The Self and Its Brain

Springer Science & Business Media, 6 de dez. de 2012 - 598 páginas
The problem of the relation between our bodies and our minds, and espe cially of the link between brain structures and processes on the one hand and mental dispositions and events on the other is an exceedingly difficult one. Without pretending to be able to foresee future developments, both authors of this book think it improbable that the problem will ever be solved, in the sense that we shall really understand this relation. We think that no more can be expected than to make a little progress here or there. We have written this book in the hope that we have been able to do so. We are conscious of the fact that what we have done is very conjectur al and very modest. We are aware of our fallibility; yet we believe in the intrinsic value of every human effort to deepen our understanding of our selves and of the world we live in. We believe in humanism: in human rationality, in human science, and in other human achievements, however fallible they are. We are unimpressed by the recurrent intellectual fashions that belittle science and the other great human achievements. An additional motive for writing this book is that we both feel that the debunking of man has gone far enough - even too far. It is said that we had to learn from Copernicus and Darwin that man's place in the universe is not so exalted or so exclusive as man once thought. That may well be.

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The Connectivities of Cortical Areas
Connectivities of the Limbic System Hassler 1967 Nauta 1971
Chapter E2 Conscious Perception 7 Résumé
Cutaneous Perception Somaesthesis
Visual Perception
Auditory Perception
Olfactory Perception

Indeterminism the Interaction of Levels of Emergence
Chapter P2 The Worlds 1 2 and 3
The Reality of World 3
Unembodied World 3 Objects
Grasping a World 3 Object
The Reality of Unembodied World 3 Objects
World 3 and the MindBody Problem
Chapter P3 Materialism Criticized 16 Four Materialist or Physicalist Positions
Materialism and the Autonomous World 3
Radical Materialism or Radical Behaviourism
A Revised Form of J B S Haldanes Refutation of Materialism
The SoCalled Identity Theory
Does the Identity Theory Escape the Fate of Epiphenomenalism?
A Critical Note on Parallelism The Identity Theory as a Form of Parallelism
Additional Remarks on some Recent Materialist Theories
The New Promissory Materialism
Results and Conclusion
Chapter P4 Some Remarks on the Self 28 Introduction
The Ghost in the Machine
Learning to be a Self
The Self and Its Brain
The Biological Approach to Human Knowledge and Intelligence
Consciousness and Perception
The Biological Function of Conscious and of Intelligent Activity
The Integrative Unity of Consciousness
The Continuity of the Self
The Natural Selection of Theories
Criticism of the Theory of Unconditioned and Conditioned Reflexes
Kinds of Memory
The Self Anchored in World 3
Chapter P5 Historical Comments on the MindBody Problem 43 The History of Our Picture of the Universe
A Problem to be Solved by What Follows
The Prehistoric Discovery of the Self and of World 2
The MindBody Problem in Greek Philosophy
Conjectural versus Ultimate Explanation
A Shift in the MindBody Problem
The Occasionalists and Spinoza
From Parallelism to Identity
The End of Ultimate Explanation
The Association of Ideas as an Ultimate Explanation
Neutral Monism
From Kant to Feigl 55 Linguistic Parallelism
A Final Look at Materialism
Chapter P6 Summary
Bibliography to Part I
Part II
Chapter E1 The Cerebral Cortex 1 Résumé
Anatomical Introduction
The Columnar Arrangement and the Modular Concept of the Cerebral Cortex
Modular Interaction
Emotional Colouring of Conscious Perceptions
Chapter E3 Voluntary Movement 15 Résumé
The Motor Unit
The Motor Cortex
Voluntary Movement
The Cerebellar Controls of Voluntary Movement
The OpenLoop Circuits via the Basal Ganglia
Synthesis of the Various Neuronal Mechanisms Concerned in the Control of Voluntary Movement
General Discussion
Chapter E4 The Language Centres of the Human Brain
Experiments on Exposed Brains
Intracarotid Injections of Sodium Amytal 29 The Dichotic Listening Test
The SelfConscious Mind and Speech
Anatomical Substrates of Speech Mechanisms
The Acquisition of Language
Chapter E5 Global Lesions of the Human Cerebrum 33 Résumé
Introduction 35 Investigations on the Human Brain After Commissural Section Commissurotomy
Discussion on Commissurotomy
Investigations on the Human Cerebrum After Gross Lesions 38 Hemispherectomy
Summary of Linguistic Abilities Disclosed by Global Lesions
Chapter E6 Circumscribed Cerebral Lesions 40 Résumé
Temporal Lobe Lesions
Parietal Lobe Lesions
Occipital Lobe Lesions 45 Frontal Lobe Lesions
Limbic System Lesions
The Dominant and Minor Hemispheres
Chapter E7 The Selfconscious Mind and the Brain 48 Résumé
Selfconscious Mind and the Brain
Hypothesis of Interaction of Selfconscious Mind and the Liaison Brain
The Hypothesis of Cortical Modules and the Selfconscious Mind
Sleep Dreams and Various Forms of Unconsciousness
Plasticity of Open Modules
The Cerebral Processes Concerned in Storage and Retrieval 56 Résumé
Structural and Functional Changes Possibly Related
Hypotheses of Neuronal Happenings in Memory Storage
Retrograde Amnesia
Dialogue I
Dialogue II
Dialogue III
Dialogue IV
Dialogue VI
Dialogue VII
Dialogue VIII
Dialogue IX
Dialogue X
Dialogue XI
Dialogue XII
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