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Senate.]

Cumberland Road.

(Feb. 26, 1836.

be favored with his support. I expect a favorable deci. was, there were two funds: the nelt proceeds of lands sion of the Senate on a measure so important to the North. sold in the different States, one of three per cent. for Western States and Territories.

roads in the States, and one of two per cent. for roads Much has been said about different plans of making leading to them. That two per cent. fund has been roacis. Of the science of roall-making I do not profess exhausted one thousand times, and Government will to be a competent judge; but the national road is placed never be remunerated for the money which ivas been under the direction of an able and efficient officer of the laid out, and which was based upon that fund. There corps of United States engineers. He is capable to had been granted already four or five hundred thou. judge of the best method of construction, and is respon. sand dollars to each State, and to Ohio eight hundred sible for the faithful execution of the work. The road thousand dollars. We must have some feeling in the is progressing well under this valuable officer. He has matter, and not see the public treasure profusely lavish. bis subordinates, with hands and tools enough on the ed on the new States, to the injury of the old. Let us road to finish it through our State within three years. fix upon some equitable scheme, whereby the public A very large portion of the road is now ready to receive benefits shall be divided among the whole, and not thus the stone. Every one, however superficially acquainted unnaturally restricted to the few. Let the road be car. with road-making, knows that this is the most expensive ried on in moderation and reason, as it has been hereto. item of the work. And it will be economy of both time fore. As to this bridge being, as the Senator from Indiana and money to give us the full amount of bis estimates for says, absolutely necessary as a commercial thoroughfare, the operations of the present year.

it is not so. The rivers are the thoroughfares; it is up I hope the final action of the Senate will not be post. | or down these channels that our Western commerce is poned. Should you make the appropriation at an early wafted, and the extent of transportation lipon our roads day, the officer in charge will be able to make his is, therefore, but limited. As to the interruption of the arrangements to prosecule the work vigorously; but if mails, they have suffered a delay which has very much we put it off until the close of a long session of Congress inconvenienced the public, from the fact that there was before lie is advised what amount will be at his disposal, no bridge over the Ohio; and the accommodation to the the spring season for work, which will commence in people, if one was constructed there, would be in prothree or four weeks, will have passed away, and the portion to that inconvenience. Indeed, the whole tra. laborers now on the road will be forced to seek employ- ding, travelling, and emigrating population, would have ment elsewhere, and he will not be as well prepared to been greatly benefited by such a work. It is unpleas. prosecute the work at the beginning of the fall as he will lant, painful, in an inexpressible degree, to refuse this be on the 1st of April, if the appropriation should pass appropriation; but feelings of justice to myself and to in March. Gentlemen will see that it is vastly important the country compel me to vote against it. The benefits for us that they decide this matter speedily. If the conferred by this administration have been limited to road is to dragon slowly, under limited appropriations, one side of this great river, and we on the other feel ag say so. If to be abandoned, let us know it. We are if we were aliens to our common Government. In jus. now as well prepared as we expect to be at any future tice to my character and principles, when appropriations time, to abide the disastrous consequences to our new are asked for local purposes in States west of the Ohio, and rising country. The estimate to continue the work I must, unless they are asked for in moderation, give my in Ohio, this year, is $320,000. My colleagle has with vote against them. drawn his proposition to increase it. The estimate to Gentlemen are anxious to advance the interests of continue the road and for bridges, in Indiana, is $350,000; ' their particular States. It is natural that they should be for Illinois, $191,000; making the round sum of $861,000; so; and their efforts to effect their object redound to a little more than was paid into the treasury for lands their honor. But the road is not yet graduated. Why; sold by the United States within the State of Indiana in then, ask an appropriation for stone now? There will January last. This small item, I hope, will nol frigliten be time enough hereafter. The stone is not going away; our friends. We can as easily appropriate thousands it is rather an imperishable material, and will probably as hundreds, when we have enough and to spare. We i remain where it is. Besides, you should give the roads are anxious to obtain appropriations from your overflow time to settle, to acquire a character, su as to be capable ing treasury, sufficient to finish the road, and to surren of receiving the metal, as it is technically called. I der it to the States through which it passes, that ihey have the best authority for saying that there is one may keep it in repair, and stop any further drains from stretch of one hundred and fifiy miles on this road, the treasury for that object. Let those who use the road which cost from ten to sixteen thousand dollars a mile; contribute to its preservation in all time to come.

and that in one instance the stone has to be hauled a East of the Ohio river the road is completed, and distance of not less than ten miles. I could desire to given up to the States within which it lies, who have acquiesce in the demands of gentlemen; but things do erected roll-gaies upon it, and collect toll sufficient to not always go as we wish. Philosophy and resignation keep it in good repair. Gentlemen from the Southwest, are duties which we have been called on to exercise who have business at the seat of the national Govern. very often under this administration. Let the honorable ment. all ascend the Ohio river to Wheeling, and take Senator endeavor to practise them, and to ask in mod. the Cumberland road for the Eastern cities. There is eration what we only in moderation can grant. not a man in the nation, no matier how hoslile he may Mr. ROBINSON said, as a member of the committee have been or now is to internal improvement by the which hall reported this bill, he felt it his duty to state general Government, who, whilst comfortably seated in some facts, in relation to it, of which other members the stage, and viewing the fine bridges and magnificent were not, perhaps, fully in possession. The system, so scenery, as he glides swiftly and smoothly over the ma far as respects the mode of performing the work, had jestic Alleghanies, can feel otherwise than proud when been wholly changed about a year since; previously, the he reflects that he is a citizen of the United States, and work was done by letting it out by the job to the lowest that this work will for erer stand forth as an unfading | responsible bidders; now, hands and artisans are em. monument of the liberality, enterprise, and munificence, ployed by the day, by the superintendent, an officer of of his country.

the engineer corps. Mr. CLAY said, as to there being any obligation on 1 This last and present mode admitted of large expend. the part of the Government, growing out of a compact, itures advantageously. The amounts, as now in the bill, to continue this road, there was nothing in it. The fact I are based upon estimates from the War Department.

FEB. 26, 1836.j

Cumberland Road.

(SENATE.

The committee had had two sets of estimates: one show these causes, it was wholly impossible to employ the ing the smallest amount which ought to be appropriated necessary number of hands. These balances, he befor any thing like a successful prosecution of the work; lieved, were now exhausted, and perhaps more than the other, the maximum amount that could be advanta- exhausted. Should the latter be the case, and such it geously expended.

was in Ohio, the amendment, if adopted, would leave Passing over the admitted inportance and usefulness your officers in a very awkward situation. Be this as it of this road, it is a national work, one which it was may, as to any arrears yet due hands, under this amendagreed on all bands ought to be and would be comple. ment all further labor upon the ninety miles in Illinois is ted. It is now only to be determined-shall the work undoubtedly stopped, which certainly could not be deprogress as speedily as circumstances fairly authorize, signed by any one, much less the mover of the amend. or shall it be at a slower rate; and, if the latter, how ment, [Mr. Clay,] who tells us he is friendly to the slow?

road and its completion-a completion more slowly, to' The fact is indisputable, that a certain number of offi. be sure, than I think is advisable and in keeping with cers are necessarily to be kept employed, whether the

1 good policy. appropriation be the full or half the amount as now in Something has been said about the cost of this road the bill. To his mind, and so he thought it must strike per mile, and that stone has to be hauled ten miles. I every one, there could be no hesitancy as to the proper have seen (said Mr. R.) no estimate of the cost per mile course. If an individual was compelled to keep in his for the entire completion of that part in Illinois, nor am employ a certain number of overseers until a given piece I advised any has been made. This, however, I will of work was completed, and, by biring as many hands venture to assert, that it can be made as cheap as any as his overseers could advantageously find employment ninety miles of the same kind of road in any part of the for, the work could be finished in one year, would he

known world. The country is level, and abundant in not be a very bad economist, having, too, the means at material of every kind necessary for its construction. hand, to hire laborers so sparingly as to keep the over Stone, it is true, has, at some places, to be hauled conseers ten years doing what could have been done in one? siderable distances, and in one instance as far as thirteen The same course which would be adopted by an indi- miles. The bottom at Vandalia, it is admitted, will be vidual in the case just put, should, by the Government, costly, for there the road has to be raised several feet be observed in the present case. The minimum estis for the distance of about two miles, and this is the only mates have been taken, not the maximum; and unless ) place of extraordinary cost. Many bridges will have to these amounts be appropriated, the work, instead of be constructed, but not more, if so many, as are found going on prosperously, will languish, and in many in. | necessary in every country; and none of them are of a stances, in its unfinished state, suffer much injury. It very costly character, for the streams are narrow. has been said the road passes through a sparsely popu. Mr. EWING said he did not at all deny that the two lated country, particularly that part of it which'is' in / per cent. fund due to Ohio, or which would ever be. Illinois, and hence the road is not much called for. come due to her for the sale of lands in her territory, True, the population is not as dense as the country was long since exhausted, long, indeed, before the road would admit and invites. Here Mr. R. gave a statement which bad its origin from that fund had reached the of the average size of the several counties through Ohio river at Wheeling; and gentlemen were wrong in which the road passed, from where it first entered illi. saying that those who advocated the extension of this nois to Vandalia, the seat of Government, and the re. | road held out to Congress the vain pretence that the spective population of each; which, he trusted, showed | money to be expended on that road would be reimbursed a population not so very sparse, and, as he thought, not out of that fund. I remember well, (said Mr. E.,) when very far short of the average population of a large por- the first appropriation for this road west of the Ohio tion of the Western country. But it is objected that it river was under discussion, that one of its principal will never be one of very great commerce. Admit it will advocates from Ohio (General Beecher) declared on the never be one upon which wagons will pass a great distance floor of Congress that the fund, so far as it respected at a time for the purpose of taking produce to market, yet Ohio, had then been exhausted, and that reimbursement for that purpose it would be much used in the neighbor- in that way was out of the question; and he rested the hoods of towns and navigable rivers. East they will find a claim of the West on other grounds, the same, in the market for a very large portion of their surplus stock. Al main, as those on which we now place it. ready that trade bad commenced, and upon this road But though Ohio contributed, and largely too, to the much of it would be driven. As to travelling upon it, construction of the road from Cumberland to Wheeling, he had only to say it would be used, as all other roads it is not, in my opinion, just that the road, so far as her generally are by the people of the country, in passing funds did not make it, should be charged to her account, from one neighborhood to another, from one county to or as a boon granted to her and to the States northwest another, and from one State to another. It was certain. of the river, by the United States. Especially it seems to ly true, as has been stated, that any one wishing to come me that this charge should not be made against them by here, or east of the mountains, from where this road the gentlemen from Kentucky. The road from Wheel. will cross the Mississippi, would most probably make ing to Cumberland is as much the road of Kentucky, the trip by water, if steamboats were running; which, Tennessee, and all the country upon the Mississippi and by the by, was not by any means always the case. Mr. its waters, as it is of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. From R. hoped the motion to reduce the sums now in the bill whatever quarter of the great West we come, we meet to the amounts appropriated last year would not be sus- at Wheeling, and this is our common highway. And tained by the Senate. If it was, that ninety miles of from whatever portion of the Atlantic seaboard the the road in Illinois which is in a very handsome state of traveller or the emigrant sets out for the West, this is progress would be left without a single dollar for the his most direct and convenient route. It is, therefore, prosecution of the work, because, for that part, there a road for the benefit of the nation, constructed in part was no appropriation whatever last year; and the reason out of the public funds, and in part out of a fund created was this: there was an excess of previous appropriations by compact with Obio on her admission into the Union. upon hand, supposed to be enough, and was enough, | It does not lie, one inch of it, in the territory of Ohio. for the year 1835. This excess was owing to the de. She has no more interest in it than one half the Union rangement of labor by the Indian war of 1832, the chol. besides, and it is very unjust to her to charge as a dona era, and other sickness the two succeeding years. From I tion or gratuity to her the excess expended upon that

Vol. XII. -40

SENATE.]

Cumberland Road.

(Feb. 26, 1836.

road beyond the amount which was applied by virtue of | There have been given to Indiana, and is proposed to her compact.

| be given her by the bill to which I have referred, 500,000 But the Senator from Kentucky before me [Mr. CRIT- | acres of land, worth $625,000, while the receipts from TENDEN) has said that this two per cent. fund, out of the lands in that State bave amounted to about $9,500,000, which the road was in part constructed, was itself a gra making her deficit, on this principle, $325,000. The tuity, a gift by the general Government to the new accounts of the other States would not, it is true, balStates, a kind of outfit given by the common parent to ance so well on this principle, if we take into view the them, the younger members of the national family. grant proposed to them in the land bill; but if any The honorable Senator is mistaken; we paid for it with thing more than exact justice were done them, it would a price, and it was a dear purchase. The consideration at least be well-placed generosity. given for it seems to be misunderstood by many. The This road, on which the present appropriation is proSenator from Kentucky seems to suppose that it was on posed, has, I have no doubt, had much effect in increase condition that the new States would not tax the United ing the sales of public lands in the new States through States lands, which they had, in fact, no right to tax. which it passes. Those sales, which produced a sum Not so. It was in consideration that they would not tax last year unexampled in amount, still go on increasing; those lands for five years after they became the prop and if the sales during the whole of the year 1836 bear erty of individuals; thus depriving the State of a source the same proportion to those of 1835, as those of the of revenue wbich, according to the rates of taxation for month of January in those years bear to each other, the State, county, and road purposes, would have very | whole sales will not fall much short of $30,000,000. much exceeded that five per cent., and holding out induce-1 From present appearances, I esteem it safe to estimate ments to individuals to buy the land of the United States, the reeeipts for lands in 1836, at $20,000,000. The partly because of this exemption from taxation. So sum asked for an appropriation to this road is trifling, much with regard to the road from Cumberland to compared with the amount which is in the treasury, and Wheeling, which is constantly paraded here in every ac which is flowing in from those two bounteous sourcescount current between the United States and Obio, the public lands and the customs. The report of the whenever it is the wish of gentlemen to impress her rep. Secretary of the Treasury, received a few days ago, resentatives here with a due sense of her special obli shows that the amount in the treasury is but a trifle gations to the general Government. Those obligations short of $28,000,000, and the accruing receipts from are, indeed, many and deep, and none can be more the customs for the present year will more than supply ready than I to acknowledge them, but I cannot consent all that can be expended under any appropriations that ibis should hold the rank which gentlemen are dis which we can judiciously make. This bill, therefore, posed to give it among the number.

or any other appropriation bills, which are not the very And now, as I am upon this subject, I cannot forbear wildness of extravagance, does not, and cannot, militale to say a word in reply to the gentleman from Kentucky successfully against the land bill that measure of justice near me, (Mr. Clay,] as to the general matter of dona to all the States which the Senator from Kentucky still tions to the new States, which he has been among the so fondly cherishes, and in which I assure him that he foremost and the most liberal in granting, but which he shall have all the aid which it is possible for me to give seems to think have gone further than justice to the old bim. Indeed, anxious as I am for the passage of this States would warrant. In this, it seems to me, he is in bill, I deem it of small importance to my own State, error, according to the principles avowed by himself, when compared with that; but, as neither can affect the and on which, I presume, he will continue to act. other injuriousiy, I still hope for the aid of all who are

He admits, and I believe all admit, that the new States friendly to the general object, in the passage of both. are entitled to some consideration in consequence of the Mr. CLAY said he was desirous to get a little aid in location of a large amount of public lands within their this work of economy. He would like to know if there borders, which is rendered more saleable, and conse had been any estimate of the cost of this road from the quently more valuable, by the improvements made in Wabash to the Mississippi. He was informed that the their vicinity by the State and by the people. If pub- stone had to be hauled from a distance of twenty-five lic improvements be made by funds raised from a tax on miles, and that the graduation had cost $7,000 a mile. land, the United States, as a great landholder, although The Maysville road, extending some forty or fifty miles, not taxable, ought in justice to contribute something did not cost above $6,000. It had been said that this with the other landholders, to raise the general value of | road was convenient for driving stock. He touches me the common property. The increased sales in the old (said Mr. C.) when he makes this statement, and comdistricts in Ohio show how the public lands rise in value / pels me to say that a Macadamized road is the worst posby reason of these improvements. If the United Statessible road for stock. What has happened to myself? I should contribute something, the next question is, how | had to transport my bull Orizimbo from Lexington to much? This the Senator from Kentucky has settled ac- , Maysville. I could not risk the destruction of his feet cording to his own judgment, in the land bill introduced by putting him on a stone road, and I had to bring him by himself, and which he has heretofore pressed, and I l in a wagon. His friend from Ohio (Mr. EWING] would trust will again press, with bis wonted zeal and ability. I make the best auditor in the world; nay, all the other In that he gives to the new States ten per cent. of the l auditors together would not equal him. lle, from the proceeds of all the lands sold within their limits. Ta- | slightest data imaginable, can make out a balance in king this to be the just rule, and I think it is, we may | favor of his own State. The land bill, on which he say with confidence, that what is just now has been so I places his calculations has not yet passed; and, if it heretofore; and the States ought to have, or to have I had, all the rest of the suffering States would par. had, the same ten per cent. upon all the sales heretofore ticipate in its benefits. The gentleman had said that a made. There have been paid into the treasury, of the 1 single advantage in the transportation of men and muni proceeds of the sales of lands in Ohio, of cash and tions, in some exigency of war, would be sufficient to stocks, a little more than $19,000,000, of which, on that remunerate the Government for all that the road would principle, she ought to have received $1,900,000; while cost. Give bim but an “if" to stand upon, and, like the whole value of the lands given to her, and on con Archimedes, he can move the world. If this was to ditions, too, very important to the United States, is, at | facilitate the driving of stock, he would tell the gentlethe minimum price, $1,153,671; less, by upwards of man that it was better to drive stock over the prairie $700,000 than what she is entitled to on this principle, I than over a stone road. The cost of transporting the

FEB. 26, 1836.]

Cumberland Road.

[SENATE.

stone was a serious matter. He could not consent to true, as has been stated, that no bridge was built over vote for such large appropriations at once, as they could / the Muskingum at Zanesville. Here the Government not be disbursed economically and advantageously. He found a bridge in the hands of a company. It was wished to know from the department the probable cost adopted for the road, and for aught he knew this might of the road. Gentlemen say they have practical engi. | be the case elsewhere, though he recollected no other neers concerned. He was glad of it; and he would sug- such case. At Indianapolis a bridge had been built over gest that the laborers should be proportioned to the offi- , White river. This, although the engineer had, in the cers, and the officers !o the laborers. If there was more | location of the road, made estimates for, yet the departlabor employed than was necessary, he would lessen it, ment would not proceed in its construction without an and employ only a due proportion of officers. It was expression in the appropriation law respecting it, similar not necessary to keep extra labor employed. The ob- to that contained in this bill for the bridge over the ject of his motion was to restrain Indiana and Obio with Wabash. The law passed containing this direction, and in the limits of last year's expenditure, and to confine the bridge had been built. This proposition, said Mr. that in Illinois to graduation alone. The road in that | H., for a bridge across the Wabash, had been called a State was not yet located. There were the rival claims new proposition. But this was not the fact. It would of Alton and St. Louis to be settled before any location be recollected that, on a previous occasion, this same would be made. In consequence of the conformation of proposition had been inserted by the Committee on the country, there need not be any great expense in. Roads and Canals of the Senate, in a Cumberland road curred. It was an elongated plane from Columbus to appropriation bill. Objections were then made, elsethe Mississippi. The cost would not be in the gradua- where, not here, on the suggestion that this bridge tion of the road, but in the transportation of the stone would or might injure the navigation of the river. This for its construction, as it would have to be brought from fear prevailed, and the clause was stricken out of the a considerable distance. If gentlemen were not satisfied bill. Since then the Senate have directed, by resoluto have the same appropriation as last year, he hoped tion, that the United States engineer superintending the the bill would be laid on the table, until an estimate of road should examine and report on that subject; and the cost could be obtained.

the report is, that a bridge, such as is recommended, will Mr. HENDRICKS remarked that it had so often been not in any degree injure the navigation. The fact of his duty, from the position he occupied in relation to previous objections having existed to this bridge makes the business of the Senate, to present the claims of this it the more necessary now that the bill should direct the road, and the claims of the Northwestern States in con- | construction. nexion with it, that it had become irksome and un- Other objections have been made to this bill. It is pleasant to him to make any further remarks on the said that, while large sums of money have for the last subject; but that duty, as well as the expectations of the ten years been expended on this road through the NorthSenate, seemed to require him to make a statement on western States, the other side of the river is left destitute. the present occasion, which should be as brief as possible. It is said that the southern side of the valley of the Ohio,

He would endeavor to answer some of the objections | Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, and other portions of of the Senator from Kentucky; and, in the first place, the great Southwest, are, in point of commerce and imthat to the Wabash bridge, contemplated by the bill. portance, as ten to one in comparison with the States The Senator from Kentucky supposes that it has never north of the Ohio river, and that no appropriations for been the intention of the Government to construct a similar work can be obtained from the federal Governbridges over rivers of this magnitude, and mentions ment on the south side of that river. Mr. H. said that the fact that the Monongahela river at Brownsville, he was unable to perceive by what premises the conPennsylvania, and the Ohio river at Wheeling, had not clusion of ten to one in favor of the south side of the been bridged, although the necessity for bridging these river had been arrived at. He had arrived at a conclustreams was much greater than that of bridging the sion very different. He undertook to say that, from the Wabash. But a simple fact seemed to have escaped his eastern line of the State of Ohio to the Mississippi river, recollection, which would no doubt explain to bim the the States on the north side of the Ohio river would reason why those rivers, and especially the Morongalela, compare with the southern side of equal geographical had not been bridged, and convince him of the fact extent, much more favorably than ten to one. He that it had always been the intention of the Government believed that the population was, at the present moment, to bridge all other streams between Cumberland and the very nearly, if not quite, equal on the north side to that Mississippi. The proprieiy of bridging the Ohio river on the south; and it was hazarding little to say that, in at Wheeling bas, on account of its navigation, always a short time, it would be double. But is tbere, said been questioned. In relation to the Monongahela and Mr. II., no consideration on the north side inducing apOhio rivers, no law ever existed authorizing them to be propriations, which does not exist on the south? Is the bridged. In all other cases on the road, bridging has six millions and a half of dollars, which, during the year been authorized by law. lle referred to the appropria. 1835, has been paid into the treasury of the United tion

which at one time directed the Cumberland States, through the medium of the land offices in the road to be constructed to the Monongahela river, at four Northwestern States, nothing? Is the consideration Brownsville. The appropriation afterwards made for that not one dollar has been paid into the treasury by the road from that river to Wheeling directed the con- the southern section of the country referred to, nothing? struction to commence on the western bank of the river; | The States south of the river, to the western boundary and its width, the bed of the river, was left unprovided of Tennessee, own the lands within their limits. North for. So was it in Ohio. When Congress authorized of the river the whole of the public domain is owned by the construction of the road westwardly of Wheeling, the United States, unshackled by taxation. Is this the law directed the work to commence on the western nothing? Is there not equitable obligation on the owners bank of the Ohio river, leaving out the width and bed of the soil to aid in the construction of public roads in of the river. For bridging these rivers tbere never was every country? And is there any other country in which any provision made by law. No estimates of engineers. this obligation is not enforced by law? None, said Mr. Further west this was not the case. For bridging all | H., that I know of, or ever heard of. The lands of this the streams between the Ohio and the Mississippi rivers, Government in the hands of the new States are not taxed on that road, there are estimates, and the streams are for roads or any other purpose; and while these States included in the measurement of distances. It is no doubt are expending millions in roads and canals, and increas

SENATE.]

Cumberland Road.

(FEB. 26, 1836.

ing the value of adjacent public lands as five to one, or ) and fertility than any other road of the United States. ten to one, we, the representatives of those States, are The emigration to the northern portion of those States continually hearing murmurs and regrets that the foster. | has bad facilities of water transportation as well as ing hand of this Government is, in the dispensing of its that to the southern portion of them; but this central favors, leading the new States in the path of unparalleled and by far the most fertile region of these States has prosperity; lavishing millions upon them, whilst many of | been chiefly indebted to this road for its first settlement, the old States are wholly destitute of its benefits and as well as for its subsequent prosperity and improve. favors. Is the prosperity of the new States so mysteri-ment. And, sir, if an account bad been or could be ous that it can be accounted for in no other way than opened between this road and the federal Government, in the gifts and grants and two per cents. of the federal / giving it credit, as it is fairly entitled to, for a large share Government? They are blind, or poorly informed, who of the present prosperous condition of the country, as cannot see other causes for the prosperity of the new well as for the millions rolled into the treasury by it, States of the Northwest than the benefits derived from how far on the back ground would be placed the small this Government. Sir, said Mr. H., the great prosperity and inconsiderable sums which you have appropriated of the Northwest may be traced to various causes. The for its construction? But the sums which were at first population that have emigrated to those States are the injudiciously expended on this road upon the mountains bone and sinew of the old States. They possess more and east of Wheeling, as well as the sumis which have energy, enterprise, and industry, than the men left be | more recently been expended on the same eastern road hind them. They are generally men early in life, who for repairs, made necessary by your refusal to put tollgo to the new States for the purpose of bettering their gates upon it, or to transfer it to the States, have also condition, and who, being well aware that, in entering been mentioned as fairly chargeable against the road, upon an untried scene, great exertions will be necessary, and the fund set apart for making it. Well, sir, take are prepared 10 make these exertions. For the pros- this all into the service against this road, and still the perity of the West we are also indebted to the great | amount will be a pitiful sum, compared with its great fertility of our soil; the navigation of our majestic rivers; advantages to the Northwestern States and to the treasthe salubrity of our climate; the susceptibility of our ury of the Union. country for works of internal improvement, as well as But is it fair (said Mr. H.) to charge all the sums exthe enterprise of our people in making them; the pro pended upon this road, east of the Ohio, against the ductiveness of the country in all the necessaries of life, fund, and against the States which ask that this road be being, perhaps, as fine a grain-growing country as is on | made to the Mississippi? Surely not; for this road, east the face of the globe. These, sir, are the causes of the of Wheeling, has been more valuable to Kentucky, great prosperity of our country. It is said that this Tennessee, and Western Virginia, than it bas been to Government has raised that country up! Rather might the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois; because more it be said that this Government could not have kept it I people have been profited by it from the south side of down. It would have grown and prospered, to a much / the Ohio river than from the north side of it. And it is less extent, indeed, under the most grinding despotism | bazarding very little to say that, but for the accommodathat ever a people endured. Is it said that the cam- / tion of Kentucky, which has used the road, agreeably to paigns of Harmar, St. Clair, and Wayne, repelled the I the language of the Senator from that State, as ten is to savages and opened the country for settlement? This is one in comparison of the people of the other side of the true, in a certain degree, but it might, with almost equal river, the road would not have been commenced or fincertainty, be affirmed that the armies of Harmar, St. ished to Wheeling as soon as it was. Is it fair, then, to Clair, and Wayne, bad they been combined with the charge all this upon the two per cent. fund, undertaken savages for that purpose, could not wholly bave prevent. | as it was chiefly for the benefit of others, who have to ed the seltlement of that country. Such a country on this day enjoyed most of its benefits? By the compact, our borders could not have been withheld from such a however, you were only authorized to expend the fund people as that of the United States, inured to war as of Ohio east of the river; and if you expended more, they were, and just having emerged from the conflicts you cannot fairly charge it upon the road funds of the of a glorious revolution.

States further west. You are bound, with the fund ac. The importance of this road, Mr. President, it seems cruing from the land sales in Indiana, to make a road or to me, has been greatly undervalued. It is said not to roads to that State; and you are bound, in like manner, be a commercial road, because it runs parallel with the l with the Illinois road fund, to make a road to that State. river Ohio, which flvats the whole commerce of the | The Indiana fund is to be expended in Ohio, and the country. This not a commercial road! And what, Mr. Illinois fund is to be expended in Indiana. President, is a commercial road? It is true that it is not Frequently bas it been remarked that the two per a highway of foreign commerce; but, for all the pur. | cent. fund is wholly exhausted. I adinit, sir, (said Mr. poses of domestic commerce, it is certainly more H.,) that the fund accrued is more than exhausted; but emphatically a commercial road than any other of like the fund accruing is not. I have not entered into any extent west of the mountains. It is the principal tho. | minute calculation in this matter, but a paper has been roughfare of emigration from the Eastern States to the put into my band, based on a calculation of the whole central parts of the three Northwestern States. Former: two per cent. fund to arise from all the public lands in ly the Ohio river was almost the only line of approach the parallel of latitude of this road, and including a terfor the stream of population continually pouring in upon ritory west of the Missouri about as large as it is prothat country from the Atlantic States. The country | posed to make the Territory of Wisconsin. The aggrebordering on the Ohio river was in this way first brought I gate is about seven millions and a half of dollars. This, into market, sold, and settled; but for the central region it will be admitted, would go far towards making a good of those States, for a wide belt of country extending road to the base of the Rocky Mountains, should that from the eastern boundary of the State of Ohio to the ever be the pleasure of Congress. Mississippi river, it is almost exclusively the channel of 1 The Senator from Kentucky (said Mr. H.) has comemigration and of commerce. It is the great stem, as plained of the largeness of the appropriation asked for by the Senator from South Carolina has denominated the the bill, and has proposed its reduction to the sums apCharleston and Cincinnati railroad, with which almost propriated last year. But he would mention a fact, that every important road of the Northwest is united. It has the amounts appropriated last year were added to large been the means of settling a country of greater extent balances of appropriations for the previous year remain

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