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* With regard to phlebotomy, however, it is generally found to be less necessary in hot countries and feasons, than in the cold; and its benefit in putrid. diftempers, is probably very limited, being proper, only in the first ftages of putrid fevers, dysenteries, and malignant fevers caught by contagion: and even then, if the patient should be of a sanguine, vigorous constitution, with a full and ftrong pulie; from which circumstances the disease 'will appear more or less to paftake of an inflammatory nature ; even then in the two first distempers, this operation is generally performed only once; and, in the last, the quantity of blood taken away is very small.
« In ardent and putrid fevers, the access and increase of which are sudden, and attended with violent head-achs, immediately followed by strong deliriums, the lancet has been found indispenfibly neceffary.
“ In doubtful symptoms, it is a good method to feel the pulse whilst the vein is opened; and to regulate the quantity to be taken away by the variation in the force or feebleness of its vibrations,
<. With regard to the timing of venefection, whether in the height, or in the remiffion of the paroxyfm, this feems kels material, than the neceffary circumstance of bleeding very early in the disease.
'« It must, however, be acknowleged, that, upon the whole, the pernicious effects of bleeding in putrid fevers is attested by a great number of the most celebrated Physicians, as Hippocrates, Aretæus, Celsus, Alexander, Fernelius, De Gorter, Glass, Bianchi, Junker, Huxham, and many others. Dr. Tiffot, particularly, has lately demonstrated this beyond ahl manner of doubt, not only from the authorities already mentioned, and those of some eminent Writers besides, but principally from the experience of others, and his own, in many curious and convincing observations, supported by the most folid arguments: all this, I may affirm, perfectly agrees with my own uniform manner of treating the like fevers, which have occurred to me in the course of my practice. Dr. Pringle calls the hæmorrhage in the dysentery, a deceit
ful indication, if fupposed to demand repeated' bleedings : -fince, on the contrary, he warns Practitioners against such a practice, and plainly signifies, that if it be not used with great caution, it tends more to augment than to cure the disease,
Lastly, “ Lastly, It is accounted, in general, pernicious, to the highest degree, in malignant fevers, when arrived to their state, or second stage, and also in a confirmed fcurvy."
In fact, it is not improbable, that the common practice in these fevers and climates, has often very injudiciously encouraged profuse and unseasonable bleeding. · Dr. Monchy has justly a better opinion of vomits in such fevers, on the invasion of the disease; and thinks, that in case of considerable costiveness, “ the body should be carefully kept open ; as the discharge of bilious matter, or excrements, towards the last stage of the disease, is accounted a very promising appearance. For this purpose he proposes manna and cream of tartar, but above all tamarinds, in such a quantity, as to preserve a moderate laxity of the belly. He joins in opinion with thofe physicians who forbid the use of hot and strong fudorifics; but observes, that a very free perspiration seems the best evacuation for scorbutics.
As to correctives, particularly with respect to these last patients, he recommends the vegetable acids, whether un ermented, as forrel, orange and lemon juice, tamarinds, all kinds of fruits and acid efculents; or fermented, as Rhenish or Moselle wines, cyder, vinegar, or alegar, oxymel, tartar, and the cream of tartar, vinegar-whey, butter-milk: acids from minerals, as spirit and elixir of vi riol, spirit of sea-salt, of saltpetre, are likewise, he says, passionately coveted by such patients; and their falutary effects have been demonstrated by frequent experience, both in putrid fevers and in the scurvy. Nevertheless (he adds) to those patients, whose bowels are weak and tender, such remedies are to be administered with caution." He justly prefers, among many other correcting antiputrescents, (which he enumerates) the Peruvian bark, and orange juice:
On the article of Food, which may be fuppofed to answer to his third indication of corroborating--he thinks, “ that in a malignant fever which has continued some time, the pulle being not over-quick, the tongue moist, with a flow speech, and very little or no thirst, some wine 1hould be added to the panada, and wine-whey may be used for drink :” adding, that “in such circumstances wine is highly commended by feveral persons of diftinguished character in phyfic, as a most excellent corroborant.” The general allowance for patients, he says, is half a pint a day. His treatment of the frequently supervening dysentery, as a most dangerous symptom in these fevers, is pretty much in the common practice. With respect to blisters, he rationally obferves, “ that they are too often uied unseasonably and prematurely; particularly in the first ftage of a disease, and when the rapid ferment of the blood seems considerably to interdict all stimulation ;, but afterwards, and subsequent to proper evacuations, they have sometimes been recurred to with remarkable good effects.”
His last chapter treats of Preservatives from these distempers; which preservation regards either such as have not been fick, or preventing the relapses of such as have recovered. These ends he judges are most effectually to be obtained by procuring the utmost possible purification of the air, and by preserving it in such a state ; for which purposes he recommends Mr. Sutton's pipes, the only expedient he had probably heard of, but which seems very properly superseded by the late truly worthy and ingenious Dr. Hales's ventilators. He enjoins," that the ship be always kept clean and lightsome between decks; as dry as possible in rainy or stormy weather; and that in fair weather the ports be opened. That the ship's crew be obliged to keep their cloaths and their perfons clean. That they should suspend all labour as much as possible, about noon, during the most violent heat; 'and that there should be fupernumerary watch-coats to change in rainy weather, and on their nightly duty.” The remainder of this chapter is chiefly employed in directing a proper strengthening and antiseptic diet for the Convalescents, (a great part of which is taken from Writers of our own country) and in several proposals for curing foul water, or converting salt-water into fresh, by distillation, or other means.
We have cited the less from this judicious and laborious performance, not solely on account of our being straitened by other articles, but also as it abounds with extracts from many of our most eminent Writers on the like subjects. Dr. Monchy has demonstrated his good sense in collecting the best materials for a proper folution of the Society's queries; and his judgment in methodizing and digesting them with order and perspicuity; whilst he connects them with many judicious and medical reflections from his own experience. Perhaps he might have agreeably retrenched a little of the tautology which occurs in the performance : but his intention seems rather to have been a little redundant, than the least defective, on a subject fo greatly interesting to his country, and so worthy of himself, as a good citizen.
Upon Upon the whole, we think it may fairly be recommended as a good manual Compendium for medical and chirurgical Gentlemen employed in the navy and army, in long voyages to the East-Indies, and wherever the scurvy prevails; a dirtemper which, with fome diversity of appearances, seems familiar, at least in long voyages, to many different climates.
The Liturgy of the Church of England, in its ordinary Service,
reduced nearer to the Standard of Scripture : To which are prefixed, Reasons for the proposed Alterations, humbly recommended to public Confideration, and more particularly to those Noblomen and Gentlemen who have Chapels appropriated for divine Service. Revised and published by the Author of the Appeal to the Common Sense of all Christian People, &c. 12mo. 16. 6d. Millar.
E fincerely congratulate all the friends of true reli
gion, (and thote especially who wish well to the farther improvement of the Liturgy of our national church) upon the public appearance which the worthy Editor of this fpecimen is again making in favour of reformation; in which important cause he has already distinguished himself with fo much honour ; and to which we find him ftill adhering with steadiness and constancy, through good report, and through ill report.
It is from such a spirit as this that we can alone hope for success, in what has so long been the earnest desire of wise, honest, and good men, both among the clergy and laity: and pity it is, that such repeated attempts as these, in a design wherein the progress of true religion, the credit of Christianity, the honour of the established church, and the general improvement of mankind, are so much interested, should not mect with that public countenance and encouragement which they lo well deserve! Happy, happy, indeed, should we think ourselves, if, by any thing we can offer in our little pamphlet, we might hope to awaken the attention of mankind, convince them of the necessity, and facilitate the progress of this good work.
Before we give an account of the alterations proposed in this Specimen of a reformed Liturgy, we shall take the liberty to offer a few things relating to the neceflity of a farther reformation in general, freely submitting them to the judgment of our candid and impartial Readers.
There are two points of light in which this subje&t offers itself to our consideration, which we do not remember to have seen much noticed in disquisitions of this kind,
The first is, the Case of the Clergy themselves. That the church of England is at this time remarkably happy in a great number of sensible and learned Clergymen, will, we apprehend, be readily acknowleged by all parties. It is probable, there is no one country in the Christian world upon an equal footing with us in this respect. The Ministers of religion have largely enjoyed the advantages of the present improved state of science and literature ; they have themselves, in a very considerable degree, contributed to improvements of this kind; many of them at this time appear in the first rank in the republic of letters; they have particularly distinguished themselves in critical and theological knowlege, in Chriftian antiquities, and in an acquaintance with the Scriptures; the consequence of which has been, that in this age of freedom and enquiry, so friendly to the progress of religious knowlege, they have learned to entertain opinions, and to form judgments, very different from those that were received by out ancestors in former ages; and particularly in the times when the public services of the church were compiled. It may be prefumed too, that it has not been without very good reason, that the Clergy of this age have departed, in their judgments, from the prescribed creeds and articles of former times; and are very well able to support their present fentiments, in a rational and judicious manner. Many of them have publicly done this, with great fpirit, and yet with great modesty.
But, how extremely painful and irksome must it be, for a num ber of Gentlemen of this respectable character ; men of educa. cion and learning; men of solid sense and sober judgment; and may we not add, men of liberal and ingenuous minds; of great virtue and piety,--to be obliged to stand up in our churches, and from time to time to read a service, some of the leading sentiments of which are inconsistent with the sense and judgiment of their own minds; and in their apprehensions contrary to the genuine doctrines of the Christian religion? Whát good-natured mind can forbcar pitying them under so disagreeable a circumstance? Who does not wish to see them released from what must be so uneasy to them, and to which nothing but time and custom could, in any tolerable degree,