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In mother Church to breed a variance,
Yet, were he Heathen, Turk, or Jew,
Rundle a Bishop! well he may ;
We know the subject of their quarrels;
The man has learning, sense, and morals.-
24. Birth-day Verses on Mr. Ford—very pretty.
27. Dean Swift at Sir Arthur Atcheson's, in the North of Ireland. There are the same verses, beginning
The Dean would viút Market-Hillwhich have often been printed; but whether in any former edition of the Miscellanies, we remember not. We have hcard great complaints of the liberties taken by the Dean in Sir Arthur's family ;-which are said to have produced very disagrecable consequences between that Gentleman and his Lady: but the Dean would have his humour.
28. The STORM; Minerva's Petition. A most severe fatire on Bishop H-t,
The volume concludes with a copious Index to all the Works; which is, indeed, not the least valuable part
of the present publication. There is one article in it which will not fail to prove acceptable to every Reader; and of which the Editor speaks in the following terms.
“ We have added, in the last volume, an Index to all the Works; wherein we have ranged the Bons Mots scattered throughout them under the article SWIFTIANA, by which
their brightness is collected, as it were, into a foculi, and they are placed in such open day, that they are secured, for the future, from the petty larceny of meaner Wits.”
This character would have been more just, however, had the Speculum been much larger, so as to have collected all the rays of wit scattered thro' the Dean's inimitable Writings; for we conceive, that only a small part of them are here brought to view.
Conclusion of the Account of Mr. Sheridan's LeEtures. See Review
for September, page 208.
AVING given an account of Mr. Sheridan's intro
to the second, which treats of Articulation and Pronunciation.
A good Articulation consists, we are told, in giving every letter in a syllable its due proportion of sound, according to the most approved custom of pronouncing it; and in making such a distinction between the syllables of which words are composed, that the ear shall, without difficulty, acknowlege their number; and perceive at once to which fyllable each letter belongs. Where these points are not observed, the Articulation is proportionably defective.
Of the many instances which offer of a vitiated Articulation, “ there is not one in a thousand,” Mr. Sheridan observes, which proceeds from any natural defect or impediment. “ Of this point he had many proofs,” he says, in the school where he received his first rudiments of learning; and “ where the Master made Pronunciation a chief object of his attention ;” in which he “ never knew a single inItance of his failing to cure such boys as came to him with any defect of that kind; tho' there were numbers who lisped or stuttered to a great degree, on their first entrance into the school ; or who were utterly unable to pronounce some letters, and others very indistinctly.”
What he deems the first and most effential point in Articulation, is, Distinctness; and, therefore, we are told, its opposite is the greatest fault. Indistinctness, to a certain degree, renders the Speaker unintelligible; or demands a more than ordinary attention, which is always painful to the Hearer.
The chief source of indistinctness, is too great precipitancy of speech; and this takes its rise in England, chiefly from a bad method of teaching to read. “As the principal object of the Master is, to make his Scholars perfectly acquainted with written words, so as to acknowlege them at fight, and give them a ready utterance; the boy, who at first is flow in knowing the words, is flow in uttering them ; but as he advances in knowlege, he mends his pace; and not being taught the true beauty and propriety of reading, he thinks all excellence lies in the quickness and rapidity with which he is able to do it. This habit of reading is often transferred into their discourse; and is but too frequently confirmed at the Latin schools, where the Masters, in general, having no points in view, but to make their Scholars repeat their leifons by heart, or construe them in such a way as to thew they understand them, care not how hastily these exercises are done; or, rather, indeed, are obliged to urge them to a speedy manner of doing them, otherwise it would be imposlible to get through the number of boys they have to teach."
To cure any imperfections in speech, arising originally from too quick an utterance, the most effectual method will be, Mr. Sheridan says, to set apart an hour every morning to be employed in the practice of reading aloud, in a very flow manner. This should be done in the hearing of a friend, or some person whose office it should be, to remind the Reader, if at any time he should perceive him mending his pace, and falling into his habit of a quick utterance,
Let him found all his fyllables full, and have that point only in view, without reference to the sense of the words; for if he is attentive to that, he will unwarily fall into his old habit: on which account, that he may not be under any temptation of that fort, Mr. Sheridan would have him, for some time, read the words of a Vocabulary, in the alphabetical order. In this way, he will soon find out, what letters and fyllables he is apt to found too faintly, and sur over. Let him make a list of those words; and be sure to pronounce them over diftinctly, every morning, before he proceeds to others. Let him accustom himself also, when alone, to sneak his thoughts aloud, in the fame slow manner, and with the same view. Otherwise, tho' he may get a habit of reading more flowly, he will fall into his usual manner in discourse : and this habit of speaking aloud, when alone, will not only bring him to a
more distinct utterance, but produce a facility of expression, in which silent Thinkers are generally defective.
Mr. Sheridan tells us, there is one cause of indistinct Articulation, which is almost universal, and which arises from the very genius of our tongue; fo that unless great care be taken, it is scarcely possible, but that every one should be affected by it, in fome degree. Every word compofed of more syllables than one in our language, has one syllable accented, and peculiarly distinguished from the rest; either by a smart percuffion of the voice, or by dwelling longer upon it. If this accented syllable be properly distinguished, the word will often be sufficiently known, even tho' the others are founded very confusedly. This produces a negligence with regard to the Articulation of the other fyllables; which, tho’ it may not render the sense obscure, yet destroys all measure and proportion, and consequently all harmony in delivery. This fault is so general, that our Author strongly recommends at first, the practice of pronouncing the unaccented fyllables more fully, and dwelling longer upon them than is necessary [our Author's words] as the only means of bringing those whose utterance is too rapid, to a due medium.
The next article which our Author treats of is, Pronunciation. He obferves, that the difficulties with respect to those who endeavour to cure themselves of a provincial or vicious Pronunciation, are chiefly thrce : ift, the want of knowing exactly where the fault lies; 2dly, want of method in res moving it, and of due application ; 3dly, want of consciousness of their defects in this point. The way of surmounting these difficulties he endeavours to point out; and then go-s on to treat of Accent : which is the subject of his third Lecture.
And here he sets out with some just observations on the meaning and use of Accent amongst the antients, that such as have early imbibed confused notions of the term in the ancient languages, may banith them from their minds, and only be prepared to consider what the use of it is amongst us. The term, amongst the antients, says he, signified certain inflections of the voice, or notes annexed to certain syllables, in such proportions as probably contributed to make their speech musical. Of there they had chiefly three in general use, which were denominated Accents ; and the term used in the plural number--The term with us has no reference to inilexions of the voice, or musical nutes, but only means a
peculiar manner of distinguishing one fyllable of a word from the rest, denominated by us Accent; and the term for that reason used by us in the fingular number.
This distinction is made by us in two ways ; either by dwelling longer upon one syllable than the rest, or by giving it a smarter percussion of the voice in utterance. So that Accent with us, is not "referred to tune, but to time; to quantity, not quality; to the more equable or precipitate motion of the voice, not to the variation of notes or inflexi
These have nothing to do with words separately taken, and are only made use of to enforce or adorn them, when they are ranged in sentences.
“ It is by the Accent chiefly, continues Mr. Sheridan, that the quantity of our fyllables is regulated; but not according to the mistaken rule laid down by all who have written on the subject, that the Accent always makes the syllable long; than which there cannot be any thing more false. For the two ways of distinguishing syllables by Accent, as mentioned before, are directly opposite, and produce quite contrary effects; the one, by dwelling on the syllable, necessarily makes it long; the other, by the smart percussion of the voice, as neceflàrily makes it short. Thus, the first fyllables in glory. father, holy, are long; whilst those in băttle, hăbit, borrow, are short. The quantity depends upon the seat of the Accent, whether it be on the vowel or consonant; "if on the vowel, the syllable is necessarily long; as it makes the vowel long: if on the consonant, it may be either long or short, according to the nature of the confonant, or the time taken up in dwelling upon it. If the confonant be in its nature a short one, the syllable is necessarily short. If it be a long one, that is, one whose sound is capable of being lengthened, it may be long or short at the will of the Speaker.
By a short confonant I mean, one whose found cannot be continued after a vowel, such as c or k pt, as ac, ap, at -whilst that of long consonants can, as el em en er ev, &c. If we change the seat of the Accent in the instances before mentioned, we should change their quantity; were we instead of glo-ry to say glor-y- instead of father, fatherinstead of holy, hol'y-the first syllables would become short
-as on the other hand, were we to dwell on the vowels instead of the consonants in the last instances they would change from short to long-should we, for instance, instead of battle