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THE

QUARTERLY REVIEW.

ART. I.-1. The Christian Social Union. Papers. 2. Lombard Street in Lent. A Course of Sermons on Social Subjects organized by the London Branch of the Christian Social Union. London, 1894. 3. A Social Policy for the Church. By the Rev. T. C. Fry, D.D. London, 1893. 4. Vor Clamantium, the Gospel of the People. London, 1894. 5. Two Present-Day Questions. By W. Sanday, M.A., D.D., LL.D. London, 1892. 5. The Incarnation and Common Life. By the Bishop of Durham. London, 1893. 7. Social Evolution. By Benjamin Kidd. London, 1894. . The Economic Review. London, 1891–94. . The Social Doctrine of the Sermon on the Mount. By the Rev. Charles Gore. London, 1892.

Roilo more than four years ago the British public was U greatly moved by a bold project for curing the ills of *ociety by diverting to the service of secular undertakings a goat organization which owed its existence and its influence to laith in the life eternal. 'General' Booth, in the fascinating and fantastic proposals which, as the ostensible author of ‘Darkest England and the Way Out, he then made, gave significant expression to a ondency which is active not only in the ranks of the Salvation Army, but also among the members of every Christian onomination, not excepting the Church of England. The amiliar distinction between ‘Individualism' and ‘Socialism’ has revealed itself in the course of this tendency, which is learly working in two directions—towards a jealous regard or the individual, and a frank contempt of him. The Christian Socialism that inspired the philanthropic undertakings Wol. 179–No. 357. B of

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of which the University Settlements in East London are conspicuous examples, makes the duty and the claim of the individual the basis of its action : the Christian Socialism of the new Christian Social Union advances rather the duties and claims of society. Individual responsibility is indeed strenuously proclaimed by both ; but while it is believed in by the one, it is by the more headstrong and extreme members of the other set aside for various measures and types of physical and moral Statecoercion. Voluntary co-operation was the logical outcome of that individual responsibility which the older Christian Socialists asserted, and it is still advocated by their more faithful representatives. State-socialism is the logical outcome of that suppression of the individual which the more advanced Christian Socialists now habitually preach. The extent of the divergence may best be realized by contrasting the attitude of representative men of both sections towards what is conveniently but enigmatically styled the “Social Problem.” Let Canon Barnett's recent sermon on the unemployed be read side by side with Canon Scott Holland's Ash-Wednesday oration on “National Penitence,” or the Dean of Ely's ‘Democratic Creed,’ and it will be immediately manifest that the remedies which commend themselves to the first are accounted as little better than aggravations of the evil by the last. Christian Socialism is represented in some quarters as the logical outcome of Catholicism, and there is, of course, an obvious connection between belief in the value of ecclesiastical organization, and belief in the value of economic organization. In fact, however, the movement appears to commend itself with equal success to Protestants and Roman Catholics alike. The English Dissenters eagerly cultivate friendly relations with the ‘New Unionism'; some of its principal leaders, including the founder of the ‘Labour Church, are ex-Dissenting ministers; and not a few of the best-known Dissenting preachers are avowed Christian Socialists. It is, however, within the Established Church that Christian Socialism now finds its ablest apologists and missionaries. The Christian Social Union, a body entirely composed of Churchmen, and very largely consisting of clergy, has been in existence, if we are not mistaken, about four years; and it has already attained considerable proportions. The theologian of the Union, and its official chief, is a prelate of saintly character and wide reputation, the Bishop of Durham. The prophet is one of the most eloquent of English preachers, Canon Scott Holland; the philosopher, the most independent of English divines, Mr. Charles Gore, of “Lux Mundi’ fame; the missionaries are a host

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