Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering
Cambridge University Press, 2 de jan de 1965 - 816 páginas
As Dr Needham's immense undertaking gathers momentum it has been found necessary to subdivide volumes into parts, each to be bound and published separately. The first part of Volume 4, already published, deals with the physical sciences; the second with the diverse applications of physics in the many branches of mechanical engineering; and the third will deal with civil and hydraulic engineering and nautical technology. With this part of Volume 4, then, we come to the application by the Chinese of physical principles in the control of forces and in the use of power; we cross the frontier separating tools from the machine. We have already noticed that the ancient Chinese concept of chhi (somewhat similar to the pneuma of the Greeks) asserted itself prominently in acoustics; but we discover here that the Chinese tendency to think pneumatically was also responsible for a whole range of brilliant technological achievements, for example, the double-acting piston-bellows, the rotary winnowing-fan, and the water-powered metallurgical blowing-machine (ancestor of the steam-engine); as well as for some extraordinary insights and predictions in aeronautics.
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List of Illustrations
List of Tables
Vehicles for land transport p
Powersources and their employment I Animal trac
Hydraulic engineering I Waterraising machinery
Powersources and their employment II Water flow
j Clockwork six hidden centuries p
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2nd century 4th century ancient Anon Archimedean screw armillary sphere artisans astronomical auct Beck bellows bronze Cardan suspension century Chang Heng chariot Cheng chhe Chhien Chhu Chih Chin China Chinese Ching Chou Chuan clepsydra clock collar-harness crank device dynasty early emperor engineering Europe European Feldhaus gear-wheels gearing harness Hommel horizontal Hsiang Hsin illustrations imperial invention Jesuits Khao Kung kites later Liang Lynn White machine machinery mechanical medieval mill Ming motion Needham Noettes noria Nung Nung Shu paddle-wheel Peking perhaps period probably rotary rotated Sect shafts Shang Shih shui south-pointing carriage square-pallet chain-pump Sung Szechuan Taoist Thang Thien Kung Khai Thung Ting Huan traditional trip-hammer Tunhuang vehicles vertical Wang & Price Wang Chen Warring States period water-mills water-power water-wheel wheel wheelbarrow windmill Yuan
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