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succeeded; and that projects and experiments relative to go's vernment, are of all schemes the niost dangerous and fatal.*** He concluded his address with resigning the office of president and commander in chief, into their hands, and requesting them to accept it, and elect some person in his stead. A majority of their suffrages were in favor of the honorable Arthur Middleton, but he had his difficulties as to passing the bill, and declined the office. The honorable Rawlins Lowndes was soon after elected, and on the 19th of March gave his assent to the bill con taining the new constitution.*
Some weeks before this law was passed the Randolph frigate, of 36 guns and 305 men, comanded by captain Biddle, sailed on a cruise from Charleston. The Yarmouth, of 64 guns, discovered her and five other vessels in the evening of the 7th of March, and came up with her by nine o'clock at night. Captain Vincent hailed her to hoist colours, or he would fire into her, on which she hoisted American, and immediatety gave the Yarmouth her broad side, which was returned, and in about a quarter of an hour she blew up. Four men were saved upon a piece of her wreck, and subsisted for five days upon nothing more than rain water, which they sucked from a piece of blanket they had picked up. On the fifth, the Yarmouth being in chace of a ship, happily discovered them waving; the captain humanely suspended the chace, hauled up to the wreck, got a boat out, and brought them on board.+ T hree days before this, the Alfred frigate, of 20 nine pounders, was taken by the Ariadne and Ceres, The Americans have also lost the Virginia frigate...; • The crew of an American privateer, in the night of the 27th of January, took the fort of New-Providence, being joined by a number of Americans in the place. They continued two days in possession of it, during which time they made themselves màsters of a ship of 16 guns, that was repairing some damage sustained by running on a reef of rocks. They likewise possessi ed themselves of five prizes that had been sent in by a letter of marque. The letter of marque returned, prepared to attack, and got very near the privateer, when she cut her cables and saila ? ed off, having about half an hour before sent away the ship and three of the prizes, and set fire to the other two. .. : · Captain James Willing, in the service of the United States, arrived with a detachment of men from Fort Pitt, at the Natches, a British settlement in West-Florida, on the evening of the 19th " of February; and the next morning early sent out sundry parties,
* Dr. Ramsay's History, vol. i. p. 129-138. . Caple Viscerla letier at Marek she azah kemerabcarcer, Yol, vi. p. 148€ in
who almost at one and the same time made the inhabitants PILE soners of war on their parole. The colours of the United States being hoisted, and the country'taken possession of in the r name, the inhabitants fearing the confiscation of their property, waited on çaptain Willing, to propose terms of accommodation, to which he readily agreed. They are not to take up arms against the United States, or to assist their enemies; but are to observe a strict neutrality. During such neutrality, their persons, slaves and other property, of what kind soever, are to remain safe and unmolested; but the property of all public officers of the British crown is excepted, as also the property of all British, who are not residents in the district, The agreement was signed by the delegates from the people and their associates, on the one part, and by the captain on the other, the 21st of February. :
Since the earliest return of Spring, a succession of detach: ments from gen, Howe's army, having ranged the country for many miles round Philadelphia and in the Jerseys, chiefly te open the communication for bringing in supplies, and to collect forage. They have been pretty sụccessful. Col. Hand, in an swer to col. Mawhood, charged inis troops not oniy with denying quarters, but butchering the Americans who had surrendered prisoners, and bayonetting, on the 21st of March, in the most cruel manner, in cold blood, men who were taken by surprise, when they neither could nor did attempt to make any resistances and some of whom were not fighting men. The successful sur prise of a party of Americans, consisting of some hnndreds, posted about seventeen miles from the city, took place on the 4th of May. On the 7th, the second battalion of British light. infantry, in flat-boats, attended by three gallies and other armed boats, proceeded up the Delaware, in order to destroy all the American ships and vessels lying in the river, between Philadel, phia and Trenton, They landed the next morning, advanced toward Bordentown, drove the Americans that opposed thems entered the town, and burnt four store-houses containing provis sions, tobacco, some military stores and camp equipage. The country being alarnied and a strong body collected, the battalion crossed to the Pennsylvania shore. The next day they resumed their operations, and at sun-set embarked and returned to Phix ladelphia. While upon the expedition they burnt two-frigates, one of 32 guns, the other of 28--nine large ships-three privas teer sloops of 16 guns each-three of 10--twenty-three brigswith a number of sloops and schooners. Two of the ships were loaded with tobacco, rum and military stores,
Thus ends, most probably; the history of general Howe's snc cesses in North-America's for Sir Henry Clinton arrived at
Philadelphia on the 8th of May, to succeed the former, who will soon-return to Great-Britain. - The British officers to express their esteem for Sir William Howe, prepared a magnificent entertainment with which to grace his departure for Great Britain. It consisted of a variety of parts, on land and water; was called the Mischianza; and was given on Monday the 18th of May. It was indeed wagnificent, began at four in the afternoon, and concluded at four We next niorning. There was a grand and beautiful exhibition of fire works; toward the conclusion of whiclı, a triumphal arch appeared gloriously illuminated, with Fame blowing from her trumpet in letters of light--. Thy laurels shall never fade."me This prediction would be more likely to receive a fulfilment, had the military atchievements of the general been more answerable to the force he has commanded against the Americans. The Aineriean officers planned a different entertainment for him; which had proved fatal to themselves, but for the oversight of one British general. -Marquis de la Fayette, with a select corps of about 2500 men sank and file, crossed the Schuylkill, and proceeded to take post at Barron-hill, about twelve miles in front of the army at ValJey-forge. He planned his pickets and videttes, and sent out patroles on all the roads by which it was probable the enemy would approach him. About two miles on his left was Whitemarsh, where a number of roads form a junction. The marquis intrusted the guard of these roads to some militia, whom he ordered there, but who never went. A quaker inferring from the marquis' directing him to provide lodgings for the night, that he intended remaining there, sent information of it to the enemy, who by their spies having obtained intelligence of the inarquis' situation, formed an instantaneous design of surprising him. For that purpose, on the night of May the 19th, general Grant marched out of Philadelphia with full 7000 men, and a number of cannon. By taking the Frankfort road, and crossing the country through the old York road and White-marsh the next morning he entered the road on which the marquis was about two miles in his rear, at Plymouth meeting-house, Front this place to Matson's-ford on the Schuykill is about one-inile and à quarter, the only ford by which the marquis could effect á vetreat and about two miles from Barron-hill church. Other troops were advancing to take the marquis in front, and to fit operate with gen. Grant; who instead of hastening to and securing the ford, marched down toward the marquis on the main road, by which means the letter gained intelligence of the other's being in his rear, . The marquis happily by an instant decision
retreated by the road leading from Barron-hill church to Mat son's-ford, and had nearly effected his retreat over the Schuyt. kill before the enemy were sensible of their error: · They then doubled their pace to come up with his rear ; but his retreat was so handsome and timely, that the troops were all crossed and formed before they could come near the ford in force. His whole loss was no more than nine men. The American army had early information of the marquis' danger, and were in great anxiety about him, They began firing some of their heaviest artillery, hoping as the wind being fair, the sound would be conveyed to the enemy in such a manner as to excite mistaken apprehension ; which they think was the case, as the enemy, at ter the marquis had crossed, made a precipitate march back to Philadelphia, seemingly under an apprehension that they should be pursued and attacked by the whole army. Had gen. Grant marched down at once to Matson's-ford and secured it, the marquis with his select-corps, must have surrendered or been cat to pieces. Their loss would have obliged the rest of the American army to have made an hasty fight, in a most distressing situation, the chief of them being without shoes and stockings and otherwise badly provided. The orderly manner in which the Americans retreated, and which contributed much to their escaping, is to be ascribed to the improvements made in their discipline, owing greatly to the baron de Steuben, the inspector, general, ...A
:: FRIEND GORDON, .. . V OU will not be surprised at seeing from whence this is das
ted; nor be at a loss to account for my removal. The present residence will be more favorable to general intelligence than Great-Britain, as it affords an opportunity of visiting and hearing from Paris without danger. My last year's letter closed with the account of capt. Cunningham’s having taken the packet
for Holland, in the beginning of May 1777. The captain and his crew were committed to prison for some irregularities : and to save appearances were continued there for a short time by the French; but were speedily released from their mock confinement, and permitted to purchase and fit out a much stronger vessel avowedly to infest the British commerce. Mr. Hodge, whom you know, was committed also to the Bastile, at the request of lord Stormont, for having acted publicly as Cunningham's agent, in fitting out the privateer that took the Prince of Orange packet. While in the Bastile he was treated with the utmost politeness and civility; and entertained in the most elegant imanner. But the American commissioners being dissatisfied with his confinement and expressing themselves in strong terms upon the subject, he was released, that the harmony between the French and Americans might not suffer an interruption. - Upon some reports tending to discourage the French commerce with the Americans, Mi. de Sartine, minister of the marine, assured the several chambers of commerce by a public instrument, signed the 4th of July 1777, and in direct contraven. tion to all the British navigation laws, that the king was deterquined to afford the fullest protection to their commerce, and would reclaim all ships taken under that pretext. Still the poli. cy of Versailles prevented France's being hurried into a rupturé. She determined to riske no decisive step, till the issue of the Amėrican campaign was known, her sailors were returned from the Newfoundland fishery, and her naval equipments were compleated. Therefore when the British ministry made heavy complaints attended with manaces, on account of the many prizes carried into the French ports by the American privateers, and there disposed of, as also of the countenance and protection given to the said privateers, she granted lord Stormont, an order for all of them to depart immediately.
The news of gen. Burgoyne's success at Tyconderoga and ad. yance toward Albany, excited the greatest triumph on the side of administration. The promising prospect of the northern expedition's answering fully the wishes of ministry, enabled them to press France harder than ever ; and dictated to the latter greater pliableness and complaisance. Express orders were sent to Nantz, and all the other parts of the kingdom, forbidding the admittance of any Anierican privateers, unless they entered in order to refit, or were driven in by stress of weather or want of provisions, and in either of these cases they were to be gone as soon as possible. “Notwithstanding all this parade, privakers come in, tarry and take military stores: and their prizes are publicly sold, but as formerly practised after similar conVOL. II.