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interest. It furnishes an additional proof of a doctrine which was once the life of the Christian church. It makes no allusion, indeed, to the longings of the heathen for immortality. It presents no splendid description of the renovation of the material universe. But it introduces a theme far more welcome to the child of God. It points him directly to his glorious destiny—to the resurrection and glorification of his body. It derives an argument for the confirmation of his faith from facts furnished by his consciousness and experience. It reminds him that he is “ a joint heir with Christ," and consequently, destined to enjoy the glory which is to be revealed. Thus he is encouraged to look beyond the grave for the manifestation” of his real character, and the enjoyment of his promised inheritance. His very afflictions become a source of consolation, by becoming the evidence of his future bliss. He is assured, by all that is endearing in his relation to God as his Father, by all that is real in the conscious witness of the Spirit, nay, by all that is unwelcome in his present degraded and suffering condition, that he shall finally be raised in the likeness of his Saviour, and shall then participate in the glories of the heavenly kingdom.



By Professor Henry P. Tappan, New York City.

An Historical Presentation of Augustinism and Pelagianism,

from the original sources : by G. F. Wiggers, D. D., Professor of Theology in the University of Rostock, etc, Translated from the German, with Notes and Additions, by Rev. Ralph Emerson, Prof. of Eccl. Hist, in the Theol. Sem. Andover, Mass. Andover : Gould, Newman & Saxton.

pp. 383.

The history of Christianity may be taken up under two phases, the narrative of external and visible events, and its philosophical and dogmatical history. Both are important, both are indispensable. Nor may the one be viewed separately from the other : for they have ever acted upon each other reciprocally. External events have influenced philosophies and dogmas, and the latter have influenced the former.

But the point particularly to be considered under the second phasis, and one unquestionably of the highest moment, is the connection between Christianity, taken in its utmost purity and simplicity, and the philosophies and dogmas which were abroad in the world when she made her appearance upon the theatre of humanity, or which were called up and modified upon the occasion of herpresence. In this work we have to disintegrate the Christianity of Christ and his apostles from the opinions of men; and to show how these various, and often contradictory opinions were combined with the simple element of revelation, thus producing all the different forms of nominal Christianity, of sects and heresies.

The Bible is not peculiarly a book for philosophers and scholars; it is a book for benighted, erring, lost men of every grade. Coming from the purest source and on the most benevolent mission, ere we had entered upon its examination, we might reasonably expect to find it beautifully adapted to its end. Has God given a rule of duty and a revelation of truth, only to involve us in endless disputations? Has he opened to us a way of redemption, and given us a promise of eternal life, accompanied with a pressing exhortation to “ lay hold” upon it; and yet, is this way enveloped in such obscurity, and this promise given so doubtfully, that we are compelled to turn away from the glory of the prize, and from the consideration of the urgency of our circumstances, in order to settle curious dogmas, and to balance nicely the “ oppositions of science ?"

Some of the lepers, the blind, the deaf, the halt, the maimed, the paralytic, in the days of Jesus Christ, may have been men of very curious and subtle minds, and given much to philosophical speculation ; and ere they could be persuaded to avail themselves of his miraculous power, they may have thought it indispensable to determine the possibility and the modes of miraculous interposition. We find, however, that Bartimeus experienced the healing benefit, without any previous disquisition upon causes and modes: and the blind man mentioned by the apostle John, when called upon to account for the restoration of his sight, could only reply: “One thing I know, that whereas I was born blind, now I see.”

These instances may be taken as a type of the whole dispensation of grace. Men of philosophical genius, taste and learning may find much to speculate about. Still, the fact is before us, that in the days of Christ and his apostles and in all subsequent times, multitudes of our race, who were destitute of philosophical genius and acquirements, have, under the simplest presentation of “Christ and him crucified,” believed unto salvation. In their ignorance, or in their neglect of philosophy, they found nothing wanting to the energy of their faith, or to the strength and comfort of their hope.

The world in which we live is wonderfully and beautifully ,adapted to our wants and uses. The appropriation, in the first instance, is not made by men of deep science, but by men of limited attainments and ordinary pursuits. Before philosophy, with her thoughtful brow and all penetrating eye, was born; before science had measured the earth and the heavens, and weighed the winds, the mountains and the oceans, and decomposed matter into its fine and subtle elements, there was skill in agriculture and mechanical art; there were a thousand practical rules in being and in use; and nature was extensively known, and her good things enjoyed, as the gifts of a familiar and bountiful parent.

Afterwards came philosophy and science. They expanded the mind, they elevated the nature, they extended the dominion of man. But they did not disclaim the facts which had been already observed; they did not quarrel with the practical and useful rules which had been formed by a spontaneous induction. A multitude of these rules were substantially just, and were never to be laid aside: philosophy might explain but not supersede them. Others were led on from a crude to a perfected state, by nicer experiments, and more thoughtful observations and comparisons. Others were superseded by the discovery of new rules more useful. And many fields of useful and bountiful productiveness were laid open, which were unknown before.

Philosophy and science perfected art, and gave to industry a gigantic power. The new discoveries, and the more exact knowledges, while they extended and perfected whạt had gone before, worked into it harmoniously and benignly. The introduction of a better implement for tilling the earth, or an improvement in ship-building, or a more wholesome and palatable manufacture of bread, or a finer, warmer and more beautiful manufacture of garments, or a more convenient and nobler architecture would be benefits alike obvious, whether introduced by laborious and unscientific experiments, or by the application of mechanical, chemical and ästhetical principles. And while these higher efforts were in progress, and before any palpable and sure result in any branch had been attained, the old, honely and useful rules and usages held sway, and produced their accu tomed benefits. The rude and unwieldy plough would not be laid aside, and the earth suffered to lie untilled, because a skilful mechanician had given out that he was about to produce a more convenient implement: nor would the mariner cease to regulate his navigation by the jutting headlands and capes, and by the sun and stars, because a report had gone forth that an instrument would soon be abroad, which would enable him to sail in the dark night, and to launch away from the land into the unknown ocean.

Now, what the plain facts of nature are to men universally in common life, in all that relates to our physical and social being, the Bible is to men universally in common life, in all that relates to their spiritual, responsible and immortal being. The Bible is a plain array of facts, rules, precepts, doctrines and promises. It is of universal interest and moment, and it is given in the simplest and most appropriate language.

The incarnation of the Son of God, his miracles, his sufferings and death, his resurrection from the dead and ascension into heaven are all given clearly as facts. And so, likewise, all the teachings of Christ and his apostles consist in the annunciation of facts, in the statement of truths in simple and intelligible propositions, in drawing obvious and forcible conclusions from generally admitted truths, and in urging these upon the attention of men with great earnestness and simplicity, accompanied with solemn comminations and “ exceedingly precious promises."

Many of these facts and truths are mysterious in their nature; as the incarnation, miracles, death and resurrection of Christ, the mission of the Holy Spirit in regenerating, sanctify, ing and comforting the heart, the resurrection of the dead, and the world to come. And even many, which are more generally professed to be understood, have their measure of mystery; as the doctrine of the atonement and intercession of Christ, and of justification by faith. There are a multitude of curious philosophical inquiries which may be started respecting these truths; and we do not deny the interest and importance of these inquiries. But ere we commence these inquiries, we have the facts and the inspired propositions in all their integrity, containing rules of duty and objects of faith and hope, in their sublime utility-bringing peace, salvation and eternal life to a sinful and lost race.

Paul's mind partook of that character which we call philosophical ; and there is reason to believe that he was both philosophically and classically educated. Some of the writings of John, particularly a part of the first chapter of his gospel, may produce the same impression. We believe, however, that a philosophical aspect in the portions referred to will present itself strongly only to those who traverse the pages of the Bible on a philosophical hunt, and who are eager to find food and authority for preconceived theories. Paul and John, after all, only affirm truths upon divine authority; or where deductions are made, they arise spontaneously and obviously, and by no intricate and difficult logic. The spirit of all Scripture is conveyed in the noble declaration of John: “That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled of the Word of life; that which we have seen and heard declare we unto you."

What is true of the writings of the apostles is true likewise, in an eminent degree, of the teaching of Jesus Christ. He, certainly, has nothing of the manner of a speculating philosopher. The only approach to a concealment of his meaning is found in his parables. The truths conveyed under these are very simple and striking, and were readily explained to his disciples when they applied to him in private, and would, undoubtedly, have been explained to any other persons who should have manifested the same interest in his instructions. This mode of teaching was at the time intended as a rebuke of the unbelieving Jews. The exposition of these parables the evangelists have given in full.

Few, comparatively, have the genius and the learning to enter upon the deep philosophical researches connected with the truths of the gospel. If there be any man, or any number of men who can enter upon these researches, with the true philosophical spirit, after a true philosophical method, and become to the metaphysical world what Kepler, and Galileo, and Tycho Brahe, and Leibnitz, and Newton were to the physical world great and sure interpreters—then may we gain higher views of our own being, and of the being of God and his moral govern

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