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reached his point of destination about sun-rise, entirely undiscovered. Here, the roads fork ; the one leading to the camp of la Fayette, and the other to Matson's ford over the Schuylkill. Gen. Gray, on the night of the 19th of May, marched with seven thousand men, and by a skilful movement got into the marquis' rear, while another detachment was advancing to his front. Thus perilous was the situation of the marquis, when he first discovered the danger which threatened him. It was about the same time perceived from the camp at Valley Forge. Alarm guns were fired to announce it to him, and the whole army was put under arms to act as circumstances might require. Thus surrounded with danger, la Fayette took, with promptitude and decision, the only course which could have preserved him. He put his troops instantly in motion and passed over at Matson's ford, which was rather nearer to general Grant than himself, without being intercepted by that officer, or sustaining a greater loss than nine men. Having crossed the river, and taken possession of the high grounds on the other side, he sent back a small party to bring over his field pieces, which were also secured. General Grant, who had reached the ground lately occupied by la Fayette, soon after it was abandoned, followed his rear, and appeared at the ford just after the Americans had crossed it; but finding them very advantageously posted, he did not choose to attack them, and the whole army returned to Philadelphia, having effected nothing. In . statement of this affair made by the marquis, he represents himself to have advanced the head of a column towards Grant, as if to attack him, while the rear filed off rapidly towards the Schuylkill. This movement gained ground even for the front, which, while it advanced towards the enemy, also approached the river, and at the same time induced general Grant to halt, in order to prepare for battle. While this manoeuvre was performing in the face of the detachment under Grant, a small party was thrown into the church-yard, which was surrounded by a wall, on the road towards general Gray, which also gave the appearance of an intention to attack in that quarer. By these dispositions, happily conceived, and executed with egularity, the marquis extricated himself and his party from the detruction which had appeared almost inevitable. In his letter to ongress, general Washington termed it “a timely and handsome 'etreat ;” and certainly the compliment was merited. In August, 1778, he repaired to Rhode Island, to assist in the ex'edition under major general Sullivan, in conjunction with the French . and he received the particular approbation and applause of Songress, for his Judicious and highly important services. In January, 1779, the marquis embarked at Boston, on a voyage France, and was subjected to imminent danger from a conspiracy

and notwithstanding the injuries he had suffered, and the immense loss of his property, he zealously opposed the law for confiscating the estates of the adherents to the British government; and contend. ed that sound policy required to forgive and forget. He died in September, 1805, aged eighty-one years.


John Laurens, a brave officer in the American war, was the son of Henry Laurens, president of Congress, and a native of South Car. olina. John Laurens received his education in England. He join. ed the army in the beginning of 1777, from which time he was fore. most in danger. He was present and distinguished himself in every action of the army under general Washington, and was among the first who entered the British lines at York Town. Early in 1781, while he held the rank of lieut. col. he was selected as the most suit. able person to depute on a special mission to France, to solicit a loan of money, and to procure military stores. He arrived in March, and returned in August, having been so successful in the execution of his commission, that Congress passed a vote of thanks for his services, Such was his despatch, that in three days after he repaired to Phila. delphia, he finished his business with Congress, and immediately re. joined the American army. On the 27th of August, 1782, in oppo. sing a foraging party of the British, near Combahee river, in South Carolina, he was mortally wounded, and he died at the age of twenty-six years. His father, just released from imprisonment, and hap. py in a son of such distinction and virtues, now witnessed the desola. tion of all his hopes. Colonel Laurens, uniting the talents of a great officer with the knowledge of the scholar, and the engaging manners of the gentleman, was the glory of the army, and the idol of his country. Washington, who selected him as his aid, and reposed in him the highest confidence, declared that he could discover no fault in him, unless it was intrepidity, bordering upon rashness. His abilities were exhibited in the legislature and in the cabinet, as well as in the field. He was zealous for the rights of humanity, and, liv. ing in a country of slaves, contended, that personal liberty was the birth-right of every human being, however diversified by country, colour, or powers of mind. His insinuating address won the hearts of all his acquaintance, while his sincerity and virtue secured their lasting esteem.


Israel Putnam was born at Salem, Massachusetts, January 7, 1718. His mind was vigorous, but it was never cultivated by education. When he for the first time went to Boston, he was insulted for his rusticity by a boy of twice his size. After bearing his sarcasms us: til his good nature was exhausted, he attacked and vanquished the nmannerly fellow, to the great diversion of a crowd of spectators. n running, leaping and wrestling, he almost always bore away the rl Ze. In 1739, he removed to Pomfret, in Connecticut, where he cultiated a considerable tract of land. He had, however, to encounter lany difficulties, and among his troubles the depredations of wolves pon his sheepfold was not the least. In one night, seventy fine heep and goats were killed. A she wolf, who with her annual helps had for several years infested the vicinity, being considered the principal cause of the havock, Mr. Putnam entered into a ymbination with a number of his neighbours, to hunt alternately, ll they should destroy her. At length the hounds drove her into or den, and a number of persons soon collected with guns, straw, 'e and sulphur, to attack the common enemy. But the dogs were raid to approach her, and the fumes of brimstone could not force or srom the cavern. It was now ten o'clock at night. Mr. Putlm proposed to his black servant to descend into the cave and oot the wolf; but as the negro declined, he resolved to do it him. lf. Having divested himself of his coat and waistcoat, and having long rope fastened round his legs, by which he might be pulled ck at a concerted signal, he entered the cavern head foremost, th a blazing torch, made of strips of birch bark in his hand. He scended fifteen feet, passed along horizontally ten feet, and then gan the gradual ascent, which is sixteen feet in length. He slowly oceeded on his hands and knees in an abode, which was silent as e house of death. Cautiously glancing forwards, he discovered e glaring eye-balls of the wolf, who started at the sight of his torch, ashed her teeth, and gave a sullen growl. He immediately kicked e rope, and was drawn out with a friendly celerity and violence, lich not a little bruised him. Loading his gun with nine buck shot, d carrying it in one hand, while he held the torch with the other, descended a second time. As he approached the wolf, she howl, rolled her eyes, snapped her teeth, dropped her head between r legs, and was evidently on the point of springing at him. At this ment he fired at her head, and soon found himself drawn out of cave. Having refreshed himself, he again descended, and seizthe wolf by her ears, kicked the rope, and his companions above sh no small exultation, dragged them both out together. During the French war, he was appointed to command a company the first troops which were raised in Connecticut, in 1755. He idered much service to the army in the neighbourhood of Crown int. In 1756, while near Ticonderoga, he was repeatedly in the st imminent danger. He escaped in an adventure of one night h twelve bullet holes in his blanket. In August he was sent out h several hundred men, to watch the motions of the enemy. Being buscaded by a party of equal numbers, a general but irregular ion took place. Putnam had discharged his fusee several times,

but at length it missed fire, while its muzzle was presented to the breast of a savage. The warrior, with his lifted hatchet, and a tre. mendous war-whoop compelled him to surrender, and then bound him to a tree. In the course of the action, the parties changed their position, so as to bring this tree directly between them. The ball; flew by him incessantly ; many struck the tree, and some passed through his clothes. The enemy now gained possession of the ground, but being afterwards driven from the field, they carried their prisoner with them. At night he was stripped, and a fire was kindled to roast him alive ; but a French officer saved him, The next day he arrived at Ticonderoga, and thence he was carried to Montreal. About the year 1759, he was exchanged, through the ingenuity of his fellow prisoner, col. Schuyler. When peace took place, he returned to his farm. He was ploughing in his field, in 1775, when he heard the news of the battle of Lexington. He immediately unyoked his team, left his plough on the spot, and without changing his clothes, set off for Cam: bridge. He soon went back to Connecticut, levied a regiment, and repaired again to the camp. In a little time he was promoted to the rank of major general. In the battle of Bunker's hill, he exhibited his usual intrepidity. He directed the men to reserve their fire, till the enemy was very near, reminded them of their skill, and told them to take good aim. They did so, and the execution was terri. ble. After the retreat, he made a stand at Winter hill, and drove back the enemy under cover of their ships. When the army was organized by general Washington, at Cambridge, Putnam was ap: pointed to command the reserve. . In August, 1776, he was stationed at Brooklyn, on Long Island. After the defeat of our army on the twenty-seventh of that month, he went to New York, and was vers serviceable in the city and neighbourhood. In October or Novem. ber, he was sent to Philadelphia to fortify that city. In January, 1777, he was directed to take post at Princeton, where he continued until spring. At this place, a sick prisoner, a captain, requested that a friend in the British army, at Brunswick, might be sent for to assist him in making his will. Putnam was perplexed. He had but fifty men under his command, and he did not wish to have his weak ness known ; yet he was unwilling to deny the request. He however sent a flag of truce, and directed the officer to be brought in the night. In the evening, lights were placed in all the college windows, and in every apartment of the vacant houses throughout the town, The officer on his return, reported that general Putnam's army cool" not consist of less than four or five thousand men. In the spring ho was appointed to the command of a separate army in the highlands of New York. One Palmer, a lieutenant in the tory new levies, Wo detected in the camp ; governor Tryon reclaimed him as a Brio officer, threatening vengeance is he was not restored. General Po nam wrote the following pithy reply: ‘Sir, Nathan Palmer, alo"

tenant in your king's service, was taken in my eamp as a spy ; he was tried as a spy; he was condemned as a spy ; and he shall be hanged as a spy. P. S. Afternoon. He is hanged.” After the less of fort Montgomery, the commander in chief determined to build another fortification, and he directed Putnam to fix upon a spot. To him belongs the praise of having chosen West Point. The campaign of 1779, which was principally spent in strengthening the works at this place, finished the military career of Putnam. A paralytic affection impaired the activity of his body, and he passed the remainder of his days in retirement, retaining his relish for enjoyment, his love of pleasantry, his strength of memory, and all the faculties of his mind. He died at Brooklyn, Connecticut, May 29, 1790, aged seventy-two years.


| Richard Montgomery, a major general in the army of the United

States, was born in the north of Ireland, in the year 1737. He possessed an excellent genius, which was matured by a fine education. Entering the army of Great Britain, he successfully fought her bat. with Wolfe, at Quebec, in 1759, and on the very spot, where he as doomed to fall, when fighting against her, under the banners of freedom. After his return to England, he quitted his regiment, in 1772, though in a fair way to preferment. He had imbibed an attachment to America, viewing it as the rising seat of arts and freelom. After his arrival in this country, he purchased an estate in New York, about a hundred miles from the city, and married a daughter of judge Livingston. He now considered himself as an American. When the struggle with Great Britain commenced, as he was known to have an ardent attachment to liberty, and had exressed his readiness to draw his sword on the side of the colonies, he command of the continental forces in the northern department, was entrusted to him and general Schuyler in the fall of 1775. | By the indisposition of Schuyler, the chief command devolved pon him in October. He reduced fort Chamblee, and on the third } November captured St. Johns. On the twelfth, he took Montreil. In December, he joined col. Arnold, and marched to Quebec. The city was besieged, and on the last day of the year it was detero to make an assault. The several divisions were accordingly ut in motion, in the midst of a heavy fall of snow, which concealed hem from the enemy. Montgomery advanced at the head of the New York troops along the St. Lawrence, and having assisted with is own hands in pulling up the pickets which obstructed his aproach to one of the barriers he was determined to force, he was lushing forwards, when one of the guns of the battery was dischargd, and he was killed, with his two aids. This was the only gun hat was fired, for the enemy had been struck with consternation,

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