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on every consideration, and from the best information he could obtain, were in liis judgment most. likely to answer the great end.

Under these impressions he placed Col. Hamilton at the head of the Treasury Department.

At the head of the Department of Foreign Affairs, he placed Mr. Jefferson.

General Knox was continued in the Department of War, which he had filled under the old Congress.

The office of Attorney General was assigned to Mr. Edmund Randolph.

These composed the cabinet council of the first president,

The judicial department was filled as follows;

John Jay, of New York, Chief Justice.
John Rutledge, of South Carolina,
James Wilson, of Pennsylvania,
William Cushing, of Massachusetts,
Robert Harrison, of Maryland, and
John Blair, of Virginia, Associate Judges.

The officers who had been appointed by the individual states to manage the revenue, which, unider the old system, was paid into the state treasury, were reappointed to corresponding offices under the new constitution, by which the revenue had been transferred from the local to the general treasury of the union.

It was among the first cares of Washington to make peace with the Indians. Gen. Lincoln, Mr. Griffin, and Col. Humphrevs, very soon after the inauguration of the president, were deputed by him to treat with the Creek Indians. These met

with M'Gillvray, and other chiefs of the nation, with about two thousand men, at the Rock Land. ing, on the frontiers of Georgia. The negotiations were soon broken off by M Gillvray, whose personal interests and connexion with Spain were supposed to have been the real cause of their abrupt and unsuccessful termination.

The next year brought round an accomplishment of the president's wishes, which had failed in the first attempt. Policy and interest concurred iii recommending every prudent measure for detaching the Creek Indians from all connexion with the Spaniards, and cementing their friendship with the United States. Negotiations carried on with them in the vicinity of the Spanish settlements, promised less than negotiations conducted at the seat of government. To induce a disposition favourable to this change of place, the president sent Col., Willet, a gallant and intelligent officer of the late army, into the Creek country, apparently on private business, but with a letter of introduction to M Gillvray, and with instructions to take occasional opportunities to point out the distresses which a war with the United States would bring on the Creek nation, and the indiscretion of their breaking off the negotiation at the Rock Landing; and to exhort him to repair with the chiefs of his nation to New York, in order to effect a solid and lasting peace.

Willet performed these duties with so much dexterity, that M'Gillvray, with the chiefs of his nation, were induced to come to New York, where fresh negotiations commenced, which, on the 7th, of August, 1790, terminated in the establishment of peace.

The pacific overtures made by Washington to the Indians of the Wabash and the Miamis, failed of success. Long experience had taught the president, that on the failure of negotiations with Indians, policy, economy, and even human. ity, required the employment of a sufficient force to carry offensive war into their country, and lay waste their settlements. The accomplishment of this was, no easy matter. The Indian nations were numerous, accustomed to war, and not without discipline. They were said to be furnished with arms and ammunition from the British posts held within the United States, in violation of the treaty of peace. Generals Harmar and Sinclair were , successively defeated by the Indians ; and four or five years elapsed before they were subdued. This was accomplished by Gen. Wayne, in 1794. Soon after that event, a peace was conduded, under his auspices, between these Indians and the United States. In the

In the progress of this last Indian war, repeated overtures of peace were made to the North Western Indians, but rejected. About the same period a new system was commenced for turning them off from hunting to the employments of civilized life, by fur. nishing them with implements and instructions for agriculture and manufactures.

In this manner, during the Presidency of George Washington, peace was restored to the frontier settlements both in the north and southwest, which has continued ever since, and it is likely to do so, while, at the same time, the prospect of me- . liorating the condition of the savages is daily brightening; for the system first began by Wash

ington with the view of civilizing these fierce sons of nature, have been ever since steadily pursued by all his successors.

Indian wars are now only known from the records or recollection of past events; and it is probable that the day is not far distant when the United States will receive a considerable accession of citizens from the civilized red men of the forest.

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CHAPTER XII.

Gen. Washington attends to the foreign relations of the United States.

Negotiates with Spain..... Difficulties in the way..... The free naviga. tion of the Missisippi is granted by a treaty made with Major Pinckney... Negotiations with Britain..... Difficulties in the way..... War probable.....Mr. Jay's mission....His treaty with Great Britain ....Op position thereto.....Is ratified..... Washington refuses papers to House of Representatives.... British posts in United States evacuated.... Nego. tiations with France....Gepet's arrival..... Assumes illegal powers, in violation of the neutrality of the United States.....Is flattered by the people, but opposed by the executive..... Is recalled..... Gen. Pinckney sent as public minister to adjust disputes with France..... Is not received..... Washington declines a re-election, and addresses the people. His last address to the national legislature..... Recommends a navy, a military academy, and other public institutions.

Events which had taken place before the inaugutation of Washington, embarrassed his negotiations for the adjustment of the political relations between the United States and Spain.

In the year 1779, Mr. Jay had been appointed by the old Congress to make a treaty with his Catholic Majesty ; but his best endeavours for

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