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who drinks of the peaceful brook ; for, on the contrary, he
was to drink of rapid waters that roll in a deep channel, and
are turbulent and iwift. The cup he was to drink of was a
cup of bitter afflictions; and therefore, because he suffered,
and became obedient to many sufferings, shall he be exalted,
or his head shall be lifted up. Compare Isaiah liii. with
Philip. ii. 8, 9. If these critical and conjectural observations
are right, the entire pfalm will appear as follows:

A Pfalm of David.
The translation of the English The new translation by Dr.

1. The Lord said unto my Jehovah said unto my Lord,
Lord, fit thou at my right fit thou at my right hand,
hand, until I make thy ene- until I make thy enemies thy
mics th foortool.

footstool. 2. The Lord shall send the

Jehovah shall send the rod rod of thy strength out of of thy strength from Zion : Zion : rule thou in the midst that thou mayest rule in the of thy enemies.

midst of thy enemies. 3. Thy people shall be wil- Thy people (Thall be) emiling in the day of thy power, nently zealous in the day of in the beauty of holiness from thy army, (thall shine) in the the womb of the morning: beauties of holiness: more thou hast the dew of thy than from the womb of the youth.

morning to thee (Thall be) the

dew of thy progeny. 4. The Lord hath sworn, Jchovah hath fworn, and and will not repent, Thou art will not repent, Thou art a a priest for ever, after the or- priest for ever, after the order der of Melchizedeck.

of Melchizedeck. 5. The Lord at thy right The Lord on thy right hand hand shall strike through (O Jehovah!) hath fhaken kings in the day of his wrath. (Shall*shake and reform) kings

in the day of his indignation.

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6. He

* “In the English Bible and the Vulgate, the verbs in this psaim are rendered as if they were in the future tense, because the events they refer to are future., I leave the reader to his own choice, by inserting that, which is rather a paraphrase than a translation, in a pa. renthesis; only I take the liberty to observe, that many instances may be produced of the promiscuous, or rather INDEFINITe use of the


many countries.

6. He shall judge among

He (the Lord) fall exethe heathen, he fall fill the cute judgment in the nations places with dead bodies : he with a great army: He (the Thall wound the heads over Lord) hath fhaken, (Thall

shake so as to convert) the chief over the great land (the

Roman empire.) 7. He shall drink of the

He (the Lord) Inall drink brook in the way: therefore of the torrent (of afflictions) shall he lift up the head. in the way: therefore shall

his head be exalted. This last verse is admirably well explained by Jerom; and, to fhew that the ancient ecclefiaftical writers do sometimes deserve our inspection, Dr. Sharpe hath set down his comment in the notes, and then adds, that if the Greek or Latin copies are to be followed rather than the modern He. brew copies, nothing can exceed the intire comment of Jerom upon this psalm. What the collation of manuscripts undertaken by the learned Dr. Kennicott may produce, time will discover; enough hath been said in this chapter to fhew the necessity of such a work; and without the authority of manuscripts, our Author says, he will not presume to alter the present Hebrew copies, nor indulge conjecture, while he is delivering ancient records, produced as evidence. "However, he thinks it is worthy of obfervation, that if the Greek verfion is to be followed in the third verse, it will not be porfible to apply this pfalm to any other than Jesus the Son of God, of whom alone it can properly be said, “ Before the morning-star did I beget thee.”-11po Ewo poçou EYEVUNCU PE.

The great and extraordinary effusion of the Spirit foretold by the prophet Joel, and poured out upon the apoities and disciples of Jesus on the day of Pentecost, is the subject of the ninth chapter of this valuable work. The Author observes, that the day of the Lord generally means the destruction of Jerusalem ; but that the GREAT DAY of the Lord always signifies the destruction of Jerusalem, either by Nebuchadnezzar, or under Titus.

Hence it is most evident, that the prophet Joel, by the found of the first trumpet, proclaims the distress and destrucpreterite and future times, without the conversive Vau; besides, it is a well-known observation of the Christian and Jewish Doctors, that the prophet, seeing in his mind's eye the events he foretells, often speaks of them as already patt.

tion of Jerusalem under Nebuchadnezzar; and by the found of the second trumpet, its final destruction under Titus. He describes, first, the distress of the Jews by drought and famine, and their destruction in the great day of the Lord; then the trumpet sounds again, and proclamation is made of the great things the Lord will do for his people and his land: he will remove from them the northern army, and restore the years they had loft by the great army which he had sent among them. After this, the usual transition is made to the gospel-age under the second temple; the extraordinary effu. tion of the Holy Spirit, which then, and at no other time whatever, was poured out upon ALL FLESH, is next foretold in the clearest and strongest terms; the other great day of the Lord, the last destruction of Jerusalem, has then its' place; and this part of the prophecy closes with these remarkable words, which may be considered as a short and comprehenfive view of the gracious declarations in the new covenant : “ And it shall coine to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord thall be delivered; for in mount Sion, and in Jerusalem shall be deliverance, as the Lord hath faid, and in the remnant whom the Lord shall call.”

There are various passages which, though cited from the Old Scriptures in the New, are not suppoled to foretell the events they are applied to and faid to fulfill, but are only ACCOMMODATED to them, and these Dr. Sharpe considers in the tenth and last chapter. The Scriptures of the old and new covenant, he observes, are to be considered as one work, written by different persons, at different times, but dictated by the fame Spirit. They relate the uniform conduct of God to his people, and the divine proceedings, under the 1:ew dispensation, bear a strict conformity to those under the old. There is also not only a conformity of events, and an unity of design, under the conduct of the fame Spirit in both Scriptures, the Old as well as New, but the promises contained in the former are accomplished by the latter, and they both describe the same Messiah an invisible conductor of the people of God under the old difpenfation, and a visible guide to them in the new And Dr. Sharpe recommends it as a necessary key in the interpretation of the Scriptures of the new covenant, that many things applied to our Lord in those writings are his own words, delivered under the character of the Lord, the Lagos, or Word, or Michael, and therefore not to be considered merely as ACCOMMODATIONS of phrases taken from the Old Scriptures, and applied to different pur8


poses and persons in the New.. The shepherd, called the fellow of God, Zech. xiii. 7, 8, 9, was to be finitten, the sheep were to be scattered. The like events happened under the gospel; the shepherd was smitten, the Meep were scattered; they were to endure severe trials, and their faith was to be more precious than goid tried with fire. To the Jews our Saviour faid, “ Behold, your house is lest unto you desolate : and verily I say unto you, ye shall not see me until the time , come when ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.” Our Saviour here foretelleth the defolation or destruction of Jerusalem; and instead of comforting the Jews with the prospect of a third temple, and the restoration of bloody facrifices, in some future age or advent of the Mefliah, he expressly cieclares, they shall see him no more till they acknowledge him, by saying, Blefied is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.' The inference which Dr. Sharpe draws from these passages in the Old and New Scriptures compared, and which he considers as parallel, is, that it is common for the Mesiah, the Word, to repeat under the new difpensation what he had before said by the mouths of his prophets in the old. Thus, as to the pallage of Ilaiah, chap. Ix. cited by St. Paul, Rom. xi. 25—27, if we suppose the prophet speaks of the redemption of the Jews from captivity by Cyrus, it is as evident that the Messiah was the invia fible redeemer, as that Zerubbabei was the visible leader of the Jews; and though St. Paul interprets the words in Isaiah of Christ, and not of Cyrus or Zerubbabel, yet they are true of him, that is, of Jesus, not in a secondary, or accommodated meaning, but in their primary sense, as he commanded in chief, and superintended all in the care of God's people. The fame actions are sometimes ascribed to the commander in chief, and the officer who acts under him, not that these passages afford a double meaning, though they imply a fuperior and subordinate command.

The Doctor concludes, that he hath endeavoured to manifest the whole scheme, or system of the Old and New Scriptures, to be a system worthy of the sacred character impressed upon it, what no believer ought to be ashamed of, or at a loss to defend against any attack; and this defence, we think, he has maintained with distinguished learning, cardor, and critical fagacity.


Elements of Criticism. Continued from p. 428 of laft Month's



AVING, in our last number, attended the noble

Writer through the theoretic and most abstruse part of this ingenious work, we now with pleasure resume the fu'vject, and proceed to the subsequent volumes, which con'tain matter of greater variety and entertainment. In exem-' plifying the particulars which serve to unfold the principles of the fine arts, the Author displays very extensive and various erudition ; and the many nice and acute criticisms interspersed throughout, thew with what close attention and refined taste he has perused the moit admired authors, both antient and inodern. He has opened many beauties, and detected several blemishes in the best writers; and, from the various effects resulting from the illuitrations referred to, he has endeavoured to cítablish the rules of just criticism. But though the application of these rules may, in some measure, enable a reader to discover blemishes, yet they will never teach him to relish beauties, which produce no effect, unless the sufcepilility of the reader is congenial with that of the Writer. It is well known, that the poetic excellence of our incomparable Milten was, for a long time, hid under the veil of ob!curity, till Mr. Addison unfolded his beauties to the public eye; yet, even now, we may venture to affirm, that they who aff et to admire him most, build their admiration on au: hority instead of sentiment. In short, to recur to the distinction which we endeavoured to establish in the preceding article, the principles of criticism, so far as they regard the fenfitive part of our nature, are not to be acquired by rule. Neverthclefs, this work must afford a molt elegant entertainment to readers of fine taite, who will here perceive what an intricate combination of caules, perhaps hitherto unnoticed, have contributed to produce thole itriking effects which they have so frequently experienced.

In the cpening of the second volume, his Lordship treats of congruity and propriety, which copious heads might have afforded matter for a larger scope than our Author has thought proper to allign them. A certain suitableness or correfpondence among things connected by any relation, is what he calls congruity or proprity; which, he observes, are commonly reckoned fynonimous terms. He endeavours, however, to establish the following diftinction between them.


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