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FEB. 24, 25, 1836.]

Post Rouds in Florida-Fortification Bill.

(SENATE,

I conclude (said Mr. B.) will remarking that the

FORTIFICATION BILL. present period is to be an era in the history of our

The Senate proceeded to the consideration of the country. It is a period from which there must be a new

fortification bill. movement forward, or a sad retrogression. It is a point,

Mr. BENTON read a schedule of the various forts in upon which posterity will look back for ages, and for

existence, in process of construction, and proposed to centuries, to applaud the wisdom or to deplore the

be constructed, as an appendix to his remarks of yes. weakness of the national councils. The Navy and the

terday. War Departments will report soon, and will develop

Mr. PRESTON then made some observations at all the points of national and permanent defence which

length on the subject of the bill. the extent of our country demands and the destiny of

Before Mr. PRESTON had concluded, he was induced the republic requires. President Jackson has given us

to give way for the purpose of going into executive his earnest, his zealous, bis reiterated recommendations; , business. all depends now upon the legislative department, and

After a few words from Mr. BENTON, in correction upon the decision of the question, whether the public

of an error, money shall go to the public defence, or shall be lavish

On motion of Mr. EWING, ed and squandered in unconstitutional and demoralizing | The Senate adjourned. distributions among the States. When Mr. Benton had concluded,

Thursday, FEBRUARY 25. Mr. PRESTON gave notice that he should to-morrow move to amend the clause in the bill making appropria. 1. CAREY & LEA'S HISTORY OF CONGRESS. tion for steam batteries, by striking out $660,000, and Mr. ROBBINS, from the Committee on the Library, inserting $100,000 for the experiment. He would also reported a joint resolution authorizing a subscription to move to strike out all the fortifications of the third class, Carey, Lea, & Co's History of Congress. and all for which no surveys or estimates have been made. The resolution having been read a first time, and the On motion of Mr. PRESTON,

question being on a second reading, The Senate adjourned.

Mr. BENTON opposed it, and asked if this was not

the press of that Carey, Lea, & Co. who bad figered so WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 24.

largely in the expenditures of the bank, and if this was POST ROADS IN FLORIDA.

not a work got up for bank purposes. He would like Mr. GRUNDY, from the Committee on the Post Of.

| to see the book exhibited in the Senate, that they might fice and Post Roads, reported a joint resolution referred

see it. 10 it, authorizing the establishment of certain post roads

Mr. HILL called for the ayes and noes.

1 Mr. BENTON. I move to lay the resolution on the in Florida and Arkansas, with amendments; which were

table until the book shall have been exhibited to us. read.

Mr. PORTER said he did not know that a useful On motion of Mr. GRUNDY, the Senate proceeded

work was to be rejected because it was printed by a to consider the resolution. Mr. GRUNDY stated that its object was to establish

particular individual. For his own part, he had never

inquired by whom it was published. But he thought a communication between our military posts and the In

it perfectly proper that the work should be seen, and dians. Mr. CLAY inquired if there was any precedent for

he would not oppose the motion to lay on the table.

Mr. ROBBINS. Agreed. establishing post roads by a joint resolution, and that

The resolution was then laid on the table. resolution not absolutely specifying what roads should be made, but leaving it at the discretion of the Post

FORTIFICATION ON LAKE CHAMPLAIN. master General. The usual practice had been for Con. The resolution submitted by Mr. SWIFT, directing gress to specify in a bill the roads which were to be the Secretary of War to cause a survey to be made of & made.

site for a fortification on Lake Champlain, was conMr. GRUNDY replied that there had been instances sidered. of the establishment of post roads by joint resolution. Mr. PRESTON thought this resolution ought to be As to the second branch of the inquiry of the Senator referred to one of the committees. It necessarily infrom Kentucky, he would say, that if he bad draughted | volved the expenditure of a considerable sum of money. the resolution he would have made the language abso. He would therefore move tbat it be referred to the lute; but as he had found that it was left to the discre. ! Committee on Military Affairs. tion of the Postmaster General, he had suffered it to re. Mr. SWIFT said that, at a former period, this survey main so. He was willing, however, to amend the reso- / had been ordered, and for want of being able to prolution by striking out the words which provided that cure a competent engineer to make the survey at the the Postmaster General was to exercise a discretion in time, it had necessarily been delayed. He had, how. the matter. He concluded with moving the amendo ever, no objection to the reference. ment; which was agreed to.

The resolution was then referred to the Committee The other amendments were agreed to, and the joint on Military Affairs. resolution was ordered to its third reading.

FORTIFICATION BILL.
MAJOR DADE.

The Senate resumed the consideration of the fortifi.
On motion of Mr. TOMLINSON, the Committee on cation bill, when
Pensions was discharged from the further consideration Mr. PRESTON concluded the remarks commenced
of the petition of the widow and children of Major by him yesterday, by moving to amend the bill by stri-
Dade, and it was referred to the Committee on Military king out the clause appropriating for the fortification at
Affairs.

Kennebeck. Mr. TOMLINSON stated that the Committee on Pen- / Mr. CLAY suggested the propriety of laying the bill sions did not wish to make any extension of the pension on the table, and having the various tables printed system, but, under the circumstances of this case, Ma- | which had been referred to by gentlemen, before the jor Dade having been killed in Florida, the Military details of the bill were decided on. As the works emCommittee might probably propose some allowance in braced in this bill were all new ones, there was no imthe form of extra pay.

mediate baste necessary in acting on this bill. The

SENATE.]

Cumberland Road.

(Feb. 26, 1836.

wisest course would be to make appropriation promptly upon any such principle, nor be influenced by any such for the old works not provided for last session, and to feeling. He was willing to carry on this work to the take time for a full examination of the various subjects Mississippi; but not beyond it; and when asked for of appropriation in this bill.

enormous appropriations and for new bridges, he felt it Mr. PRESTON expressed his acquiescence in the his duty to hesitate. He trusted gentlemen would limit force of the remark.

their demands, and consent to have this appropriation Jir. BENTON said that he had returned one of the stricken out. tables he had cited to the engineer from whom he ob. Mr. TIPTON said that he would not have troubled tained it. It might be had by noon to-morrow. The the Senate with a single remark upon the bill winder other tables were before him, and the printing could consideration, had he not found opposition to the meas. not occupy so much time as to delay the bill.

ure from a quarter quite new and unexpected to him; Mr. CLAY said he did not wish to make the motion if one which, he had no doubt, would equally surprise his any Senator was desirous to make remarks. He had constituents, and for which they were entirely unprebeen induced to make the suggestion because he

pared. thought the Chair was on the point of rising to put the The Senator from Kentucky, (Mr. CLAY,) who had question on the motion to amend.

moved to reduce the appropriation to the amount apMr. SHEPLEY then addressed some observations at I plied on the road last year, is surely not seriously oplength on the defenceless condition of the Northeast posed to the continuation of this great work, after hav. frontier.

ing supported it with such signal ability for thirty years. Mr. WEBSTER moved to postpone the further con I cannot believe that he desires its abandonment, but sideration of the bill till Monday, but withdrew his mo that lie moves to reduce the sum proposed in the bill, tion.

that the road may be a longer time in the progress of Mr. BENTON moved to lay the bill on the table, with its construction. He wants to be six years in doing what a view to call it up on Monday.

I propose to do in three. Something has been said Mr. EWING said he should endeavor to call up the about the number of hands that we can economically land bill on that day.

employ on the work, and doubts have been expressMr. BUCHANAN said he should ask the Senate, as ed whether a sufficient number can be obtained to soon as he could get an opportunity, to take up the me complete it within the period proposed. We are now morial on the abolition of slavery.

engaged in the construction of but two public works Mr. CALHOUN said he neither wished to accelerate within the State of Indiana, viz: the Wabash and Erie or retard the decision on that question.

canal and the Cumberland road. Contractors have The fortification bill was then laid on the table, and | come from public works already completed in New the papers were ordered to be printed.

York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, and have generally On motion of Mr. BUCHANAN, the Senate proceed. | brought with them laborers and tools sufficient to go on ed, with closed doors, to consider executive business; | vigorously with these works. They will remain until after which,

they are finished, if the money necessary to continue The Senate

them is appropriated; but if you cut down and limit the

appropriation, you postpone the completion of the road, Friday, FEBRUARY 26.

and you double the expense. CUMBERLAND ROAD.

The State of Indiana has recently appropriated ten

millions of dollars for internal improvements, and has The bill for the continuation of the Cumberland road

organized a board of public works to conduct them. in the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, was ta. The construction of two canals, two railroads, and one ken up.

Macadamized turnpike road, has been authorized, and [This bill, as reported, proposes to appropriate the board will meet in a few days to determine upon $320,000, to be expended on the part of the road in their plan of operations for the year. If you make Ohin, $350,000 in Indiana, and $190,000 in Illinois ) la liberal appropriation for the national road, it is proba

Mr. HENDRICKS withdrew a motion which he had ble that the state will not commerce any of her works marle when the bill was last under consideration, to add this year, as it may be possible that the two works al$20,000 to the appropriation for Indiana.

ready in progress will employ all the laborers that can Mr. CLAY objected to the appropriation of $100,000 be obtained; but if you reduce the appropriation as for a brige across the Wabash. There was no bridge proposed by the motion of the honorable Senator, there over the Ohio or the Muskingum; though, in extent of will not be funds sufficient to employ all the hands now utility, a bridge over either would be far preferable to on the spot. They will consequently seek employment the one proposed. His sentiments towards the Cumber. on the State works in contemplation, and when their land road were the same as ever; he felt some difficulty, I services are required upon the road, the price of labor however, in the question before the Senate; for here will have been enhanced, and you will thus not only were gentlemen asking an appropriation for an object , procrastinate the completion of the road, but will male. which was to benefit the people of their own States, rially increase the cost of its construction. when the whole system of internal improvements had No good reason has been assigned for reducing the been suspended by an administration brought into power sum proposed in the bill. It is admitted on all hands by their co-operation, and sustained by their support that there is money in the treasury, and will be. The

The two States of Kentucky and Tennessee had re: Senator froin Ohio (Mr. Ewing has slow', most clearly ceived less benefit from the expenditure of the public to my mind, that we may pass ihis bill, the fortification moneys than any of the others; yet, when it was pro- / bill, The fivorite land bill of the Senator from Ken. posed to extend the Cumberland road to Nashville, tucky, ani? still have a large surplus in the treasury at Maysville, and Lexington, that important measure was the beginning of the year 1837. rejected, vetoeil, by this administration, supported as it When this bill was before the Senate some days ago, is by Senators who now ask exclusively for themselves the honorable Senator from South Carolina (Mr. Cal. those benefits which they have denied to us.

HOUN) moved to lay it on the table, and I understood Were he to listen to a spirit of resentment, he should him to say that his object was to prevent heavy drafts vote nothing, except in cases where the whole Union being made upon the treasury, until he was informed was to be advantaged. He would not, however, act I whether we were to have peace or war. He was kind

Feb. 26, 1836.]

Cumberland Road.

(SENATE

enough to withdraw his motion, at my request, (fortion of this road is in compliance with these compacts, thus which I thank him,) to give the friends of the bill an entered into with the new States, I might say with the opportunity to explain and defend it. I am lappy now, whole West, which will ere long embrace more than sir, (said Mr. T.,) to have it in my power to say that the one half of this Union. Upon the admission of these favorable change in our foreign relations justifies me in Slates into the Union, they relinquished their right to tax assuring the Senator that there is no reason to appre. lands owned by the United States within their limits, or hend war in any quarter, unless it be those skirmishes such as might be sold by the Government for a period which take place now and then with the Indians on our of five years after their sale, and the United States frontier. Should it ever become necessary for us, as a agreed to give to the new States lands for the purposes nation, to choose between war and a dishonorable peace, of education, salines, and this road fund, as an equivalent I have no doubt the Senator from South Carolina and for the relinquishment. I put the vole on this bill on myself, whether we be at that time citizens or Senators, the ground of compliance with a compact between the will be found contending, side by side, for the honor of United States and the new States of the Northwest. We our country against the foreign foe.

have a right to expect appropriations to continue this I cannot suppose that the Senator, in making that mo- road to the far West, not as a gift or grant to the new tion, was actuated by motives other than a strong sense States, but as the performance of an agreement between of public duty; I have too long known him as a friend of the general Government and the people of the new internal improvements, to believe that any other motive States at the time of their admission into the Union. can influence him to vote against the appropriation pro. Were there no compact between us, the United States, posed in this bill. I confess, sir, that I was surprised to being the great landholder in the new States, would find see a newspaper friendly to the Senator, in noticing his lit both their interest and their duty to contribute large. motion to lay the bill on the table, attempt to give it a ly toward the construction of a road leading to their own party coloring, remarking that his motion caused a lands. Those who oppose this road surely have not a Autiering amongst the friends of the arlministration. I hope of arresting its progress westward. I was forcibly would regret to see the passage of this bill made a party | struck with a remark made by an honorable Senator question. Indeed, 'I do not see how it can be; it never from South Carolina, [Mr. Preston.] He told us has, to my knowledge, been considered heretofore as yesterday that the Western people were not the pur. partaking of that character. Of the different political chasers of the public lands; that it was the people of the parties which have existed in the country for the last East and South that purchased them. This is true to a thirty years, some members have supported and others, certain extent. As your population increases to overhave opposed appropriations for the national road, with Aowing, and the means of support become more difficult out regard to political bearing. If proof were wanting of attainment, the young and the enterprising, quitting at this late day of the national character of this work, I l the homes of their fathers, the land of their birth, emi. could refer to an able report made by the honorable grate to the West. They become purchasers of the Senator himself, when he was at the head of an impor. | public lands, and, to all intents and purposes, Western tant Department of the Government, which may be found people. They make valuable citizens. We are always at page 61 of the Senate's documents, 2d session of the proud to welcome them amongst us. They contribute 19th Congress, where it is most satisfactorily shown that to fill your treasury, and unite with us in adding to the the continuation of the road in question to St. Louis was I wealth and power of the nation. Hence, according to a work of national importance. This has never been the Senator's own showing, the continuation of this road questioned.

is equally beneficial to the old and to the new Stales, · The Cumberland road was commenced under a law and its extension must keep pace with the progress of of Congress of March 29, 1806, whilst Mr. Jefferson settlement toward the far West, which is proceeding was President. It was favored by him and by every ad. with a rapidity altogether unparalleled in the history ministration since his day, by none less than by the pres. of man. ent administration. It is true that this road has many Already has a settlement been commenced on the friends among the present party in power, and it is equal. | west fork of the Mississippi, above the State

| west fork of the Mississippi, above the State of Missouri. ly true that it has many able and efficient supporters It will not be ten years before these people will form : amongst those who do not support the measures of the State Government, and apply for admission into the administration. Others oppose this bill on grounds Union. This will make a fire State, extending up the satisfactory to themselves and to their constituents. We Missouri far towards the Rocky mountains, the inhabi. have no right to object to their opposition. But I pro. tants of which will be our friends, our neighbors; they test against suffering a bill of so much importance to will become purchasers of the public lands; and will those whom I have the honor, in part, to represent here, they not have a right to expect to have the mail sent to to be condemned to die on your table without giving its them? And is it to be expecteil that liey will not defriends a bearing. I beg honorable Senators to come up mand an extension of the national road westward? They and vote on this bill, not as a party question, but as a surely will. I cannot doubt that this road will go on to measure in which both national faith and national honor the foot of the Rocky mountains, perhaps across them to are pledged to the young States of the West for the the Pacific ocean. The sales of the public lands will completion of this road to Missouri. The act of Con. afford the means, and we will apply them; for the same gress of 1806, to which I allude, and to which I beg leave reasons that have beretofore induced Congress to con. to refer gentlemen who have doubts on the subject, struct the road thus far, will apply, in all their power, to authorized a survey of a road from Cumberland, in Mary. its extension as far west as the Union may extend. land, or from a point on the Potomac river near Cum. In 1829 Congress made an appropriation to remove berland, over the mountains, to the State of Ohio, and the timber from the road through the State of Indiana, provides that the money appropriated for that object and to grade the banks preparatory to making it a turn. ($ 30,000) was to be refunded to the Treasury out of the pike road. The timber has been removed, and nearly fund set apart by the compact between the United States one half of the road is graded. Half the bridges are and the State of Ohio for making roads leading to that constructed, and stone prepared to cover a small portion State. By compacts between the United States and the of the graded road. Putting on the stone is the most new States of the West, a portion of the proceeds of the expensive part of road-making. This is the reason why sales of the public lands is set apart for the purpose of a heavy appropriation is now asked for. If the graded making roads leading to the new States. The continua. | portion of the road be not covered with stone, the travel SENATE.]

Cumbe land Road.

(FEB. 26, 1836.

on it, which is immense, will destroy it, and the work :!, in this bill, for a bridge over the Wabash at Terre will have to be done over again next year.

Haute, and tells us that the Ohio is not bridged where The Senator from Kentucky (Mr. CLAY) tells us that this road crosses it; nor was the United States called he thinks the country through which this road passes, upon to bridge the Muskingum at Zanesville. Now, in Indiana and Illinois, is rather thinly settled; that it is sir, I do not remember that any proposition for a bridge a long distance between houses on some parts of the across the Ohio at Wheeling was ever submitted to Conroad. I will not undertake to say how the facts are as gress. I am confident that I have not opposed it, nor regards the road in Illinois; the Senators from that State will I now give a pledge to support it, if the proposition will doubtless inform us; but I assure the Senator from be made hereafter. Kentucky that every acre of public land along the A bridge had been constructed over the Muskingum, road in Indiana has been purchased from the United at Zanesville, before the Cumberland road reached that States. The country is densely populated; the farms, place. The Scioto and Wbite rivers have bridges con. although not quite so extensive as they are in Kentucky, structed over them at the expense of the United States. are much more numerous, and villages are springing up This proposition to bridge the Wabash is not new to the at short intervals all along the road.

Senate. A bill passed this body three years ago, conThat Senator has also been pleased to allude to the taining an appropriation for that object. It was an support given to the present administration by the amendiment made by the Senate to a bill from the House friends of the bill now before us; and he says that the of Representatives; and the House, for reasons which I States southwest of the Ohio wanted a branch of this will not trouble the Senate by relating at this time, reroad, which was denied them; and calls upon the friends fused to concur in the amendment of the Senate. It of the national road to do even-handed justice to the was near the close of the session, and fearing that the States south as well as to those north of the Ohio. Sir, I bill would be lost between the two Houses in the hurry if that gentleman will look at the journals, I think he and bustle always unavoidable on the last day, the Sen. will find that several friends of this national road voted ate receded from its amendment, that the bill, which for the bill to which he alludes, (the Maysville and Lex. contained an appropriation for continuing the road, ington road bill;) if it did not become a law, it was no might become a law. An opinion was entertained by fault of theirs.

some that a bridge could not be constructed over the With regard (said Mr. T.) to my feeble support of Wabash at Terre Haute, without materially interrupt. this or any other administration, I can only be influenced ing the navigation of the river. This, if true, would by the Executive as by other public men. I go with have been a sufficient reason why the work should not them just so far and no farther than they pursue that be constructed, as one fourth of the people of Indiana, course wbich I think sustains the honor and the interest and a large portion of Illinois, are interested in the navof my country. I look to the wishes of a majority of igation of the stream above that place. To remove all. my constituents, and to my own judgment of what is doubts upon the subject, the Secretary of War was in. right and wrong, for the rule of my conduct here, and structed by a resolution of the Senate to cause an exo not to the will of a Chief Magistrate, or of any other in. amination to be made of the contemplated site for the dividual, public or privale. I care not who is President bridge, and to report the facts, together with a plan of the United States. If he administers the Government and estimate of the cost of the work, to be laid before agreeably to the constitution and laws, he has a right to Congress. This report has been received, printed, and expect my support, and upon no other terms.

laid on our tables, and is satisfactory evidence that the We have been told, during the discussion of this bill, I bridge will be constructed on a plan which will not obe that the great system of internal improvement by the | struct the navigation of the river. One item of appro. general Governinent has been suspendeil. Sir, this is priation in the bill on your table is to provide materials, no fault of the friends of the national road; it is owing, and to construct the work in accordance will the plan as I believe, to a change in public opinion. Public submitted. The erection of this bridge is less impor. sentiment in regard to internal improvement by the tant to Indiana than it is to the States west of hier. The general Government is not now what it was in 1825. In point where the national road crosses the l'abash is that year an appropriation was made to prosecute sur. | within nine miles of the eastern boundary of Illinois. veys with a view to the construction of roads and canals Surely every Western Senator knows that, unless we in different quarters of the Union. The United States bridge the Wabash, the United States mail cannot pass engineers went to work; civil engineers were employed that liver when the ice is floating, but will be arrested to assist them, and surveys were extensively made for in its progress to the States and Territories west, and the purpose of ascertaining the practicability of a num. that all travel and communication between them and ber of roads and canals. In 1828 a great political con. the east will be liable to constant interruptions for a Aict terminated, that brought a new party into power portion of the winter. This would produce a state of in this country. The veto of the President on the Mays. things exceedingly embarrassing to a very large portion ville and Lexington road bill, and his message returning of the Western coun'ry. it to the House in 1830, set the people to reflecting The Senator objects to the amount intended to be apupon the subject of internal improvement on their own | propriated by this bill; says it is too large. He tells us resources, by the States, or by incorporated companies. that we were satisfied in by-gone days with far smaller Before that time, but three States (New York the first appropriations; and he tells us that, although he does it one, stimulated and led on by her Clinton) bad em. with great reluctance, yet he is compelled, by his sense barked extensively in improvement; Pennsylvania and of public duty, to move to reduce the amount to what Ohio had followed the example; in no other quarter it was last year. It is true, sir, that when the treasury was any thing of note going on. What, I would ask, is was drained to the last dollar, with the war debe unpaid, the fact in 1836? Why, sir, many States are making and a limited commerce, we were satisfied with a com. large appropriations for constructing roads, railroads, 1 paratively small appropriation). But it should be reand canals. The people look this way no longer for membered that, at the time referred to by the honoraaic?, unless it be to the improving of our rivers; and this is ble gentleman, our population was far less than it is withheld from some rivers, the Wabash for instance, to now. Our setilements were then confined to the remy utter astonishment, and to the serious injury of a gions of country bordering on the Ohio and Mississippi large portion of the Northwest.

rivers. The last seven years has wrought a wonderful The Senator objects to a new proposition, as he calls change in our condition, population, and business. Feb. 26, 1836.1

Cumberland Road.

(SENATE.

The heaviest population at the present time is to be cepted the grant with doubt and hesitation, and by a found in counties back from the Ohio, in the centre and close vote, after a lengthy discussion in her Legislature. north parts of the States through which this road runs. Many leading members of the General Assembly doubt.

I have reason to regret the loss of the able and effi. ed the propriety of accepting the grant, and obligating cient support which that honorable Senator has given the State to commence in five years, and finish within this measure in by-gone days. Separating from him on twenty, a navigable canal, two hundred miles long, apa vote for internal improvements is like parting with an prehensive that the land would not sell, and that the old friend; but the best of friends, they say, must part; State would incur a heavy debt to complete the work. and we will continue the national road without his aid, | But, sir, the grant was accepted, and ibe State autho. if he will not stick to us, though I can scarcely bring rized a loan to commence the canal; and soon after we myself to believe that he will abandon his old favorite, had in good earnest begun this great work, the State's the Cumberland road. I am an advocate for the ener: land sold at from $1 50 to $350, and some of it at $50, getic prosecution of this work. In two or three years and as high as $70, per acre. The United States lands I hope to see it finished through Indiana. . The States that have been offered within several miles of the canal west of her will have an equal claim to be heard_a have been sold; even land of an inferior quality, which claim that I, for one, will ever be willing to recognise. / would have remained the property of the Government The Senator has always been distinguished for march- / for a generation to come, was sold; and more money ing boldly up to his object, and I was not prepared to has been brought into the United States treasury, and find him advocating the propriety or expediency of tar in a shorter period of time, than if the whole of dy operations on the national road. , We now possess these lands bad remained the property of the Govern. most ample means, and, in my judgment, we should ment, and been offered for sale without the inducement prosecute the work to Missouri vigorously before we to purchase occasioned by the commencement of the pause.

canal by the State. Something was said by the gentleman in reference to the construction of the canal and national road in that the population of the States southwest and those north- State, together with the industry and enterprise of the west of the Ohio river. By the census of 1830 it ap- neople, has enhanced the value of every acre of public pears that there was a small fraction in favor of the land a hundred per cent. Ten millions of dollars has Southwestern States; but it will hardly be contended been realized from this source alone by the general that, at this time, there is not a greater population in Government within the limits of the State. The United four States northwest of the Ohio river than in five | States are still the owners of about 11,000,000 acres in Southwestern States, including Kentucky and Tennes. I the State, a large proportion of which are fresh lands, sce. Should the Southwestern States desire to apply and have never been in market. The recent sales at their road fund to the construction of a branch of the Fort Wayne and Laporte demonstrate, beyond contraCumberland road through Kentucky and Tennessee, I | diction, that fresh lands will hereafter sell at from two should raise no objection; but if they decline to apply I to twenty dollars per acre. The land office at Laporte it to that object, it cannot be pleaded in bar of our right took in $200,000 for lands sold at private sale during the to apply ours to the national road leading to and through last two months, as I am informed by a letter from the the Northwestern States, this being the legitimate ob- receiver of public moneys at that office. These sales of ject for which the fund was provided, by the agree public lands, during the winter months, have not been ment between the general Government and the new equalled by sales in any other State or Territory since States.

the existence of our Government. I am aware that some gentlemen oppose appropriations 1 Indiana is about to embark in a general system of in. for this work, because they consider it a gratuity to the / ternal improvement. She has appropriated ten millions people of the new States. This is a mistaken idea of the of dollars for the construction of roads, railroads, and facts of the case. The gums appropriated for this object canals, at the last session of her Legislature. This has will be replaced in your treasury from sales of the pub. I given a fresh impulse to the sales of the public lands in lic lands within these States. Again, sir, it should be that State. I cannot doubt that all the land fit for cultiborne in mind that the Cumberland road is the great vation, that is now or which may hereafter be brought leading route for the far West, through the centre of into market, will sell within two years. the States northwest of the Ohio, over which the mail. We are anxious to complete the Cumberland road for six States and Territories must be transported. through our State in three years, and for this purpose During the winter season our rivers are locked up with ask large appropriations to continue it, and for bridges; ice, and communication between the coast and the in.next year one half the balance, and the remainder in terior must be suspended for one fourth of the year, 1838. We consider that we are entitled to heavy drafts unless this work is completed. Our ability to do so on your treasury whilst our country enjoys unexampled will keep pace with the increase of population, and as prosperity, and our constituents contribute so largely to the tide of purchasers of the public lands flows west- | fill your coffers. ward. Money expended to improve the navigation of The Senator from Kentucky (Mr. CRITTENDEN) thinks rivers, or to construct roads in that portion of our couns that we have long since exhausted our two per cent., try, when the United States are the owners of the soil, and he denies the existence of a compact. Here he and will not, I trust, be set down against the people who myself are at issue. I claim the money on a compact; purchase and improve the public lands where such and, further, if the gentleman will examine the quantity works are executed. I can demonstrate to the satisfac- of public land sold and to be sold in the States and Tertion of any one who will sit down with me and make ritories, from the eastern boundary of the State of Ohio the calculation, that grants of land and money to these to the Rocky Mountains, he will find that the two per objects have been equally beneficial to the treasury of cent. is over seven millions of dollars; and we have not the Government.

yet had half that sum applied to this road. He tells us Take, for example, a grant of land made eight years he prefers laying this bill on the table, and that he will, since, of near halt a million of acres, to aid the State of if he can, get his own consent to vote for it. He ex. Indiana in constructing a canal to connect at navigable presses a kind feeling for the work, and says he would, points the waters of the Wabash with those of Lake if he could with propriety, vote with 118. We would be Erie. This grant consisted of the one half of five sec- gratified with his vote, but prefer taking the question at tions on each side of the line of canal. The State ac. I this time, even if we should be so unfortunate as not to

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