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E-harsag . . . The plantations of the sacred forest for the god
En-Girsu.’ a
On the reverse we read, “He who in honour of En-Girsu has
built the house of entertainment, his god is Dun Sir. For the
king of Kianna, for En-Girsu, Entéména has made his store.
house. He has made (the image) of the goddess Nina, who
knows the heart. He has made the image of the goddess Nina,
who makes names glorious. He has made the park of Entéména
and built a temple to the god Ellil.’
In one inscription he styles himself ‘the chosen of the
goddess Nina. He tells us he made a libation bowl and
dedicated a quantity of grain in the temple of Eninnu, i.e. the
temple of the number Fifty. In another he apostrophizes the
goddess Gatumdug as the mother of Sirpurra, and tells us he
built a temple for her. A singular proof of his widespread
authority is the fact that the Americans have recently found at
Niffer in Upper Babylonia an object dedicated by him to Ellil,
the great god of Nippur. The name of his particular patron
god is variously read as Dun Sir, Anna, and Sulgur. This
and similar tablets of later kings have been found asso:
ciated with the copper statuettes, already referred to, inscribed
with their names, and containing dedicatory sentences. Those
inscribed with Entéména's name represent his tutelary goddess
with horns on her head. In addition to these we also have
inscribed with his name the famous silver vase already
described. -
There is in the Louvre an inscription which a certain
Enanatuma, son of Entéména and patesi of Sirpurra, is named
If this is not a mistaken reading, which is very probable,
Entéména's son, as well as his father, was called Emanatuma.
This completes the names of the early rulers of Sirpurra,
whom we can definitely arrange in order, and who may be thus

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We now have a break in our evidence, and can only conjecturally suggest that the next ruler was a famous personage who fills a much larger rôle than those we have hitherto considered, and of whom we have a considerable series of monuments; namely, the king whose name is read as Gudea, and also Ka-mum-ma. Hommel suggests, with his usual ingenuity, that Gudea was not in the regular succession to the throne. This he concludes from the name of his father never being mentioned in the numerous inscriptions which date from his reign, and from the absence of any reference to his ancestry. On the other hand, he is perhaps the only early king of Babylonia whose wife's name is known. It occurs along with his own on an agate seal preserved at the Hague.” This points, as Hommel has suggested, to her having been an important personage, and it seems probable that he married some princess belonging to the royal stock, perhaps a daughter or sister of Entéména, and thus acquired his rights to the throne. It is further curious that if we are to rely upon Hommel's translation, he professes himself in one of his own inscriptions—namely, on Cylinder A —to be a self-made man :

‘A mother I had not, my mother was the water depth;
A father had I none, my father was the water depth.’ f

This points to his having been a foundling on the waters, like
Sargon. We also read of a certain Dunzi (i.e. “the man who
planted his eyes on me, and thus my life prolonged ), who saved
him from the waters, thus answering to the Akki of the later
Sargon legend. Among his monuments are several large
diorite statues, copper figures, &c., and his name occurs on a
great number of the foundation bricks, &c., at Tell Loh.
His monuments refer to the two great functions of Meso-
potamian kings, campaigns against their enemies, and the
soundation of temples and cities. The greater part of them
refer to the latter duties. On an inscription on one of his
statues he tells us how his god En-Girsu had forcibly opened
the ways for him from the Upper Sea, which probably means
the Mediterranean, as far as the Lower Sea, i.e. the Persian
Gulf, and that he had conquered the town of Anshan Nimaki,
and had carried its spoil off to the shrine of his god, En-Girsu.S
Nimaki is the proto-Chaldean name for Elam, and Anshan was
the name of a city of Elam. In connection with this campaign

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we must refer to the mention of the frontier town of Elam,
Imbiki, the later Bit Imbi." Gudea was not only a conqueror,
but a great temple builder. Thus he claims to have built a
temple named “the House of Light, which illuminates the ship
of Ninaki,’ to the goddess Nina at Ninaki. For E-harsag, the
patroness of the city of Girsu, he built a temple, raised an altar,
and erected a diorite statue at Girsu. For the goddess Nana
he restored her famous shrine of Eanna, and also made her a
diorite statue. To Bau he built a temple at Uru Azagga, had
a statue carved for her, and dedicated at her festival oxen,
sheep, lambs, dates, cream, garments, and different kinds of
birds. As Bau was especially worshipped at Kish, near
Babylon, this seems to show that Uru Azagga is another name
for Kish. To Galalim, the favourite son of the god En-Girsu,
he also built a shrine. He also restored the famous temple
of Eghud, or the Seven Spheres, at Borsippa, but his most
important work was upon the temple of the Fifty (Eninnu).
He first purified the city and drove out the adorers of demons,
the necromancers, the prophetesses. He then tells us whence he
derived the materials for building this famous shrine, con-
sisting of cedar and other costly woods, of which he made
great gates for the temple which were covered with figures,
and he also brought hewn stones from Martu (i.e. the Western
lands or the land of the Amorites), to build the platform for the
temple, and other stones to act as sockets. He further brought
copper and gold-dust apparently for its decoration, to which he
also dedicated the spoil captured in his campaign in the Elamitish
mountains. In this temple he placed his statue, and he made
provision for a regular offering of food and drink, denouncing
those who should revoke this gift. He also had a statue made
of the god out of Magan stone, which he put in the temple,
and to which he gave a special name, and at its dedication
there seems to have been a seven days' rejoicing, during which
punishments were remitted, and obedience was not exacted
from slaves, who for that time were the equals of their masters
and mistresses. On any one who ventured to mutilate or
destroy the statue of the god, Gudea calls down the vengeance
of a whole Pantheon of gods.
In his inscriptions Gudea gives the names of several localities
from which he got materials for the various buildings, statues,
&c., which he erected. This list is most important, not only
as showing how widely spread the enterprise of those early
days was, but also as informing us of the localities whence

* Hommel, p. 325. Certals,

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certain indispensable products of ancient culture were derived. First and foremost was the land of Magan or Maghan, already mentioned. Thence, he tells us, he brought the stone from which his statues were made, and which is a diorite or dolerite, and is the same stone used by the early Egyptian kings for their statues. From Amanum—that is, no doubt, the Amanus Mountains in Northern Syria, and which he calls the Mountain of Cedars—he obtained wooden beams of cedar and of another wood. These are described as of different lengths. From the city of Ursu (?), in the mountains of Ibla, came the woods called Zabanum and Tulubum, i.e. probably cedar and cypress wood. Amiaud would place this country near the sources of the Euphrates. From Shamamum in the mountains of Menua (i.e. Armenia), and from Kazalla, which is named among the conquests of Sargon I., and was situated on the mountains of Martu or the West-land, there came hewn blocks of Beham or Nagal stone, with which the platform of the temple was built. From Tidanum (identificd by Hommel with Tidnum, the proto-Chaldean equivalent of Martu, “the West’) he brought Shirgal stone, i.e. alabaster, which was apparently used for doorposts, &c. From the country of Kagal-adda-ki, in the mountains of Kimash,_perhaps, says Sayce, ‘the land Mash, or Arabia Petraea, the Mash of Gen. x. 23,-copper was brought. Kimash gave its name to copper (kémassi in Assyrian), just as Cyprus did to cuprum. From the land of Melughgha or Milukhkha —i.e., as Glaser argues, Havilah—he imported gold dust and usu wood, which Jensen identifies with some dark hard wood such as ebony. Gold dust was also brought from the mountains of Ghaghum, which was probably in Syria, since it is associated

in the inscription with Khalub (? Aleppo). From the country of Gubin—which Oppert connects with the Khub of Ezekiel xxx. 5, Amiaud with a form of Coptos, the ancient Qubti, and Hommel with the Kepuna or Kepni of the Egyptian inscriptions, which seems to have represented the later Byblos—Gudea imported ghaluku trees, from which wood pillars were apparently made. From the country of Madga in the mountains of the river Gurruda or Galu-ruda (compared by Hommel with Malgu, mentioned in later inscriptions), and apparently a frontier town of Elam, he imported bitumen (?). Lastly from the mountains of Barsip, which Amiaud identifies with Tel Barsip on the Upper Euphrates, he brought nalua stones in large boats. In the inscription on the statue already referred to, he also refers to Nituk or Dilmun, i.e. the Island of Bahrein in the Persian Gulf, as a place from which he got wood, and he further tells us that the wood that

came to him from there as well as from Magan, Milukhkha,
and Gubi, came in large ships.
From these notices it will be seen how widely the influence
and enterprise of Gudea extended. He seems to have con-
trolled the whole of Mesopotamia, and to have been the master
also of Northern Syria, whence he got his supplies of wood.
It is curious to notice that in the Egyptian inscriptions we have
this region continually mentioned as the source of the various
kinds of wood used by the Egyptian cabinet makers. .
Gudea left at least one son, who was called Ur En-Girsu,
i.e. the Man of Girsu. In one inscription he calls himself
patesi of Sirpurra, and in another expresses his devotion to
the goddess Nina. In later Babylonian literature the name
Ur En-Girsu occurs as the equivalent of farmer or rustic
(ikkaru), which Hommel explains by some tradition that his
reign was a peaceable one and devoted to country life."
We would suggest that Ur En-Girsu was succeeded as patesi
of Sirpurra by Urbau, who may have been his brother. His
name means “the Man of the goddess Bau.’ Hommel and others
have made two persons out of him, one a patesi of Sirpurra,
and the other a king of Ur. We believe them to have been
the same person, and that he began his career as patesi of
Sirpurra. His name was formerly read Urukh.
A statue of him has been preserved and is now in the Louvre.
This is inscribed, and , the inscription reads, according to
Amiaud, ‘To the god En-Girsu, the powerful warrior of the
god Ellil, Urbau, patesi of Sirpurra, the offspring of the god
En-Agal (“powerful lord,” a by-name of Ea), chosen by the
will of the goddess Nina, endowed with power by the god
En-Girsu, who has widely published the name of the goddess
Bau and was endowed with intelligence by the 'god Enki (i.e.
the god of the sea, otherwise called Ea). The submissive"
incantation priest of the goddess Ninni (Ishtar), the beloved
servant of the god “Lugalla Gishgallaki" (i.e. the “King of
Gishgallaki or Babylon,” i.e. Bel), the favourite of the goddess
Duzizuab or Duziabzu.' . The paragraph ends with the words
‘I am Urbau; the god En-Girsu is my king.” At this point
the narrative changes to the third person, and the translation
is problematical. The king apparently claims to have exca.
vated some site, the earth of which he had extracted and
measured and weighed, and then piled this earth upon it.
Upon this he placed a substructure six cubits high, and upon

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* Op. cit, p. 330. hi thlS


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