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their legs in their first formation from maggots, and the position of their horns, wings, and legs, in their aurelian cases and swaddling clouts,—the back of the cimex arboreus, found often upon trees and lesser plants, doth elegantly discover the Burgundian decussation, and the like is observable in the belly of the notonecton, or water beetle, which swimmeth on its back, and the handsome rhombus of the sea poult, or werrel, on either side the spine.
The sexangular cells in the honeycombs of bees are disposed after this order (much there is not of wonder in the confused houses of pismires, though much in their busy life and actions), more in the edificial palaces of bees and monarchical spirits, who make their combs six cornered, declining a circle (whereof many stand not close together, and completely fill the area of the place) ; but rather affecting a six-sided figure, whereby every cell. affords a common side unto six more, and also a fit receptacle for the bee itself, which gathering into a cylindrical figure, aptly enters its sexangular house, more nearly approaching a circular figure, than either doth the square or triangle;, and the combs themselves so regularly contrived, that their mutual intersections make three lozenges at the bottom of every cell ; which severally regarded make three rows of neat rhomboidal: figures, connected at the angles, and so continue three several chains throughout the whole comb.
As for the favago, found commonly on the sea shore, though named from a honeycomb, it but rudely makes out the resemblance, and better agrees with the round cells of humble bees. He that would exactly discern the shape of a bee's mouth, needs observing eyes, and good augmenting glasses; wherein is discoverable one of the neatest pieces in nature, and he must have a more piercing eye than mine who finds out the shape of bulls? heads in the guts of drones pressed out behind, according to the experiment of Gomesius,* wherein, notwithstanding, there seemeth somewhat which might incline a pliant fancy to credulity of similitude.
A resemblance hereof there is in the orderly and rarely disposed cells made by flies and insects, which we have often
* Gom. de Sale.
found fastened about small sprigs, and in those cottonnary and woolly pillows which sometimes we meet with fastened unto leaves, there is included an elegant net-work texture, out of which come many small flies. And some resemblance there is of this order in the eggs of some butterflies and moths, as they stick upon leaves and other substances, which being dropped from behind, nor directed by the eye, doth neatly declare how nature geometrizeth and observeth order in all things.
A like correspondency in figure is found in the skins and outward teguments of animals, whereof a regardable part are beautiful by this texture. As the backs of several snakes and serpents, elegantly remarkable in the aspis, and the dart-snake, in the chiasmus and larger decussations upon the back of the rattle-snake, and in the close and finer texture of the mater formicarum, or snake that delights in ant hills ; whereby upon approach of outward injuries, they can raise a thicker phalanx on their backs, and handsomely contrive themselves into all kinds of flexures: whereas their bellies are commonly covered with smooth semicircular divisions, as best accommodable unto their quick and gliding motion.
This way is followed by nature in the peculiar and remarkable tail of the beaver, wherein the scaly particles are disposed somewhat after this order, which is the plainest resolution of the wonder of Bellonius, while he saith with incredible artifice hath nature framed the tail or oar of the beaver: where by the way we cannot but wish a model of their houses, so much extolled by some describers: wherein since they are so bold as to venture upon three stages, we might examine their artifice in the contignations, the rule and order in the compartitions; or whether that magnified structure be any more than a rude rectangular pile or mere hovel-building.
Thus works the hand of nature in the feathery plantation about birds. Observable in the skins of the breast,* legs, and pinions of turkeys, geese, and ducks, and the oars or finny feet of water-fowl: and such a natural net is the
* Elegantly conspicuous on the inside of the stripped skins of the dive-fowl, of cormorant, gosshonder (goosander), weasel, loon, &c.
scaly covering of fishes, of mullets, carps, tenches, &c., even in such as are excoriable and consist of smaller scales, as bretts, soles, and flounders. The like reticulate grain is observable in some Russia leather.2 To omit the ruder figures of the ostration, the triangular or cunny-fish, or the pricks of the sea-porcupine.
The same is also observable in some part of the skin of man, in habits of neat texture, and therefore not unaptly compared unto a net: we shall not affirm that from such grounds the Egyptian embalmers imitated this texture, yet in their linen folds the same is still observable among their neatest muramies, in the figures of Isis and Osyris, and the tutelary spirits in the Bembine table. Nor is it to be overlooked how Orus, the hieroglyphick of the world, is described in a net-work covering, from the shoulder to the foot. And (not to enlarge upon the cruciated character of Trismegistus, or handed crosses,* so often occurring in the needles of Pharoah, and obelisks of antiquity), the Statuce Isiacæ, and little idols, found about the mummies,3 do make a decussation of Jacob's cross, with their arms, like that on the head of Ephraim and Manasses, and this decussis is also graphically described between them.
This reticulate or net-work was also considerable in the inward parts of man, not only from the first subtegmen or warp of his formation, but in the netty fibres of the veins and vessels of life; wherein according to common anatomy the right and transverse fibres are decussated by the oblique fibres ; and so must frame a reticulate and quincuncial figure by their obliquations, emphatically extending that elegant expression of Scripture “ Thou hast curiously embroidered me," thou hast wrought me up after the finest way of texture, and as it were with a needle.
Nor is the same observable only in some parts, but in the whole body of man, which upon the extension of arms and legs, doth make out a square, whose intersection is at the
* Cruces ansatce, being held by a finger in the circle,
? The like reticulate grain in some Russia leather.] This grain is, however, artificially produced, and not as the author seems to suppose, natural.
3 little idols, &c.] See Burder's Oriental Customs, No. 76.—Jeff.
genitals. To omit the fantastical quincunx in Plato of the first hermaphrodite or double man, united at the loins, which Jupiter after divided.
A rudimental resemblance hereof there is in the cruciated and rugged folds of the reticulum, or net-like ventricle of ruminating horned animals, which is the second in order, and culinarily called the honeycomb. For many divisions there are in the stomach of several animals : what number they maintain in the scarus and ruminating fish, common description or our own experiment hath made no discovery; but in the ventricle of porpuses there are three divisions ; in many birds a crop, gizzard, and little receptacles before it; but in cornigerous animals, which chew the cud, there are no less than four* of distinct position and office.
The reticulum by these crossed cells, makes a further digestion, in the dry and exsuccous part of the aliment received from the first ventricle. For at the bottom of the gullet there is a double orifice : what is first received at the mouth descendeth into the first and greater stomach, from whence it is returned into the mouth again ; and after a fuller masti. cation, and salivous mixture, what part thereof descendeth again in a moist and succulent body, slides down the softer and more permeable orifice, into the omasus or third stomach; and from thence conveyed into the fourth, receives its last digestion. The other dry and exsuccous part after rumination by the larger and stronger orifice beareth into the first stomach, from thence into the reticulum, and so progressively into the other divisions. And therefore in calves newly calved, there is little or no use of the two first ventricles, for the milk and liquid aliment slippeth down the softer orifice, into the third stomach ; where making little or no stay, it passeth into the fourth, the seat of the coagulum, or runnet, or that division of stomach which seems to bear the name of the whole, in the Greek translation of the priest's fee, in the sacrifice of peace-offerings.
As for those rhomboidal figures made by the cartilagineous parts of the weazand, in the lungs of great fishes, and other animals, as Rondeletius discovered, we have not found them so to answer our figure as to be drawn into illustration; some
* Magnus venter, reticulum, omasus, abomasus.—Aristot.
thing we expected in the more discernable texture of the lungs of frogs, which notwithstanding being but two curious bladders not weighing above a grain, we found interwoven with veins, not observing any just order. More orderly situated are those cretaceous and chalky concretions found sometimes in the bigness of a small vetch on either side their spine; which being not agreeable unto our order, nor yet observed by any, we shall not here discourse on.
But had we found a better account and tolerable anatomy of that prominent jowl of the spermaceti whale than questuary operation,* or the stench of the last cast upon our shore permitted, we might have perhaps discovered some handsome order in those net-like seases and sockets, made like honeycombs, containing that medical matter. · Lastly, the incession or local motion of animals is made with analogy unto this figure, by decussative diametrals, quincuncial lines and angles. For, to omit the enquiry how butterflies and breezes move their four wings, how birds and fishes in air and water move by joint strokes of opposite wings and fins, and how salient animals in jumping forward seem to arise and fall upon a square base,-as the station of most quadrupeds is made upon a long square, so in their motion they make a rhomboides ; their common progression being performed diametrally, by decussation and cross advancement of their legs, which not observed, begot that remarkable absurdity in the position of the legs of Castor's horse in the capitol. The snake which moveth circularly makes his spires in like order, the convex and concave spirals answering each other at alternate distances. In the motion of man the arms and legs observe this thwarting position, but the legs alone do move quincuncially by single angles with some resemblance of a V measured by successive advancement from each foot, and the angle of indenture greater or less, according to the extent or brevity of the stride,
Studious observators may discover more analogies in the orderly book of nature, and cannot escape the elegancy of her hand in other correspondencies. The figures of nails and
* 1652, described in our Pseudo. Epidom. * Studious observators, &c.] In MSS. Sloan. 1847, occurs the following passage :-“Considerations are drawne from the signatures in the