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"When numerous flock'd
Paradiso, canto xi. 87—no.
1 The bull of confirmation issued by Pope Honorius III.
J Monte Averno. 3 The stigmata. * Poverty.
S. CATHARINE OF SIENA
"LA BEATA POPOLANA."
"A smile amid dark frowns—a gentle tone
[Authorities:— "The Letters" of S. Catharine have been collected, in four vols., by Tommaseo, i860; and there is a very careful biography (in German) by Hase, "Catarina von Siena." We may also name, as sympathetic and comprehensive, Mrs. Josephine Butler's "Catharine of Siena : a Biography" (1879) ; and Chavin de Malau's "Histoire de S. Catharine de Sienna" (1846). We have used the French translation of the " Letters" by Cartier, which also includes a version of her " Dialogues." Reference has been made to Dean Milman's "Latin Christianity," Canon Robertson's "Christian Church, and Mr. J. Addington Symonds' "Sienna and S. Catharine," in the Cornhill Magazine, vol. xiv., pp. 299—312.]
S. CATHARINE OF SIENA.
T N the fertile folds of the Tuscan plain, between the pine-*- clad Apennines and the Mediterranean, stands the ancient city of Siena; now grievously fallen from its high estate, but, in the fourteenth century, the seat of a republic which rivalled Florence. Wooded valleys wind gently around it, the ridges between them crowned with castles; and all lead up to the hill on which cluster the towers and walls of the capital. Another and a lower eminence to the west bears on its summit the stately church of S. Dominic. In the hollow between them, the Contrada d'Oca, formerly dwelt the poor classes of the Sienese population; and there, to this day, may be seen the house in which was born the most famous of the daughters of Siena, Catharine Benincasa, or S. Catharine. There, too, stands the chapel erected to her memory, with the golden legend over its door of " Spos» Christi Katharine Domus." It is a pleasant spot, for the hillsides are softly wooded, and adorned with olive-plantations, and a streamlet murmurs softly in the shade.
"Catharine of Siena," says her biographer, Raymond," was to the fourteenth century what S. Bernard was to the twelfth, that is, the light and support of the Church. At the moment when the bark of S. Peter was most vehemently buffeted by the tempest, God gave it for pilot a poor young girl who was concealing herself in the little shop of a dyer. Catha