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least is unjust also in much. Give all, as assuredly you shall pay to the uttermost farthing; but, of a truth, out of what you possess, not out of what you possess not.

"Take heed to give to your words the voice of power. You ask, what is that? It is, that your works harmonize with your words, or rather your words with your works; that you be careful to do before you teach. It is a most beautiful and salutary order of things that you should first bear the burden you place on others, and learn from yourself how men should be ruled. Otherwise the wise man will mock you, as that lazy one to whom it is labour to lift his hand to his mouth. The Apostle also will reprove you, saying: 'Thou who teachest another, teachest thou not thyself?' . . . That speech, also, which is full of life and power, is an example of work, as it makes easy what it speaks persuasively, while it shows that can be done which it advises. Understand, therefore, to the quieting of your conscience, that in these two commandments, i.e., of precept and example, the whole of your duty resides. You, however, if you be wise, will add a third, namely, a zeal for prayer, to complete that treble repetition of the Gospel in reference to 'feeding the sheep.' You will know that no sacrament of that Trinity is in any wise broken by you, if you feed them by word, by example, and by the fruit of holy prayers. Now abideth speech, example, prayer, these three; but the greatest of these is prayer. For although, as has been said, the strength of speech is work, yet prayer wins grace and efficacy for both work and speech."1


TN 1137 Bernard was called again to Italy, where the -*' affairs of the Papacy were still in a disturbed condition. Roger II., who had been crowned King of Sicily by Anacletus, continued to support his cause; but otherwise the partisans of the anti-pope had lost heart, and were most of

1 J. C. Morison, "Life and Times of S. Bernard," pp. 228, 229.

them inclined to a reconciliation with Innocenjt. They hesitated through various moral and political considerations; either they were afraid of losing the dignities and emoluments to which Anacletus had promoted them, or they held themselves bound by the oath they had taken. Bernard met the former difficulty by promising his good offices with the Pope; to the latter he opposed certain arguments, ingenious rather than conclusive, which proved of sufficient efficacy in cases where the reasoning faculty was aided by the will Having succeeded so well with many of the antipope's adherents, Bernard resolved to attempt to detach King Roger from the alliance. The Emperor Lothair, with the aid of the fleets of Genoa and Pisa, had wrested from him all his conquests on the mainland, but differences had arisen between him and Innocent, and the Imperial forces were on their homeward march when Bernard entered on his task of mediation. He was met by Roger with a proposal that seemed fair enough: he was willing, he said, to hear both sides, and suggested that their representatives should, in his presence, expound their respective claims, on the understanding that he would acknowledge Innocent's authority if the arguments in his favour preponderated. The offer was accepted. Anacletus put forward Peter of Pisa, who was renowned for his dialectical skill and knowledge of jurisprudence. Bernard appeared for Innocent. The combat took place at Salerno, before Roger and his court. Peter of Pisa opened with a rhetorical speech, in which he exhausted all the resources of his casuistry. When it came to Bernard's turn, he spoke with his usual directness and force :—

"I know, Peter, that you are a wise and learned man, and I would that a better cause and a more honourable business engaged your attention; for had you truth and reason on your side, your eloquence would prevail over every other. As for myself, a rustic, more used to spade and hoe than to public declamations, were it. not that the faith requires me to speak, I should observe the silence prescribed by my rule. Charity, however, forces me to speak, inasmuch as Peter, the son of Leo, protected by King Roger, rends and divides that vesture of the Lord which neither the Jew nor the heathen presumed to rend. There is one Faith, one Lord, one Baptism; neither do we know two Lords, two faiths, two baptisms. To begin from antiquity,—there was but one ark at the time of the Flood; in this ark eight souls were saved; all the rest of the world, as many as were outside the ark, perished. No one will deny that this ark was a type of the Church. Lately, another ark has been built, and as there are now two, one must be false, and must sink in the depths of the sea. If the ark which Peter rules be of God, it follows that that in which Innocent governs must perish. Therefore the Eastern Church will perish, and the Western also. France, Germany, Spain, England, and the barbarous countries will perish in the waters. The monastic orders of the Camaldoli, the Carthusians, the Cluniacs, the Cistercians, the Praemonstrants, and innumerable other congregations of servants and handmaidens of the Lord; it is inevitable that they all sink to the bottom of the sea. The bishops, and abbots, and princes of the Church, with millstones fastened to their necks, will plunge headlong into the depths. Roger alone, out of all the lords of the earth, will enter Peter's ark, and while all the rest perish, he alone will be saved. God forbid that the religion of the whole world should perish, and that the ambition of Peter, whose life has been such as is known to all, should obtain the kingdom of heaven."

Overcome by Bernard's earnestness, and feeling perhaps a secret conviction that the cause of Anacletus was lost, Peter of Pisa embraced Bernard, yielded to his appeal, and accompanying him to Rome, made his submission to Innocent. Roger did not so readily succumb, being desirous to secure the possession of certain lands which he had occupied in the neighbourhood of Beneventum and Monte Cassino. The schism, however, was virtually at an end; and this through the personal influence of one man. Soon afterwards Anacletus died, and though another anti-pope was set up, and named Victor IV., he speedily resigned the hollow dignity. Repairing by night to Bernard's lodging, he threw off his insignia, abandoned his pretensions, and was led by the Abbot to pay homage to the triumphant Innocent. Thus was once more restored the unity of the Church; the mystical vesture was again made whole. Bernard, to whom this holy and happy work was due, was everywhere honoured as the peacemaker, and could not make his appearance in public without being escorted by vast processions of men and women. With his usual humility he hastened to escape from these grateful demonstrations, and returning to the still shades of Clairvaux, quietly resumed his exposition of the Canticles. (June, 1138.)

A heavy blow soon afterwards fell upon him in the death of his brother Gerard, whose virtues and graces he has commemorated in a funeral sermon of singular and solemn beauty. "My very heart left me," he exclaimed, " when he was taken away, through whom my meditations in God were made free. But I did violence to my mind, and I have dissembled until now, lest it should appear that faith was conquered by emotion. While others wept, I, as you perhaps took note, shed not a tear until he was laid in his grave. Clad in my priestly robes, I pronounced with my lips the usual prayers; with my own hands, according to the usual custom, I cast the earthy dust on the body of my brother, soon itself to be resolved into dust. Those who watched me wept, and wondered why I wept not also, for their pity was less for him than for me, for me who had lost him. .... But I could not command my grief, though I could control my tears. As it is written: 'I was afflicted, and I kept silence.' But the suppressed anguish struck deeper root within, and has become more bitter, as I perceive, from not being allowed expression."

From domestic sorrows, however, he was called away by the excitement of controversy. Towards the close of the year 1139, his attention was directed to a Compendium of Theology1 recently issued by the celebrated Abelard, the errors in which were thus summed up by William of S. Thierry :—" 1. That he (Abelard) defines faith as the estimation of things not seen. 2. That he declares the names of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost to be improperly applied to God, and that this is a description of the fulness of the Highest Good. 3. That the Father is full Power, the Son a certain Power, the Holy Spirit no power. 4. That the Holy Spirit is not the substance of the Father and of 1 His "Introductio ad Theologiam."

the Son, as the Son is of the substance of the Father. 5. That the Holy Spirit is the soul of the world. 6. That by free will, without the assistance of grace, we can will and act rightly. 7. That Christ did not take flesh and suffer, in order to deliver us from subjection to Satan. 8. That Christ, God and Man, is not the third Person in the Trinity. 9. That in the Sacrament of the Altar, the form of the former substance remains in the air. 10. That diabolical suggestions are made to men through physic. 11. That from Adam we do not "contract the fault of original sin, but its punishment. 12. That there is no sin, except in consenting unto sin, and in the contempt of God. 13. That sin is not committed by concupiscence and delectation and ignorance, and what is thus committed, is not sin, but nature." Bernard occupied himself until the Easter of 1140 in examining these allegations, and came to the conclusion that they endangered the purity of the faith once for all delivered to us by the saints. There was, indeed, between himself and Abelard a direct antithesis. As the latter was the very type of intellectual unrest, so was Bernard the type of intellectual repose. Bernard believed, and was content; Abelard believed, and questioned. Bernard surrendered himself to serene meditation; Abelard was the victim of incessant inquiry. The former considered only what was practical; the latter delighted in speculation. The contrast in their lives had been not less marked than in their characters, for Abelard's had been as stormy, passionate, and irregular as Bernard's had been tranquil, harmonious, and orderly. We can therefore readily understand, (as Canon Robertson remarks,1) that the active and devout churchman was ready to suspect a man so different from himself as the bold, rhetorical schoolman, who rejoiced in paradoxes and hazardous conjectures. "He felt instinctively that there was danger, not so much in this or that individual point of his teaching, as in the general character of a method which seemed likely to imperil the orthodoxy of the Church." It was the natural dread of the dogmatic theologian for the theological speculator and free inquirer.

Bernard, therefore, summoned all his powers, all his 1 Robertson, "History of the Christian Church," v. 117.

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