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they passed the Cape of Good Hope the sun when rising must have been on their right hand. This same voyage, if we may credit ancient history, was performed by other descendants of the Phenicians. Pliny states (Lib. II. 67, v. 1), that “ Hanna, a Carthaginian, circumnavigated the continent of Africa, from Gades to the extremity of the Arabian Gulf, and wrote all the details of the voyage, which was undertaken at the period when Carthage was most flourishing, and that he founded several towns on the coast."* If this be so, then it follows that the Cape of Good Hope was passed more than 2000 years before it was discovered by Bartholomew Diaz, in 1487. These were voyages of curiosity; and they made no perceptible change in the commerce of the world. Still they show the adventurous character of the Phenician mariners. It excites our wonder that without compass or chart such a voyage should have been made. Imay add here, as an interesting fact, that Cadiz in Spain was one of the colonies of Tyre; and from this country an expedition went out which discovered the new world.

The great importance of Tyre as a place of trade, and the prominence which the mention of its commerce has in the Scriptures, as well as the remarkable facts which have occurred to annihilate that commerce for ever, and to fulfil the prophecies respecting it, require a somewhat more extended notice than we have given to other places.

Of all ancient cities, Tyre was probably the most favorably situated for navigation. No situation could be more favorable for forming a navy,-situated as it was in the vicinity of Lebanon, and having the forests of Senir and Bashan also accessible. Bashan was celebrated for its oaks (Isa. 2: 13, Zech. 10: 1, 2, Ezek. 27: 6), and Lebanon could furnish a great quantity of timber, not only to be exported as an article of commerce, but to be used in the construction of ships. Ancient vessels were often constructed of fir; cedar supplied masts; while oak was used for those long and powerful oars, which were the chief instruments of navigation. “They have made all thy shipboards of fir-trees of Senir; they have taken cedars from Lebanon to make masts for thee; of oaks of Bashan have they made

* A brief but satisfactory account of the ancient voyages around Africa, and to different parts of it, may be seen in the Ency. Geog. Vol. I. p. 18—30.

thine oars.” Ezek. 27: 5, 6. Tyre was adjacent also to fruitful countries. It was the natural outlet of Judea, the only port on its coast of much importance. But its chief distinction arose from the fact, that it was the port to which naturally tended the rich productions of India; and when this commerce was diverted or ceased, it lost its importance and sunk into decay. For a long time it was the place through which that traffic passed on its way to Europe; and the rich commodities that were brought by the way of Babylon, Palmyra and Damascus here found their centre.

Tyre, at one time, possessed the best harbor on the coast of the Mediterranean; and it was this fact which gave it so much importance. The change which it has since undergone in this respect, as I shall show in another part of this article, is one of the most remarkable circumstances in history, and demonstrates that the prophecies must continue to be fulfilled. Tyre was at first built on the coast or main land, and is commonly known by the name of Pale-Tyrus (Ilalaitvoos), or ancient Tyre, to distinguish it from insular Tyre, subsequently built on the island. There is abundant evidence that the former was first built ; though it is probable that the

island was early occupied as a place of anchorage. Insular Tyre was built on an island or rock that was about three quarters of a mile from the coast. The passage from the coast to the island was probably in boats only, until the time of Alexander; who, in order to reduce the city, by a mole two hundred feet in width joined it to the main land. This was built mainly of the rubbish and stones of the old city, and became a permanent embankment or breakwater; and thus, it is probable, added much to the natural advantages of the harbor. Alexander was occupied eight months in reducing the insular city; and it became a subject of contention among his followers after his death. That the harbor of Tyre had uncommon advantages, is not only demonstrated by the unbroken current of testimony, but by the fact, that it so long maintained the dominion of the sea, and eclipsed every rival.

We have in the Scriptures a more full account of the traffic of Tyre than of any other ancient city; and it will throw light on our subject to consider more minutely the articles of its com

The foundation of the prosperity of Tyre was laid, in part, in its vicinity to valuable materials for ship-building. “They have made all thy ship-boards of fir-trees of Senir." Ezek. 27: 5.


Senir () is usually supposed to be the same as Sirion, the Phenician name for Hermon. Cant. 4: 8. 1 Chron. 5: 23. According to Abulfeda, it denotes a ridge of mountains near Damascus. In regard to the word fir (una), it is not easy to determine precisely the sense in which it is used in the Scriptures. It is probably, however, the same as cypress ; and constituted, along with the cedar, the glory of Lebanon. It was employed for the floors and ceilings of the temple (1 Kings 5: 22, 24), and also for the sheathings and decks of ships. It was used for spears (Nah. 2: 4), and for musical instruments (2 Sam. 6:5). Probably the word vina was not confined to one species of timber, but was a general name denoting several kindred trees, as is the word fir or pine among us. The cedars of Lebanon were used for masts. Ezek. 27: 5. The LXX have understood the cypress as the tree intended. The word in commonly denotes the cedar of Lebanon. From the account in the Scripture it would seem that this tree was uncommonly tall (Isa. 2: 13, 37: 24), and wide-spreading (Ezek. 31: 3). The cedar of Lebanon was very large, but at some period of its growth it was undoubtedly well fitted for masts. The oak of Bashan was also used for oars. Ezek. 27: 5. Much of the ancient navigation was conducted by oars. Ignorant, to a great extent, of the art of navigation, not knowing how to take advantage of the winds, and often drifting along where they had no charts, and no knowledge of the dangers which they would encounter, they were frequently obliged to make use of oars.

Two things that with us would seem to be articles of luxury and needless splendor, are mentioned in the navigation of the Tyrians. The first is, that they made use of “fine linen with broidered work from Egypt” for their sails. Ezek. 27: 7. That finely-wrought linen was employed for this purpose occasionally, may not seem improbable, when the magnificent appearance of the barge of Cleopatra is recollected. It must have been, however, rather for show than for use. The other item in the decoration of their ships (Ezek. 27: 6) is, that “the company of the Ashurites have made thy benches of ivory, brought out of the isles of Chittim." There has been much difficulty in understanding who are meant here by the Ashurites, or what is the exact meaning of the phrase. The word rendered “company" (2) usually means a daughter, and why it has been translated “company," it is difficult to see. The word rendered “Ashurites" (078) is from "ex, a step, going ;





and is probably here synonymous with munn, meaning sherbin -a species of cedar that grew on Mount Lebanon. Using the word na in its common signification, the passage may mean, according to Gesenius, “ thy benches they made of ivory (70), the daughter of Sherbin cedars;” that is, they inlaid the cedar of the benches with ivory; they ornamented the seats of the rowers with ivory-a fact which is by no means improbable, though it seems incredible that they should make the benches wholly of ivory. Jarchi proposes to arrive at the same interpretation by reading ina as one word; and then it would mean, 'with cedars;' that is, “ they made thy benches ivory with cedars brought from the land of Chittim." Chittim is a name of large extent, like the word Levant, and is applied to the cities and coasts of the Mediterranean, without denoting any particular part. Josephus makes it Cyprus; the first of Maccabees applies it to Macedonia ; the Vulgate to Italy; Bochart makes it the same with the islands around it; Jerome ascribes it to the islands of the Ionian and Ægean Seas. Any of these places may be understood as included in the word “Chittim ;'> and as Tyre traded with them all, there can be no difficulty in understanding that either the ivory or the box that was used, was brought from them. Pict. Bib. on Ezek. 27: 6.

The articles of commerce mentioned by Ezekiel, in which Tyre traded, together with the countries with which its traffic was conducted, are the following:

1. Blue and purple from the isles of Elishah.” Ezek. 27: 7. Elisha rob was one of the sons of Javan (Gen. 10: 4), and settled a part of Greece. The word here denotes a region situated on the Mediterranean, most probably Elis, or Hellas-a part of the Peloponnesus. In the Samaritan it is written w-ba. It seems remarkabie that the Tyrians, who were so celebrated for their own purple, should have imported the article from Elisha. But the purple of Laconia was the finest dye next to the Tyrian; and the purple cloth of that province was possibly employed because it was cheaper than that of Tyre, which was reserved for the use of kings.' Vincent. That this purple of Laconia was an article of luxury, is apparent from Horace:

Nec Laconicas mihi
Trahunt honestæ purpuras clientæ.

ODES, II. 18: 7.

The blue and purple referred to in Ezekiel seem to have been used for awnings and coverings. It will be remembered that the famous galley in which Cleopatra went to meet Anthony, had an awning made with cloth of gold. According to the description of Ezekiel, the appearance of the Tyrian vessels, whether in the harbor or at sea, must have been exceedingly magnificent

2. The inhabitants of Zidon and Arvad traded with Tyre. Ezek. 27: 8. “The inhabitants of Zidon and Arvad were thy mariners.” This passage proves, that while the Tyrians were devoted to commerce, the Sidonians furnished them with mariners. Arvad or Aradus was the name of a Phenician city upon an island of the same name, not far from the coast, founded, according to Strabo (XVI. 2, $$ 13, 14), by Sidonian deserters. Its name now is Ruad, and the island is about two hundred paces from the continent. Compare Gen. 10: 17. Among the places which are mentioned as trading with Tyre, besides the above, were Gebal, Persia, Lud, Tarshish, Javan, Tubal and Meshech, Togarmah, Dedan, Syria, Judah, Damascus, Dan, Arabia, Sheba and Raamah, Haran, Canneh, Eden, Asshur and Chilmad. Ezek. 27: 9—25. The whole object of the enumeration of these places is, to show the countries to which Tyre traded, that is, to nearly all the known parts of the world. Most of these places are well known; and little would be contributed to the design of this article, were we to designate the others. A remark or two is all that is necessary. Tarshish here is probably the same as Tartessus, in Spain ; but I shall advert to it again when I speak of the commerce of the Jews. Javan is used to denote Greece in general, perhaps Ionia in particular. Tubal and Meshech probably denote countries situated near the Black and Caspian Seas. Dedan is supposed to have been on the southern coast of Arabia ; or, as Michaelis thinks, it may

have been an island, or commercial town in the Persian Gulf, established by the Tyrians to secure the trade of the Indies.

3. In regard to the articles of commerce in which the Tyrians were engaged, much light may be derived from the chapter in Ezekiel above referred to. Silver, iron, tin and lead were brought from Tarshish.—From Javan, Tubal and Meshech, they obtained “the persons of men-i. e. slaves—and vessels of brass.” Tubal and Meshech are supposed to be Caucasian regions, and slaves from thence have always been in the highest repute in the countries which now constitute the Turkish

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