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the actual number of Europeans in the colony at this time was very small. At Saint Louis, for instance, out of 13,000 souls, but 185 Europeans were resident in 1856–57; yet the French under Faidherbe's guidance quickly made themselves masters of the valley of the Senegal as far as Médine, upwards of five hundred miles from the Atlantic. A series of explorations was now instituted under picked officers to visit the most notable chiefs of the tribes along the coast, as well as those ruling the inland provinces on the higher affluents of the Senegal. Among these expeditions Captain Vincent, in 1860, traversed the country of the Adrar or Western Sahara, as far as the Ouled Delim tribes near Cape Blanc ; M. Bourrel was sent to inspect the country of the Braknas; Lieut. Pascal undertook an exploration through the Bambouk district; Lieut. Lambert led a similar mission into the high plateaux of Fouta-Djallon, where the Senegal has its principal source; and in 1861 Lieut. Mage made an adventurous journey as far as the oasis of the Tagant. Most of the tribes visited were induced to acknowledge the protectorate of France, whilst numerous treaties of friendship were brought back from all sides by the several missions. Governor Faidherbe left Senegal for a time in 1861, but, as the colony evidently declined after his removal, he was recalled in 1863. One of his first acts after his return was to send Lieut. Mage, who had already proved his ability for such an undertaking, on an important mission to El Hadj Omar, whose head-quarters were then (1864) said to be at Ségou on the Niger. Faidherbe's instructions on this occasion supply the key-note of the policy then initiated of rapidly expanding the French influence inland, and thus forestalling the extension of the British colonies towards the interior from the West coast. Lieut. Mage, accompanied by Dr. Quintin, leaving the outermost station held by the French in January 1864, embarked on the Niger at Yamina and reached Ségou. There he remained over two years before Ahmadou, the son and successor of Omar, who had disappeared rather mysteriously, could be induced to sign a treaty. It was not till June 1866 that the belated envoys returned to Saint Louis, only to find that, during their absence, Governor Faidherbe had been replaced by M. Pinet Laprade; and finally, as it happened, the treaty they brought back was never ratified by the Imperial Government." This expedition was the last of the series organized by

• ‘Voyage dans le Soudan Occidental, par Lieut. E. Mage; Paris, 1872. Lieut. Mage was lost in the wreck of the “Gorgone, outside Brest, on the 19th of December, 1869.


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General Faidherbe. After his departure from the colony a
season of inactivity ensued, which afforded, however, time for
French influence to become consolidated throughout those
districts where Faidherbe's numerous missions had procured
treaties of commerce and amity. Moreover the Franco-German
war, during which General Faidherbe's reputation as a wise
commander was thoroughly established, and the military and
financial disasters which accompanied the fall of the Empire,
prevented for many years any further expansion of the French
colonies in West Africa beyond their then limited frontiers.
The next advance inland was due to private enterprise. In
1878, M. Paul Soleillet succeeded in reaching Ségou, where he
found that Ahmadou had greatly profited by the prestige of his
treaty with the French, and had cleverly utilised it to increase
his borders about Ségou and Nioro. M. Soleillet was prevented
from penetrating into Macina, lower down the Niger, by the
jealousy of Ahmadou, who was unwilling that his rival Tidiani,
the sovereign of that country, should also enter into treaty with
the French.
At this period a recrudescence of colonial activity began to
replace the indifference which had hitherto prevailed in France
with regard to the Soudan. M. de Freycinet, then Minister of
Public Works, instituted a commission to study the question of
the best method of communication by railway between Algeria,
Senegal, and the Soudan. This commission was in favour of
a line to be constructed from the Senegal to the Niger, and the
Governor of Senegal, Colonel Brière de l'Isle, drew up a
programme whereby this line could be completed within six
years. The projected line was to be in three sections: the
first to connect Saint Louis with Dakar, which has now been in
working order for the last ten years; the second between Saint
Louis and Kayes, which has not yet been constructed, the
passage being made by water; and the third, from Kayes to
Bamakou, which has been finished as far as Bafoulabé, with
a narrow-gauge tramline to Dioulaba, a distance of 150 kilo-
metres. . The necessary credits for the surveys were duly
voted by Parliament, and MM. Jacquemart, Pietri, Monteii,
and Sorin were despatched to carry out the preliminary recon-
naissances and to obtain possession of the required country. A
more important mission, however, was confided to Captain
Gallieni-viz., that of surveying the route from the Senegal
to the Niger, and of obtaining from Ahmadou a concession of
his territories which extended directly across the track of the
projected Chemin-de-fer Sénégalo-nigérien.
The famatical Toucouleur chiefs urged Ahmadou to resist the
advance of the foreigners; but, after keeping the members of
the French mission in suspense for a period of ten months, the
successor of Omar, on learning that Colonel Borgnis Desbordes
had occupied the strategical points of Kita and Goubanko
(previously indicated by Faidherbe), in great alarm signed
with Captain Gallieni a convention, by which the French
obtained access to the Upper Niger, on the 21st of March,
Whilst Captain Gallieni was at Ségou, he heard of an
European traveller who had just left Timbuctoo and proceeded
by way of Nioro to Senegal. This was Dr. Oscar Lenz, who
had reached the Saharan capital in July 1880 by way of
Tendouf, Toudeyni, and Arrouan across the desert from
Morocco, and this explorer claimed to be the fifth European
who had ever been known to enter that famous trade-centre of
the Upper Niger.
Dr. Lenz found that Timbuctoo was not the only important
trade mart of these regions, as Europeans had been led to
suppose. Thus he visited Sokolo to the westward, a town
containing 10,000 inhabitants, and another place, Goumbou,
consisting of two towns, separated by a lake, which together
are larger and more populous than Timbuctoo, and where the
Arab inhabitants are not so intermixed with the black races of
Nigritia. From the date of Gallieni's mission the possession
of these large centres of the Saharan trade, the keys of the
Saharan desert, became the immediate objects of French mili-
tary projects in this direction.
At this time a warlike chief of Malinka origin, named
Samory, who had constituted a large realm around Bissan-
dougou, was attempting to extend his dominion westwards
and northwards across the Niger, and was thus repeatedly
bringing his armed bands of Bambara slaves, or “Sofas, into
collision with the troops under Colonel Borgnis Desbordes."
Though continually defeated, it was not till 1886 that the
Sofas made a treaty with their European enemies and ceased
for a time to constitute a danger to the French colony. This
treaty was readily recognized by the British, to whom Samory
had previously been making overtures for the protection of
Sierra Leone, with the native merchants of which colony his
delegates had established friendly relations.
lm May 1887 Lieut.-Colonel Gallieni obtained from Ahmadou
a treaty by which his states were also placed under the Pro-

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* “La France dans l'Afrique Occidentale,' par Colonel Borgnis Desbordes. Paris, 1884.



'iton * “Une Colonne dans le Soudan Français’ (1886–1887), par E. Gallieni, Lieut.-Colonel d'Infanterie de Marine. Paris, 1888. fled, * Diéna is on the Bani, or Mayel Ba'evel River, below Djenné. the

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tectorate of France.” Thanks to the peace which then temporarily
prevailed, the organization of the colony, now first named the
French Soudan, progressed tranquilly enough ; whilst the
French engineers were able to proceed with the construction of
the railway, and the village of Siguiri on the Upper Niger was
occupied as an advanced post. The gunboat “Niger, launched
at Bamakou in May 1884, had not hitherto been able to pass
beyond the ‘marigot' leading to Djenné. In 1887, however,
Lieut. Caron was able to penetrate this channel, and, continuing
down stream, arrived at Kabara, the port of Timbuctoo. During
this same interval of peace Captain Binger (now Governor of
the Ivory Coast) made his enterprising explorations south of the
Niger, and Captain Audéoud carried a military reconnaissance
across the plateaux of the Fouta-Djallon, a country which had
been explored fully by the Vicomte de Sanderval and his
agents, M.M. Gaboriaud and Ansaldi, between 1880 and 1885.
The newly-appointed military Commandant, Colonel Archi-
nard, on taking over the administration of the Soudan Français
at the end of 1888, finding that the Toucouleurs of Koundian
levied blackmail on all caravans passing the Bafing River,
proceeded to attack that stronghold. The place was taken by
assault after a stubborn resistance, and its fate prompted
Ahmadou's determination to join with Samory in making a
simultaneous attack upon the French posts along the Niger and
on the Upper Senegal.
On learning the intentions of these allies, Colonel Archinard
decided to take the initiative by striking directly at Ségou,
which was then defended by Madani, one of Ahmadou's brothers,
thereby cutting off Ahmadou at Nioro from co-operating with
Samory at Bissandougou. Ségou was taken on April 6, 1890,
its capture causing all the Bambara tribes in the neighbourhood
to give in their submission, and the administration was con-
fided to a Bambara chief, Bodian, who had long been an
adherent of the French, under the control of a French Resident,
who was supported by a strong escort. The anchorage of the
gunboat flotilla was at the same time transferred from Koulikoro
lower down the stream to Ségou. Continuing their victories,
Colonel Archinard's column captured stronghold after strong-
hold, and, after more fighting, the French troops entered
triumphantly into Nioro, the capital of the Kaarta, which the
Toucouleurs under Ahmadou had just evacuated, in January 1891.
A decisive action was next fought at Youri, whither Colonel
Archinard had pursued the fugitive Toucouleur chieftain, who
fled, almost alone, to take refuge in Macina; and the whole of
the Kaarta thus fell into the possession of the French.
While Colonel Archinard, however, was pursuing his vic-
torious progress in the neighbourhood of Nioro, the Baninko
tribes about Ségou rose against the administration of Bodian,
who happened to be away assisting an ally at some distance
from Ségou. On hearing of this rising, Colonel Archinard,
leaving garrisons in the Kaarta, hastened towards the Niger
and relieved Lieut. Hourst, whose gunboats and “laptots’ were
blockaded by the Baninko at Diéma.” The insurgents were
severely punished, and soon submitted to French authority; but
the sceptre was given to Mademba, under whom the kingdom
of Sansanding was re-established, as Bodian at Ségou was
incapable of governing this northern portion of his territory
from the right bank, where his capital was situated.
Meanwhile Samory had concluded, in February 1889, an
amended treaty, whereby all his possessions on the left bank of
the Niger were conceded to the French. But in less than
three months he sent back this instrument, refusing to ratify it,
although he was promptly given to understand that such a
proceeding would be resented by armed interference. Colonel
Archinard lost no time in negotiations, but, crossing the Niger,
at once occupied Kankan, a stronghold in the valley of the
Milo. Samory himself, in full retreat, was hotly pursued and
twice beaten, on April 8 and 9, 1891, and the campaign
resulted in the French occupation of Bissandougou, Samory's
o October 1891, Lieut.-Colonel Humbert succeeded Colonel
Archinard in command of the French Soudan. His first
arrangements were to push on the survey for a prolongation
of the railway line from Bafoulabé as far as Kita towards
the Niger; and next to organize a column for operations
during the cool season by advancing against Samory from
Kankan. After some obstinate fighting, he marched into
Bissandougou, and, closely following up Samory, pushed
further on into the country, in spite of the resistance which
he still experienced at various points on the road. But,
although much war material was captured or destroyed, and
Samory himself nearly, made prisoner, the results of the
campaign were not decisive. Everywhere Samory's troops still
overran the country, except within range of the posts held by
the French.
Nevertheless, the moral effect produced upon the Sofas by

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