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sons, without acquiring a truly practical knowledge of Reading, which other books and other modes of instruction do not give.
This may, perhaps, appear more credible to the critic, if he consid. ers that most of the words and phrases in which errors in Reading occur, are capable of being classed, and that they have been ciassed by Walker, Russell, and others. Several years ago I attempted an abridgment of Walker's Rhetorical Grammar, and prepared that part of it which I have now had occasion to use. Mr. Russell very kindly gave me permission to use his excellent Lessons in Enunci. ation,* in preparing this work; and I have taken the liberty of adopting and teaching Dr. Barber's principles in relation to reading such words in poetry, as are usually contracted and printed with an apostrophe. For many things which I esteem very valuable, I am indebted to my personal friends; and for what I have not here acknowledged, I have drawn from such resources as I have acquired by being engaged for more than twenty years in the instruction of children.
It will appear strange to many, that so small a part of the Lessons in this book, have been taken from English authors. We noi untrequently hear or see the works of Mrs. Barbauld and Miss Edgeworth spoken of as constituting nearly all the good composition for chil. dren, that our language affords. The author has rejected both : the former, because he regards the style as unnatural, and in bad taste; the latter, because the Sacred Scriptures are not made the rule of duty, and because the stories are already too common. That a better style than Miss Edgeworth's prevails in this work, is not supposes; but most of the lessons have the honor of being American, and have the merit of deriving their morals from the Word of the Lord.
To the Editor of the Juvenile Miscellany the author's grateful acknowledgments are due, for the privilege of making selections from that valuable work. Some of the articles thus selected, have been materially altered. to adapt them to the particular purposes of this book. Neither the Editor, nor the writers of these articles, are to be considered responsible for any faults which they now contain.
The author is aware that the character of this work is very different from any that is now in use. The plan is wholly unlike those which he has seen, er knows to have been presented. The book differs, perhaps, as much from those which are now used by chil. dren of ten or twelve years of age, as his Primer differed from the works which were formerly used for teaching the first elements of Reading and Spelling.. Those persons who notice the imitations of the Primer which abound in all our bookstores, will believe the au. thor sincere, when he expresses the hope, that, whether the plan and execution of this Turd Book be for honor and profit, or for share and loss, his claims will by all be acknowledged and remembereil.
*NOTE.-By the advice of several Teachers and Friends of Education, this work has been enlarged by inserting this course of Lessons upon Enunciation and Pronunciation. The Rules for avoiding Errors have been arranged in two pages by themselves, that they may be more readily referred to. This improved edition can be used with previous ones, as the Lessons and Paragraphs have not been altered, and can be at once referred to by consulting the Table of Contents.
Reading is here designed to be made, not simply an exercise, but R study requiring much time and attention.
Each Lesson is preceded by a Rule, which should be committed to memory. Many of the Rules have no particular adaptation to the Lessons following them. They are common rules which need to be known in order to read any lesson correctly.
Each Lesson is followed by a list of Errors, which the scholar is liable to commit in reading the Lesson. They are numbered according to the paragraphs in which the words occur. When two or more such words belong to one paragraph, they are separated in the list of Errors by semicolons.
While the scholar is studying his lesson, he should carefully at. tend to these Errors, that he may avoid them when he reads. If he does not well understand any one of them, he should be allowed to ask assistance. Many of them occur only in conversation.
Several Questions, and occasional observations, follow the Errors. Those which refer to paragraphs in the Lessons, are numbered accordingly. These. Questions will help to keep up a perpetual review of the Rules and other instructions.
After the Questions, there are eighteen words for spelling; the first six are to be defined. It is very important that children should early learn to use dictionary, and should acquire the habit of referring to it for definitions and pronunciation. To assist the scholar in learning the proper meaning of the words to be defined, a concise Vocabulary of definitions of these words is added at the end of the book. If any children who use this book, are too young to learn the definitions, this exercise may be deferred till a later period. The larger scholars may learn to spell and define all the words in their Lessons, so that the teacher may select such as he pleases. Whenever the scholar can define words from the manner in which they are used, such definitions are to be preferred. To · learn the Lessons so as to be able to spell the words at the end, define six of them, and answer all the Questions, and repeat the Remarks, when there are any, and also the Rule at the beginning of the Lesson, will require considerable study, and some aid from the teacher; but no other lesson is better entitled to this labor and attention : children from eight to twelve years of age cannot be better employed.
The teacher must not imagine that the book points out all the errors that should be avoided, asks all the questions which should be asked, selects all the words that should be spelled and defined, or gives all the rules and instructions which the scholar will need. .It is designed, not as a full substitute for his instructions, but as a useful assistant.
When scholars are called to recite, it will probably be best to let them read the Lesson first, omitting all the Notes, except in Lessons VIII. and X. where directions for reading them are given. The Notes that are addressed to teachers, should be omitted by the scholars.
The teacher will need to look at the Rule, the Errors, and the Questions and Remarks, to see whether the scholar avoids the Errors, and rearls according to the instructions.
After the Lesson is read, the Questions are to be answered, the Rule is to be recited, six trords are 10 be defined, and eighteen' are to be spelleil. Where scholars recite in classes, it will not be neces sary for each one to recite the whole. Each scholar will be com. pelled to learn the whole, if the teacher requires each one to be ready to answer every Question, and avoids asking the Questions in the order in which the scholars stand.
The teacher will also need to attend very critically to the reading, to see that the scholars continue to avoid the Errors and to observe the Rules which have once been presented. If he does this faithfully, he will find that the book has not taken too much labor from his hands.
In order to make scholars attend strictly to their lessons during the time of reading, it is useful to hold them all responsible for keeping the place while each one reads, so that any one whom the teacher calls by name shall instantly take the sentence which is being read, and continue it in the proper tone from the place where it was left, at the call of the teacher. Thus, a sentence may be divi. ded among a dozen scholars, and the proper pauses and inflections observed, if they are prompt in taking it in a proper manner from each other; and any one who is so inattentive as to be unable to do this, should be charged as a defaulter.
The class of scholars for whom this book is designed, is generally larger than any other in our common schools; and therefore these Lessons are generally pretty long. Where it is necessary, the teacher can assign only a part of the paragraphs, and only a part of the Questions and words for definition and spelling.
Many Notes for the benefit of such teachers as need them, are interspersed with the Lessons: and the Preface is designed to be reail. Very inuch, however, is left to the judgment of each one, who may try ihis new mode of teaching children how to read.
N.B. Impediments in speech are commonly produced by holding the tongue in a wrong position while sounding certain leiters, and they can generally be corrected by showing the scholar how to hold his tongue while sounding such leiers. For exainple; lisping is caused by raising the end of the tongue to the inner side of the upper teeth, while sounding s or soft c. Make the scholar read or speak very slowly, and keep the end of his tongue down when sounding these letters, and he will very soon avoid lisping. So, what is called stuttering or stammering, is generally caused by raising the end of the tongue, and holding it fast against the teeth or the roof of the mouth, while sounding t or d, when they are not at the end of words. Keep the end of the tongue clown, and this fault will be avoided. In all cases not produced by defective organs, it is easy to discover the cause of the impediments, by trying to speak in ihe manner that the scholar does, and noticing how you place your tongue. Then observe how you place it when speaking properly; and explain the difference to the scholar. You are then really to correct his habit, by giving him exercises in pronouncing difficult words, and persisting in making him keep his tongue in the proper position, till he will remeniher to do it. Then let him read common lessons so slowly that he will have time to notice all the words that are difficult for him, and to prepare his organs for pronouncing them. You will cure him entirely, if you persevere in this way for a few weelis.
STOPS USED IN READING AND WRITING.
Comma, marked thus Period, marked thus Semicolon
Note of Interrogation Colon
Note of Admiration A comma (,) requires a pause about as long as it takes to count one.
A semicolon (;) requires a pause about as long as it takes to count one, two.
A colon (:) requires a pause about as long as it takes to count one, two, three.
A period (.) requires a pause about as long as it takes to count one, two, three, four. The voice should stop at a period, as though the sense of the sentence was completed.
A note of interrogation (?) is used at the end of a question. It requires about as long a pause as period.
A note of admiration or exclamation (!) is used after words that express something wonderful or affecting. It requires about as long a pause as a period.
OTHER MARKS USED IN WRITING AND PRINTING,
Paragraph Asterisk or Star
u Quotation Dash
† | Brace The apostrophe (') denotes the omission of a letter : as, lou'd for loved. It also marks the possessive case of nouns: as, the king's palace.
The asterisk or star (*) is used to refer to something in the margin, or the bottom of a page.
When several stars occur together, thus, they denote that something is omitted, which the writer did not choose to insert.
The caret (1) is placed underneath the line, where something has been omitted through carelessness, and afterwards inserted :
been as, I have to London.
STOPS USED IN READING AND WRITING.
The crotchet or bracket () generally includes some word or words, that are used to explain other words : as, The King [ William) is very sick. Sonetimes the printer puts some words in brackets, which the writer omitted, in order to give what he thinks is the proper meaning of a sentence.
The dash (-) is used to divide the parts of a sentence, and sometimes to give some part of the sentence greater force, or to separate an explanation from the words that are explained : as, We have now to lament the death of a great princema prince who possessed every virtue. In such cases as this, the dash required a pause a little longer than a comma. The dash sometimes stands for a word or a part of a word, which the writer sees fit to omit: 2s, Mr. T gare me a book ; My friend kas gone to New York.
The hyphen (-) is used to separate syllables, and the parts of coin pound words : as, rir-tue, night-walker.
The index (IF) points to something that should be carefully attended to.
The obelisk or dagger, (t) the double dagger (1) and parallel (11) refer, like an asterisk, to some note in the margin or bottom
of the page.
The paragraph (ST) denotes the beginning of a new subject, and is used chiefly in the Bible. Sometimes the paragraph is used like a star or obelisk.
The figures 1, 2, 3, &c., are sometimes used to refer to the margin or bottom of the page; but they commonly divide a discourse into distinct parts or paragraphs. Thus, the figures divide the chapters of the Bible into verses; and they divide the Lessons in this book and in many others, into paragraphs.
The section () is sometimes used to divide a discourse into different parts, and sometimes it refers to notes, like a star.
A parenthesis () is used to include a sentence or a part of a sentence that is within another, and should generally be read in a quicker and lower tone of voice.
The quotation (“”) marks the beginning and end of an extract from another author.
The cent shows which syllable of a word is to be accented, or sounded with the most force.
The brace often joins thrée lines in poetry that agree in rhyme.