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force may cause even the least clear-sighted to reflect; that democracy, “majeure et maitresse d’elle-même,’ may set itself to organize its victory, may itself open the door to some reforms: he thinks that the representation of interests may be regarded as ‘a desideratum of the future.'" Herr Schäffle more boldly declares, “A true popular Chamber (Volkskammer) is not to be found in a Chamber representing merely the majority told by heads.’t “The four essentials to a good representation of the people are completeness and proportion, independence and capacity’ (Ticktigkeit). And this, he argues at length, can be obtained only through “a combination of representation by universal suffrage with the representation of the communal and corporate articulation of the nation,’ that is, of the local and social interests and capacities of the whole body politic: ‘eine gliederungsmässige Territorial- und Berufs-Vertretung,” he elsewhere calls it. This idea is, of course, not new. Krause and Ahrens, Mohl and Bluntschli, among the Germans, have expounded it more or less fully; and M. Prins, one of the most eminent of Belgian publicists, has discussed it with much force in his remarkable work on “Democracy and Representative Government.” Proudhon, again, who excelled in appropriating the ideas of others and in clearly enunciating them, qualifies the merely mechanical system of universal suffrage now existing as “mystification’ and ‘tyranny,' and demands for every social and political element in the nation its proper influence. “La représentation nationale, he writes, “la ou elle existe comme condition politique, doit étre une fonction qui embrasse la totalité de la nation dans toutes ses catégories de personnes, de territoire, de fortunes, de facultés, de capacités et même de misère.’ $ We take these to be the words of truth and soberness, although they proceed from the pen of Proudhon. They indicate accurately the true remedy for that morbus democraticus of which the age is sick. How to give effect to it is a problem not of political philosophy, but of practical politics, which we seriously

commend to those who bear the name of statesmen.

* P. 238. It is one of M. Desjardins’ many pregnant, observations, “Ce qui fait le principal obstacle à l'établissement de la liberté politique dans les répubo modernes, c'est que la force du nombre y tend a tout remplacer” (p. 227). P. 147. - . 123. § ‘Théorie du Mouvement constitutionnel au dix-neuvième Siècle, p. 101.

ART.

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ART. XI.-1. Voyage au Soudan Français (Haut-Niger et Pays
de Ségou). 1879–1881. Par Le Commandant Gallieni.
Paris, 1885.
2. Campagne dans le Haut-Niger. 1885–1886. Par Colonel
Frey. Paris, 1888.
3. De Saint Louis au Port de Tombouktou. Voyage d'une Canon-
nière française. Par Lieut. E. Caron. Paris, 1891.
4. Les Explorations au Sénégal, et dans les Contrées voisines
depuis l’Antiquité jusqu'à nos Jours. Par J. Ancelle, Capi-
taine du génie. Paris, 1887.
5. Soudan Français—Kahel, Carnet de Voyage. Par Olivier de
Sanderval, Ingénieur. Paris, 1893.
6. La France et ses Colonies au XIX” Siècle. Par Ernest
Lalanne. Paris, 1893.
7. Le Sahara. These presentee & la Faculté des Lettres de Paris.
Par Henri Schirmer. Paris, 1893.

TH: remarkable expansion of French territory and the con-
sequent extension of French influence in Western and
North-Western Africa have hitherto aroused little interest in
Great Britain. The recent squabbles of the Niger Company,
together with the regrettable incident of Waima, so closely
followed by the naval operations at the mouth of the Gambia,
drew attention, for a brief period, in that direction. But even
the later occupation of Timbuctoo, accompanied as it was by
the tragic fate of Colonel Bonnier and his staff, failed to excite
more than a languid curiosity on this side of the Channel con-
cerning the advance of French arms along the course of the
Niger. It is, therefore, our object in the following pages to
trace the sequence of recent military operations which have
enabled France to establish herself throughout that wide extent

of country now recognized as “Le Soudan Français.'
The results of these operations within the last decade of years
have been to give France actual possession of “Le Soudan
Français,’ a territory which includes the whole extent of the
valleys and basins drained by the upper affluents of the Senegal
and of the Upper Niger. To the west the French Soudan is
bounded by the old colony of Senegal, the narrow wedge of the
Gambia (British), and the Portuguese Guinea coast; to the
south-west it is limited by Fouta-Djallon, Sierra Leone, and
Liberia. To the south it joins the French Ivory Coast, whilst the
French sphere extends in this direction beyond Ashanti to
Dahomey, likewise French. Timbuctoo marks the north-east
corner; and from this advanced position to Bakel on the
Senegal, the distance, as the crow flies, is over six hundred
miles,

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miles, whilst from Nioro in the Kaarta to the source of the
Niger on the frontier of Sierra Leone the distance is not less
than four hundred and thirty miles in a straight line. Towards
the east and north the delimitations of the French Soudan are
indefinable, but the French sphere of influence is recognized as
including the whole of the Western Sahara from Lake Tchad to
Cape Juby.
An outline of the development of French progress from the
banks of the Senegal to the Upper Niger may be briefly
sketched, in order that our readers may follow the successive
stages of the various expeditions by which whole provinces
bordering on the arterial communications of these two rivers
have been subjugated piecemeal and annexed wholesale by the
personal energy of a few French commanders, almost in despite
of the Mother State herself.
The Dieppois claim for their mariners the honour of having
first opened trade with the African ports beyond Cape Verde
as early as the fourteenth century (1364–65). But no French
commercial settlements were actually established on the coast
of Senegambia before the seventeenth century, when the little
island of Saint Louis was, in 1626, first occupied under the
patronage of Cardinal Richelieu. With the early vicissitudes
of this small colony, which was sustained by the merchants of
Bordeaux mainly for the purpose of traffic in slaves, we need
not here concern ourselves. It is sufficient to recollect that,
after falling into the hands of the British from 1758 to 1793,
this small islet was again taken by the English in 1808, and
held by them until it was restored to Louis XVIII. in 1815.
For nearly forty years afterwards the indifference of France
and frequent change of Governors paralysed all progress in
the colony. Each succeeding Commandant arrived wholly
ignorant of the conditions of his charge, and left as soon as he
had commenced to understand the true requirements of the
colonists. The position of the few resident Bordelais traders
during this period was humiliating in the extreme. Annual
tributes or ‘customs” had to be paid to the several native chiefs
at the few stations where trade was permitted on the banks of
the river Senegal, whilst the Trarza Moors on the north side of
that river plundered the passing vessels and carried their raids
up to the very outskirts of the town of St. Louis. At last,
about the time of the Crimean War, the merchants at Bordeaux
}. the Minister of Marine, M. Ducos (himself a
ordelais), to nominate a competent governor to rule the
colony for a longer term of years. Captain Faidherbe, an
officer of Engineers, who had already distinguished himself in
Algeria,

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Algeria, and who had seen colonial service both in Senegal
and Guadeloupe, was selected for the appointment, which he
held for something like ten years; and it is almost wholly due
to this officer's perseverance and energy that the colony of
Senegal has become as prosperous as it now is.
Commandant Faidherbe's first measures, after his arrival at
St. Louis, early in 1855, were to establish fortified posts at
intervals along the navigable waters of the Senegal, to protect
the traffic, and to ensure the safety of St. Louis and its environs.
At this period the tribes of the interior were excited against
the Europeans on the coast by a Toucouleur chief, El Hadj
Omar, who, at the head of several thousand “talibés” and
“sofas, horse and foot, had conquered Bambouk, and, after over-
running other provinces, flushed with success, was advancing
to attack the French outposts. The station highest up the
stream was Médine, then defended by a French officer (a half-
caste named . Paul Holl) and seven Europeans, with fifty
Sénégalais soldiers and ‘laptots.” For ninety-seven days did
Holl and his small garrison gallantly hold out against the
hordes of Toucouleurs, until Faidherbe himself was able to
come to their relief, forcing Omar to retire, and thus turning
the tide of the Toucouleur invasion, in August 1857.
When security had been restored to the neighbourhood of
the colony, Commandant Faidherbe turned his attention to
public works at head-quarters. Bridges, roads, telegraph lines,
quays, piers, barracks, warehouses, schools, a museum, a bank,
a post-office, and in fact public establishments of all kinds,
were constructed. Fine buildings, boulevards, and gardens
soon rendered Saint Louis by far the most attractive capital
in all West Africa. These works having been completed, or set
in progress, Governor Faidherbe next occupied himself with
extending the frontiers of the colony and opening up new
channels of traffic with the neighbouring countries. No bands
of marauding nomads were permitted to remain on the left or
southern bank of the Senegal, whilst block-houses efficiently
guarded the various fords and passages across that river, whose
upper waters were also patrolled by steamers. Treaties were
made with the Trarza Moors, the Braknas and Bambouk tribes,
In place of the humiliating ‘customs, payable at the “escales,'
or native fairs and periodical markets at the trading posts,
regular factories and marts of exchange were established at
Médine, Bakel, Matam, and elsewhere, under the protection
of forts held by colonial levies. It must be remembered that

* “Laptot’ is an old Sénégalais word which designates the black native boat. men employed on the river and coast. the

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