto all quarters, that of contraction, dilitation, inclination, and contortion, is discoverable in many plants. To omit the rose of Jericho, the ear of rye, which moves with change of weather, and the magical spit, made of no rare plants, which winds before the fire, and roasts the bird without turning.
Even animals near the classis of plants, seem to have the most restless motions. The summer-worm of ponds and plashes, makes a long waving motion, the hair-worm seldom Ties still. He that would behold a very anomalous motion, may observe it in the tortile and tiring strokes of gnatworms.*
* Found often in some form of red maggot in the standing waters of cisterns in the summer,
minute the difference may be, is a position which is supported by all we know, whether from science or from revelation, of the human mental and corporeal constitution; and that corresponding differences must exist in the sexes of animals will necessarily follow.-Br.
3 gomphosis.] A mode of articulation by which one bone is fastened into another like a nail, -as a tooth in the socket.
4 diarthrosis.] The moveable connexion of bones with each other, by joints.
· As for the delights, commodities, mysteries, with other concernments of this order, we are unwilling to fly them over, in the short deliveries of Virgil, Varro, or others, and shall therefore enlarge with additional ampliations.
By this position they had a just proportion of earth, to supply an equality of nourishment. The distance being ordered, thick or thin, according to the magnitude or vigorous attraction of the plant, the goodness, leanness or propriety of the soil: and therefore the rule of Solon, concerning the territory of Athens, not extendible unto all; allowing the distance of six foot unto common trees, and nine for the fig and olive.
They had a due diffusion of their roots on all or both sides, whereby they maintained some proportion to their height, in trees of large radication. For that they strictly make good their profundeur or depth unto their height, according to common conceit, and that expression of Virgil,* though confirmable from the plane tree in Pliny, and some few examples, is not to be expected from the generality of trees almost in any kind, either of side-spreading, or tap roots ;. except we measure them by lateral and opposite diffusions ; nor commonly to be found in minor or herby plants; if we except sea-holly, liquorice, sea-rush, and some others,
They had a commodious radiation in their growth, and a due expansion of their branches, for shadow or delight. For trees thickly planted, do run up in height and branch with no expansion, shooting unequally or short, and thin upon the neighbouring side. And therefore trees are in
* Quantum vertice ad auras Æthereas, tantum radice ad Tartara tendit.
? For that they strictly, &c.] In MS. Sloan. 1882, occurs the following similar passage :-“But their progression and motion in growth is not equall; the root making an earlier course in the length or multitude of fibres, according to the law of its species, and as it is to afford a supportation or nourishment unto the ascending parts of the plants ; but in progression of increase, the stalk commonly outstrips the root, and even in trees the common opinion is questionable ;-as is expressed, quantum vertice ad auras Æthereas, tantum radice ad Tartara tendit.
wardly bare, and spring and leaf from the outward and sunny side of their branches.
Whereby they also avoided'the peril of ouvole puouos or one tree perishing with another, as it happeneth ofttimes from the sick effluviums or entanglements of the roots falling foul with each other. Observable in elms set in hedges, where if one dieth, the neighbouring tree prospereth not long after
In this situation, divided into many intervals and open unto six passages, they had the advantage of a fair perfiation from winds, brushing and cleansing their surfaces, relaxing and closing their pores unto due perspiration. For that they afford large effluviums, perceptible from odours, diffused at great distances, is observable from onions out of the earth, which though dry, and kept until the spring, as they shoot forth large and many leaves, do notably abate of their weight; and mint growing in glasses of water, until it arriveth unto the weight of an ounce, in a shady place, will sometimes exhaust a pound of water. And as they send much forth, so may they receive somewhat in; for beside the common way and road of reception by the root, there may be a refection and imbibition from without, for gentle showers refresh plants, though they enter not their roots, and the good and bad efluviums of vegetables promote or debilitate each other. So epithymum and dodder, rootless and out of the ground, maintain themselves, upon thyme, ivy, and plants whereon they hang; and ivy, divided from the root, we have observed to live some years, by the cirrous parts commonly conceived but as tenacles and holdfasts unto it. The stalks of mint cropt from the root, stripped from the leaves, and set in glasses with the root end upward, and out of the water, we have observed to send forth sprouts, and leaves without the aid of roots, and scordium to grow in like manner, the leaves set downward in water. To omit several sea plants, which grow on single roots from stones, although in very many there are side shoots and fibres, beside the fastening root.
By this open position they were fairly exposed unto the rays of moon and sun, so considerable in the growth of vegetables. For though poplars, willows, and several trees be made to grow about. The brinks of Acheron, and dark
habitations of the dead; though some plants are content to grow in obscure wells, wherein also old elm pumps afford sometimes long bushy sprouts, not observable in any above ground; and large fields of vegetables are able to maintain their verdure at the bottom and shady part of the sea, yet the greatest number are not content without the actual rays of the sun, but bend, incline, and follow them, as large lists of solisequious or sun following plants; and some observe the method of its inotion in their own growth and conversion, twining towards the west by the south, * as briony, hops, woodbine, and several kinds of bindweed, which we shall more admire, when any can tell us, they observe another motion, and twist by the north at the antipodes. The same plants rooted against an erect north wall full of holes, will find a way through them to look upon the sun ; and in tender plants from mustard seed; sown in the winter, and in a pot of earth placed inwardly against a south window, the tender stalks of two leaves arose not erect, but bending towards the window, nor looking much higher than the meridian sun; and if the pot were turned they would work themselves into their former declinations, making their conversion by the east. That the leaves of the olive and some other trees solstitially turn, and precisely tell us when the sun is entered Cancer, is scarce expectable in any climate, and Theophrastus warily observes it. Yet somewhat thereof is obseryable in our own, in the leaves of willows and sallows, some weeks after the solstice. But the great convolvulus, or white flowered bindweed, observes both motions of the sun; while the flower twists equinoctially from the left hand to the right, according to the daily revo. lution, the stalk twineth ecliptically from the right to the left, according to the annual conversion.3
* Flectat ad Aquilonem, et declinit ad Austrum, is Solon's description of the motion of the sun.-Author's note, from MS. Sloan. 1847.
3 annual conversion.] From MS. Sloan. 1847, the following passage may be added here :—Of the orchis or dog-stones, one is generally more lusty, plump, and fuller than the other, and the fullest is most commended. The reason is, the one which is fullest shootes ; the stalk seems most directly to proceed from that one ; the other is but as it were appendant, and doth but slight office to the nourishment; but whether they have any regular position north or south, or east and west, my experience doth not discover."
Some commend the exposure of these orders unto the western gales, as the most generative and fructifying breath of heaven. But we applaud the husbandry of Solomon, whereto agreeth the doctrine of Theophrastus : “ Arise, O north wind, and blow, thou south, upon my garden, that the spices thereof may flow out.” For the north wind closing the pores, and shutting up the effluviums, when the south doth after open and relax them, the aromatical gums do drop, and sweet odours fly actively from them; and if his garden had the same situation, which maps and charts afford it, on the east side of Jerusalem, and having the wall on the west; these were the winds unto which it was well exposed.
By this way of plantation they increased the number of their trees, which they lost in quaternios and square orders, which is a commodity insisted on by Varro, and one great intent of Nature, in this position of flowers and seeds in the elegant formation of plants, and the former rules observed in natural and artificial figurations.
Whether in this order, and one tree in some measure breaking the cold and pinching gusts of winds from the other, trees will not better maintain their inward circles, and either escape or moderate their eccentricities, may also be considered. For the circles in trees are naturally concentrical, parallel unto the bark, and unto each other, till frost and piercing winds contract and close them on the weather side, the opposite semicircle widely enlarging, and at a comely distance, which hindereth ofttimes the beauty and roundness of trees, and makes the timber less serviceable, whilst the ascending juice, not readily passing, settles in knots4 and inequalities; and therefore it is no new course of agriculture, to observe the native position of trees according to north and south in their transplantations.5
4 settles, &c.] But the knots we see in planks are sections of small branches.
5 transplantations.] In MS. Sloan. 1847, is the following passage :“The sap in trees observes the circle and right line. Trees being to grow up tall, were made long and strong ; of the strongest columnar figure, round. The lines are strongest for the most part, and in many equidistant, as in firs; the circles homocentrical, except perverted by situation ; the circles on the northern, or side exposed to cold winds,