« AnteriorContinuar »
that the “Flag Ship” is not destitute of specimens of fine
Science, both experimental and theoretical ; intended as a
Gould, Newman & Saxton. 1840. The design of the author in preparing this compilation is stated in the Preface. “As experience has shown that most of the text-books in general use are either too profound on the one hand for those who are commencing the study, or too superficial on the other for those who wish to obtain more scientific knowledge of the subject, he has been induced to attempt to compile a work which should be better fitted for elementary instruction.” He thinks that teachers of Chemistry would be more successful, if they were to pay more attention to the principles of the science and less to its details. In this opinion we fully concur: and hence approve of his plan of giving greater prominence to the imponderable agents and the non-metallic substances, than to other parts of his work. It ought not to be inferred, however, that the book is made up of dry discussions and perplexing technicalities : numerous experiments and illustrations are introduced, which the teacher, with a very simple apparatus can repeat.
“In the arrangement of the imponderable agents, the phenomena of common and voltaic electricity and electro-magnetism are classed as effects of one agent, electricity. In the arrangement of the simple substances, each, with its combinations with those previously described, is presented to the student, in such order, that but one substance with which he is unacquainted is to be studied at the same time. The Salts occupy a separate chapter, in the arrangement of which, Turner's Chemistry is made the basis.”
The book is written in a clear, lucid style; and it preserves a happy medium between too great a display of technical learning, on the one hand, and an obviously superficial view of the subject on the other. As an elementary treatise, we have no doubt of its utility.
Germany The philosophical and theological works of Daub are in the course of publication; Marheineke and Dittenberger are the editors. Though “less original and independent than Schleiermacher,” he holds a high rank in Germany. He belonged to the Hegel and Schelling school of philosophy.-A new edition of Tholuck's Commentary on Romans is soon to appear. There has been a recent edition of his Hebrews; and he has lately published an excellent work on Christian Devotion.Neander has another volume of his Church History in the press.-A Compend of Dogmatic History, from the pen of Baumgarten-Crusius, has recently appeared.—The publication of Prof. Bopp's Glossarium Sanscritum is begun.
The arrangement of the Lectures at Halle for the current semester-Oct. 19 to April 3—is, in part, as follows :
Encyclopedia and Methodology of Theolog. Study, Tholuck.-Hist. and Crit. Introd. to the Old Test., Gesenius.Books of the Old Test. to be explained. Job, Gesenius. Psalms and other poems, Rödiger. Isaiah and Ecclesiastes, Tuch. New Testament.—Matthew, Mark and Luke, Tholuck. John and Acts, Wegscheider. Corinthians and Hebrews, Niemeyer. Philippians and Ephesians, Tholuck. John's Epistles, Weg. scheider. John (Gospel and Epistles) Peter and Jude, Daehne.Church History, Guerike, Daehne and Thilo.-Survey of Theology, Guerike.-Dogmatic Theology, Müller and Wegscheider.
At Berlin the arrangement is, in part, as follows:- Introd. to the Old Test., Hengstenberg and Vatke. Archeology of the Old Test., Benary.-Books of the Old Test. Genesis, Benary. Psalms, Uhlemann and George. Isaiah, Hengstenberg and Vatke. Job, Peterman. Sufferings and Resurrection of Christ, Hengstenberg. Matthew compared with Mark and Luke, Neander. Romans and Galatians, Philippi. Paul's short Epistles, Twesten.-Church History, Erbkam. Dogmatic History, Neander. History of the Doctrine of the Trinity, Uhlemann.- Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Althaus. Introd. to Philos., Kahle. Anthropology, Steffens. Anthropology and Psychology, Gabler. Psychology, Trendelenburg and Beneke.-Hist. of Ancient Phil., Gabler. Hist. of Kant's Phil., Trendelenburg-Universal History, von Raumer. Hist. of Antiquity, Müller. Rome, E. A. Schmidt. Greece, W. Ad. Schmidt. Middle Ages, Ranke.-Universal Geog., Ritter. Ancient Geog., Müller.
In the July No. of the Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, pub. lished at Halle, we have the number of students in the several Universities. At Berlin there were 1607; at Bonn, 600; Breslau, 629; Giessen, 404; Göttingen, 693; Halle, 606 ; Heidelberg, 701; Jena, 484; Köningsberg, 392; Leipsic, 287; Marburg, 941; München, 1545; Würzburg, 442.
In the same No. of the same journal, we find the following statement of the attendance at the Prussian Universities, in 1829 and 1838. The reason of the decrease is not given.
1829. 1838. Whole number of students 6049 4480 Native
4874 3687 Foreign
793 Theolog. (Prot.)
2182 1168 (Cath.)
411 Law, etc.
1848 1044 Medical
930 Greece. The University at Athens is prosperous. It has 10 students in theology, 137 in law, 30 in medicine and 55 in philosophy; whole number 232. Its professors are arranged as follows: In Theology the prof. ord. is Apostolides; extraord., Kon. togonis.-Law, ord., Rallis, Herzog, Maurokordatus; honor., Argyropoulos, Pellikas, Feder, Soutžos.—Medicine, ord., Leokias, Vouros, Kostis, Olympios, Damianos; hon., Lebadios, A. Rallis, Treiber.-Philosophy, ord., Schinas, Domnandos, Gennadios, Venthylos, Ross, Bambas, Philippos, Ulrich, Negris, Vouris, Landerer; hon., Manonsis; extraord., Fraas.
United States. The long expected work of Dr. Robinson and Rev. E. Smith, on Palestine and the Countries on the South, is in the press. It is drawn up from the original diaries, and is copiously illustrated by Dr. Robinson. It will be published in the spring, in three volumes; and will previously make its appearance in England.—The second volume of Dr. Nordheimer's Hebrew Grammar will be ready for delivery the first week in January, From a cursory perusal of some of the sheets, we are persuaded that it will be an important addition to Hebrew Literature. Our readers may expect a review of the work in the next No. of the Repository.-Prof. Turner, of the Episc. Theol. Sem., New-York, has a Commentary on Genesis in the press.Prof. Bush's Commentary on Exodus, in two volumes, may be looked for in March.
SECOND SERIES, NO X.-WHOLE NO, XLII.
THE STUDIES OF AN ORATOR.
By Samuel Gilman Brown, Evans Professor of Oratory and Belles-Lettres, Dartmouth
College, Hanover, N. H.
ELOQUENCE has ever been honored. Men have admired and praised him who, by argument or persuasion, has been able to excite and guide the minds of great masses of people. The orator has stood side by side with the poet. Rhetoric, unfortunately, has held a more precarious position,-a position alternately of undeserved fame, and of unmerited neglect. At one period it embraced, within its dubious limits, all science, all literature, all that was necessary for the complete education of the scholar. At another, it paid, for a too ambitious empire, the heavy penalty of degradation and entire neglect. Some remnants of dishonor have clung to the art, even until the present time. Where criticism begins, eloquence has been thought to end. Rhetoric,—its opponents have said,—is adverse to the highest eloquence, or at least, not exactly congenial with it. It is a lifeless art; it does not teach us to contemplate beauty in a supple, living body, but, with scalpel and forceps, to examine the mechanism of the dead. In the midst of thrilling music and graceful motion, it tells us that the music and the motion were made by contracting or dilating the glottis, by swelling or expanding a muscle. The name is significant; and while eloSECOND SERIES, VOL. V. NO. II.
quence is a synonym for all that can persuade and excite, rhetoric is a synonym for mechanical rules; and the rhetorician is one, who, forgetting the subject, is intent only on the form and drapery of the subject: one who would construct a perfect man, wanting only a heart and vitality.
Perhaps we owe it to the practical disposition of our countrymen, who can devote little time to matters which even border upon speculation, that these ideas have not obtained much notice with us. Let us hope that another reason is, that we have a clearer insight into the nature and objects of rhetoric, and a more correct definition of its boundaries.
Doubtless the mere rhetorician is seldom an orator; still more, the
age of rhetoricians has seldom been the age of orators. Rhetoric loses its beauty and fitness, advances beyond its limits, when it aspires to command, not to assist the speaker. Depending upon analysis, it must, of course, succeed the oratory which it analyzes. It clearly has no legitimate authority which it does not derive from the spoken or written word. Not till after orators and poets had moved and persuaded men, did rhetoricians inquire how they did it: and if ever the art pretends to reproduce, by mechanical means, the effects which originally came from vital powers, it becomes empirical and worthless. “The power by which poetry is poetry,”—and must we not also believe that the power by which eloquence is eloquence ?—“is beyond the reach of analysis.” Life is always incomprehensible. I know that I raise my arm ; I know that the blood circulates; but the principle of life eludes my subtlest researches. I can make an automaton that shall raise his arm, and pump a crimson fluid through his leathern veins, but he will remain an automaton still. Rhetoric, like every critical art, will rather guide one in the old track than mark out for him a new one; correct his faults, rather than inspire virtues; teach the speaker to avoid bombast or obscurity; polish his rough and ungainly angles, and render him an interesting and attractive speaker : but if he have not the spirit within him, it never can make him eloquent.
Yet, to affirm that the study of the art is incompatible with its exercise, is to deny the existence of an orator since the days of Aristotle and Quinctilian, to invade the hitherto inviolate pre-eminence of the Grecian and the Roman, to uncrown and depose the kings and priests of eloquence in every age. If obedience to rules be an evil, the evil might, we hope, be lim