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King of SLAVES ? Let it be your ambition to be thought worthy to govern FREEMEN. Do nothing by violence; con

sult your faithful subjects; and attach them as well by friendship as 'by duty. Administer justice in person, and let your ears be ever open to the complaints of the oppressed,

and to the groans of the injured and indigent. Fill all 5 places of trust and profit with your natural subjects : God " has given you charge of their interest; they called you to

the throne, and gratitude requires a return from you. ReŚ ward niy faithful servants, and attach them to you, they « will then have a double tie to serve you with fidelity; love 5 of my memory, and a sense of their obligations to you : and

now, my dearest son, I pray God to bless you, to direct

you, and grant you a long reign, prosperous to you, and s happy to your people.'

With these words, dictated by true wisdom, and unfeigned goodness, expired this great and excellent Prince, universally reverenced, beloved, and regretted ;—what effect they had, or rather had not, on his successor, will, with horror, be seen, in the life of Christian the second, one of the most arbitrary and inhuman Princes that ever reigned: in a word, the Nero of the North.--" He seemed, indeed, fay our Authors, to be one of those Princes which Heaven in wrath sets over a nation, as a punishment for the fins of the people, and a trial of their patience :" It is, however, the fault of the people themselves, if ever they suffer such wicked Governors to make a very long trial of their patience. The Danes endured the tyranny of this same Christian* as long as human nature could support such outrages and cruelties as he was perpetually committing. At length, however, after thus ruling them with a rod of iron, for about ten years, they recollected that they were MEN; they roused themselves, and drove the tyrant from his throne ti

This History of Denmark commences with the reign of Dan, the Founder of the kingdom, from him named Ben

It was in opposition to this bloody tyrant, that the great GusTAVUS Vasa arose, the Deliverer of his country, Sweden, then in fubjeétion to the Crown of Denmark.

of By what means the Danes have fince unfortunately lost their Liberty; how the Crown from being elective became hereditary; and the power of the King rendered absolute, may be seen toward the close of the present volume. It is certain, however, that the rigor of despotic government, has been greatly softened by the mild and prudent administration of the Princes who have fince reigned.


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mark; he is supposed to have lived about a thousand years before Christ. The work concludes with an eulogium on the present Monarch, Frederick the fifth ; of whom our Authors give a more advantageous character, than will probably bę subscribed to by the Hamburghers I. Candour, however, must acknowlege the wisdom and prudence of this Prince's administration ; by which the Court of Copenhagen has acquired an influence in the affairs of the North, unknown to former ages, except in the fifteenth century, when Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, were united under the illustrious Queen Margaret, furnamed the Northern Semiramis,

In the History of Sweden, we have the following extraordinary instance of the heroic and romantic spirit of the times, when the feudal system prevailed.

About eight hundred years before the birth of Christ, a derperate war fubfifted between Hading King of Denmark, and Hunding King of Sweden, which occasioned so enormous an expence of blood and treasure on both sides, that at length mutually agreeing to put a stop to the unavailing slaughter of their subjects, and desolation of their kingdoms, they concluded a peace, as cordial and sincere as their former animosity was bitter. They swore a perpetual alliance, and entered into a very extraordinary agreement, That as soon as the one should be informed of the other's death, the survivor should immediately lay violent hands on himself. After reigning with great felicity for some years, the news came that Hading was no more. It was false;but Hunding had not patience to wait for a confirmation of it. He resolved to die; and immediately prepared a magnificent entertainment, assembled all his Officers round him, plied them with wine, and, at the close of the feast, Aung himself into a' vessel full of hydromel, where he perished. The Danish Monarch (as well he might] received the news with the utmost grief and that he might equal his friend in generosity, hanged himself in sight of the whole Court."

If we admit the truth of this anecdote, it was, indeed, a most extraordinary instance of friendship and fidelity. Our Authors have related the story without expressing the least doubt of its authenticity; notwithstanding they have, in their history of Denmark, given a different account of the

We find, however, that it is no new thing for the Kings of Denmark to levy contributions on the city of Hamburgh. Chrifrian V. in particular, exacted a great sum from them in the year 1686.


matter : as they have, indeed, of other events, as well as fome characters, respecting the two nations, according as they have followed the Danish or Swedish Historians, from whom their materials are drawn. They here tell us, without taking the least notice of the above-mentioned fatal compact, that

Hading laid violent hands on himself, probably in disgust at the unnatural conduct of his favourite daughter, who had made repeated attempts upon her father's lise.”

'They have inserted, however, the following Note, partly taken from Suaningius's Chronology of the Danish Kings. “ We find in some Historians, that Hading, after his return from Britain, (which he had successfully invaded] hanged himself in presence of his whole Court. It was reported, that he died in that island, and Hunding King of Sweden, celebrating his funeral rites, was drowned in a caldron of wort. Hading's death is attributed to his grief for this misfortune.”

Considering the general uncertainty of historical Evidence, we are on many occasions inclined to conclude, that much less credit is due to the faith of Historians, than is usually yielded to it, by the credulity of mankind. Writers being subject to the same passions and prejudices, ignorance and dirhonesty, with other men, hearsay, misrepresentation, or downright invention, are therefore but too often the materials of which the Histories of Kings and Kingdoms are composed, and from which the greatest characters are drawn. A single volume of government-papers, and other authentic documents drawn from public records, and the great offices of 1tate, will, perhaps, contain more truth than most of the fine, florid, elegant, and elahorate compositions of ancient and modern times; many of which, on a strict scrutiny, will be found little better ihan Romances : but not always lo innocent. By the invention of printing, however, great advantage hath accrued to modern History; which hath thereby justly obtained the preference in this respect over the anci

Numerous authorities daily illue from the press; which being faithsully collected, or judiciously referred to, by the Historian, add a greater weight to his compilations, than could be claimed by the Writers of antiquity, whose details rest folely on their personal veracity.

This History of Sweden, which forms the thirty-third valume of the prefent undertaking, concludes with the acceffion of the present royal family, and a brief sketch of the conduct of the Swedes, in refpect to the part they have so re



cently acted in the grand alliance formed against the invincible Hero of Brandenburgh.

Some account of the subsequent volumes of the Modern Universal History, will be given in our next.

Sermons on various important Subjects. By the late Reverend

Mr. William Weft. Published from the Author's Manuscript, for the Benefit of his Family. 8vo. 55. Henderson, &c.


HE subjects of these Sermons are are as follows,

the Goodness of God- the Wisdom of God - the Harmony of the Divine Perfections—Man's inadequate Conceptions of the Deity—the Priesthood of Christ-pure and undefiled Religion-the Folly and Danger of being ashamed of the Gospel of Christ-the Condemnation of those who reject the Gospel-St. Paul's character vindicated the Nature of true and false Religion --Self-denial—the vanity of human Institutions in Religion—the Character of Pontius Pilatethe Progress of Superstition—the Spirit and Temper of the Gospel—and Conformity to this World.

These subjects are treated with great perspicuity and judge ment; with candor and freedom. 'The Author appears to have thought for himself; to have had no blind or bigotted attachment to party-notions in religion; to have been, in a word, a sincere Enquirer after Truth. His sentiments are just and manly; his reflections pertinent and judicious; his style nervous, clear, and easy.

In his first Sermon, he candidly acknowleges, that it is, perhaps, impossible in the present state, to give a full and fatisfactory answer to all the dificulties and objections that may be raised, by speculative Minds, against the divine Goodneis, from the syitem of the world, and what continually pares in it. He mentions one proof, however, in its favour, which the impartial, he presuines, will allow to be of more force than all the objections that have been ever raised against it, viz, the connection that visibly subí st, between virtue and happiness, on the one hand, and vice and mifery on the other.

« This is a connection, says he, which every man may see, in fact, verified in ten thousand instances around us; and

though though there are, and have been cafes in which the event seems to turn out quite otherwise, yet these are by no means sufficient to destroy the faith of the sober and thinking part of mankind; whole characteristic it has been to be firmly persuaded that virtue tends to happiness, vice to misery, in their visible and general effects. Taking this then for a matter of fact, which cannot reasonably be denied, or disputed, -whatcan it be resolved into ? what can it originally proceed from, but the goodness of the great Creator and Governor of the world ?--This dispensation or constitution of things, is evidently calculated to advance the general and universal happ:nefs. For, according to this, the more good a man does to others, by a good example, or friendly offices of any kind, the more effectually he promotes his own happiness and enjoyment. So that public and private happiness are here united; self-love and social are the same in the final result of things.”

Our Author's Sermon on the Folly and Danger of being ashamed of the Gospel of Christ, is, in our opinion, an excellent one, and deserves the attentive perufal of every confiderate Reader. He obferves, that the passion of shame, tho* originally intended to keep men from wandering out of the paths of virtue and happiness, into those of vice and misery, may yet by perversion lead them into those very paths from which it was intended to restrain them. Accordingly we often see persons, who have not the resolution to be singular in any affair, however important, but are in a manner wholly governed by the general vote, alhamed to own what would do them great honour to assert and maintain in the moft public manner-and even ashamed to assert their liberty of dissent, when a compliance with the majority deeply involves them in sin and guilt. Nay, so far has the perversion of this princi. ple prevailed over fome, and so much have they been afraid of incurring the disesteem of the many, and the great, that they have publicly disowned and denied, what they have secretly avowed, in the strongest terms, and falsified themselves in the most gross and shocking manner.

After producing some instances of this unmanly conduct, our Author proceeds to consider the case of those who are alhamed openly to espouse the cause of Christian liberty.“ This is a subject, says he, that deserves to be considered very largely and distinctly; and in order to a right view of it, let it be observed, that among the many important privileges which the great Founder of our religion has annexed to the


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