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* HAMLET, PRINCE OF DENMARK.) The original story on which this play is built, may be found in Saxo Grammaticus the Danish historian. From thence Belleforest adopted it in his collection of novels, in seven volumes, which he began in 1564, and continued to publish through succeeding years. From this work, The Hystorie of Hamblett, quarto, bl. l. was translated. I have hitherto met with no earlier edition of the play than one in the year 1604, though it must have been performed before that time, as I have feen a copy of Speght's edition of Chaucer, which formerly belonged to Dr. Gabriel Harvey, (the antagonist of Nash) who, in his own hand-writing, has set down Hamlet, as a performance with which he was well acquainted, in the year 1598. His words are these : “ The younger fort take much delight in Shakspeare's Venus and Adonis; but his Lucrece, and his tragedy of Hamlet Prince of Denmarke, have it in them to please the wiser sort, 1598."
In the books of the Stationers' Company, this play was entered by James Roberts, July 26, 1602, under the title of “ A booke called The Revenge of Hamlett, Prince of Denmarke, as it was lately acted by the Lord Chamberlain his servantes.”
In Eastward Hoe, by George Chapman, Ben Jonson, and John Marston, 1605, is a fing at the hero of this tragedy. A footman named Hamlet enters, and a tankard-bearer asks him_"'Sfoote, Hamlet, are you mad?"
The frequent allusions of contemporary authors to this play fufficiently thow its popularity. Thus, in Decker's Bel-man's Nightwalkes; 4t0. 1612, we have—" But if any mad Hamlet, hearing this, smell villainie, and rush in by violence to see what the tawny diuels (gypsies) are dooing, then they excuse the fact” &c. Again, in an old collection of Satirical Poems, called The NightRaven, is this couplet:
" I will not cry Hamlet Revenge my greeves,
STEEVENS. Surely no fatire was intended in Eastward Hoe, which was acted at Shakspeare's own playhouse, (Blackfriers,) by the children of the revels, in 1605. Malone.
The following particulars relative to the date of this piece, are borrowed from Dr. Farmer's Esay on the Learning of Shakspeare, p. 85, 86, second edition :
“ Greene, in the Epistle prefixed to his Arcadia, hath a lash at fome vaine glorious tragedians,' and very plainly at Shakspeare in particular. – I leave all these to the mercy of their mothertongue, that feed on nought but the crums that fall from the translator's trencher.-That could scarcely latinize their neck verse if they should have neede, yet Englijh Seneca read by candlelight yeelds many good sentences-hee will afford you whole Hamlets, I Ihould say, handfuls of tragicall speeches.'--I cannot determine exactly when this Epistle was first published; but, I fancy, it will carry the original Hamlet somewhat further back than we have hitherto done : and it may be observed, that the oldest copy now extant, is said to be “ enlarged to almoft as much againe as it was.' Gabriel Harvey printed at the end of the year 1592, · Foure Letters and certaine Sonnetts, especially touching Robert Greene :' in one of which his Arcadia is mentioned. Now Nath's Epistle must have been previous to these, as Gabriel is quoted in it with applause; and the Four Letters were the beginning of a quarrel. Nah replied in Strange News of the intercepting certaine Letters, and a Convoy of Verses, as they were going privilie to victual the Low Countries, 1593.' Harvey rejoined the same year in “ Pierce's Supererogation, or a new Praise of the old Alle.' And Nash again, in * Have with you to Saffron Walden, or Gabriell Harvey's Hunt is up;' containing a full answer to the eldest sonne of the halter-maker, 1596."--Nash died before 1606, as appears from an old comedy called The Return from Parnalus. Steevens,
A play on the subject of Hamlet had been exhibited on the stage before the year 1589, of which Thomas Kyd was, I believe, the author.. On that play, and on the bl. letter Historie of Hamblet, our poet, I conjecture, conftructed the tragedy before us. The earliest edition of the profe-narrative which I have seen, was printed in 1608, but it undoubtedly was a republication.
Shakspeare's Hamlet was written, if my conjecture be well founded, in 1596. See An Attempt to ascertain the Order of his Plays, Vol. I. MALONE.
Claudius, King of Denmark.
Gertrude, Queen of Denmark, and mother of Hamlet.
* Hamlet,] i. e. Amleth. The h transferred from the end to the beginning of the name.