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of superstition it should seem that the union of the regal and sacerdotal characters would mutually fortify each other; and that the keys of paradise would be the surest pledge of earthly obedience,” &c.*

He had two horns as a lamb. The pope subscribes himself the servant of servants. year, in mock imitation of the meek and lowly Jesus, he washes the feet of twelve pilgrims. The name of pope implies that his government and authority are only paternal. And as prophecy adopted the arms of Macedon (the he-goat), and of Persia (a ram with two horns, the one higher than the other), and used the designation of eagle, in allusion to the imperial power, so the pope has adopted his own prophetic symbol of a lamb. Among the different flags of all the kingdoms of the world, as may be seen by reference to Danville's atlas, on the edge of a map, there is one, a lamb at the foot of the cross, thus,


But though a lamb was his adopted symbol, yet he spake as a dragon. The bulls that were subscribed - the servant of servants” were often interdicts to kingdoms, sentences of excommunication against princes, or deposition of kings. However meek the pretence, the words of the father of the church were the acts of him who spake marvellous words against the Most High, as those of a dragon, and of the man of sin who exalted himself above all.


* Gibbon's Hist, vol. xii. p. 261.


« In the ambitious contests which the


maintained for the rights of the church, their sufferings or their success must equally tend to increase the popular veneration. They sometimes wandered in poverty and exile, the victims of persecution; and the apostolic zeal with which they offered themselves to martyrdom must engage the favour and sympathy of every catholic breast. And sometimes thundering from the vatican, they created, judged, and deposed the kings of the world : nor could the proudest Roman be disgraced by submitting to a priest, whose feet were kissed, and whose stirrup was held by the successor of Charlemagne.

He had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.

And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him.

“ After the loss of her legions and provinces, the genius and fortune of the popes again restored the supremacy of Rome.+—“Under the sacerdotal monarchy of St. Peter, the nations began to resume the practice of seeking, on the banks of the Tiber, their kings, their laws, and the oracles of their fate.”I-" The sovereignty of Rome no longer depended on the choice of a fickle people; and the successors of St. Peter and Constantine were invested with the purple and prerogatives of the Cæsars.”

The first beast was wounded to death, but his deadly wound was healed ; and the second beast causeth the earth, and them that dwell therein, to worship the first beast whose deadly wound was healed.

“ On the festival of Christmas, the last year of the eighth century, Charlemagne appeared in the church of St. Peter's, and, to gratify the vanity of Rome, he had exchanged the simple dress of his country for the habit of a patrician. After the celebration of the holy mysteries, Leo (the pope) suddenly placed a precious crown on his head, and the dome resounded with the acclamations of the people, · Long life and victory to Charles, the most pious Augustus, crowned by God the great and pacific EMPEROR OF THE ROMANS ! The head and body of Charlemagne were consecrated by the

* Gibbon's Hist. vol. xii. pp. 261, 262. † Ib. vol. ix. p. 131, c. 49. # Ibid. p. 15).

Ś Ibid. p. 161. See above, p. 96, &c.

royal unction; after the example of the Cæsars, he was saluted or adored by the pontiff; his coronation oath represents a promise to maintain the faith and privileges of the church, and the first fruits were paid in his rich offerings to the shrine of the apostle. The appellation of great has been often bestowed, and sometimes deserved; but CHARLEMAGNE is the only prince in whose favour the title has been indissolubly blended with the name. That name, with the addition of saint, is inserted in the Roman calendar, and the saint, by a rare felicity, is crowned with the praises of the historians and philosophers of an enlightened age. Without injustice to his fame, I may discern some blemishes in the sanctity and greatness of THE RESTORER OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE.

“ When Otho, the king of Germany, restored and appropriated the western empire, (A. D. 962), after the fall of the Charlovignian race, at the head of a victorious army he passed the Alps, subdued the kingdom of Italy, delivered the pope, and (for ever) fixed the imperial crown in the name and nation of Germany. From that memorable era, two maxims of public jurisprudence were introduced by force, and ratified by time. I. That the prince who was elected at the German diet, acquired from that instant the subject kingdoms of Italy and Rome. JI. But that he might not legally assume the titles of emperor and Augustus till he had received the crown from the hands of the Roman pontiff.+

" In the beginning of the twelfth century, the era of the first crusade, Rome was revered by the Latins, as the metropolis of the world, as the throne of the pope and the empe. ror; who, from the eternal derived their title, their honours, and the right of exercise of temporal dominion. After so long an interruption, it may not be useless to repeat, that the successors of Charlemagne and the Othos were chosen beyond the Rhine in a national diet; but that these princes were content with the humble names of kings of Germany and Italy, till they had passed the Alps and the Appenines, to seek THEIR IMPERIAL CROWN on the banks of the Tiber. At some distance from the city, their approach was saluted by a long procession of the clergy and people, with palms and crosses ; and the terrific emblems of wolves and lions, of dragons and eagles, that floated in the military banners, represented the departed legions and cohorts of the republic. The royal oath to maintain the liberties of Rome, was thrice reiterated, at the bridge, the gate, and the stairs of the * Gibbon's Hist. vol. ix. pp. 173–175. + Ibid. pp. 190, 191,

Vatican; and the distribution of a customary donative feebly imitated the magnificence of the first Cæsars. In the church of St. Peter, the coronation was performed by his successor; the voice of God was confounded with that of the people; and the public consent was declared in the acclamations of Long life and victory to our lord the pope! Long life and victory to our lord the emperor! Long life and victory to the Roman and Teutonic armies ! The name of Cæsar and Augustus, the laws of Constantine and Justinian, the example of Charlemagne and Otho, established the supreme dominion of the emperors; their title and inage was engraved on the papal coins ; and their jurisdiction was marked by the sword of justice, which they delivered to the prefect of the city, &c.

Once, and once only in his life, each emperor, with an army of Teutonic vassals, descended from the Alps.”

The restoration of the western empire, or that of Rome, by the pope, scarcely requires any farther illustration ; but the following extract from the pen of an able lawyer, shews so tersely and distinctly how the nations of Europe were connected, and forms so obvious an elucidation of the prophecy, as descriptive both of papal and imperial Rome, that such testimony may be associated with that of Gibbon.

“ There was no general connexion existing between the states of Europe, till the Romans, in endeavouring to make themselves masters of the world, had the greatest part of the European states under their dominion. From that time there necessarily existed a sort of connexion between them, and this connexion was strengthened by the famous decree of Caracalla, by the adoption of the Roman laws, and by the influence of the Christian religion, which introduced itself insensibly into almost all the subdued states. After the destruction of the empire of the west, the hierarchical system naturally led the several Christian states to consider themselves in ecclesiastical matters as unequal members of one great society. Besides the immoderate ascendant that the bishop of Rome had the address to obtain, as spiritual chief of the church, and his consequent success in elevating the emperor to the character of temporal chief, brought such an accession of authority to the latter, that most of the nations of Europe showed for some ages so great a deference to

Gibbon's Hist. vol. xii. pp. 258, 259, c. 69.


the emperor, that in many respects Europe seemed to form but one society, consisting of unequal members subject to one sovereign.

And he doth great wonders, so that he maketh fire to come down from heaven upon earth in the sight of men, and deceiveth them that dwell upon the earth by means of those miracles which he hath


to do in the sight of the beast, saying to them that dwell on the earth that they should make an image to the beast which had the wound by a sword and did live. And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed. It was a realm of darkness over which

popery reigned ; its power lay in the pretence of miracles, its art in deceiving the people; and not only did it restore the empire of Rome, and healed its deadly wound, but gave life also to the image of the beast, and re-established the idolatry of the pagan emperors. The connexion between miracles and the revival of image-worship, may be seen in the very titles of immediately succeeding paragraphs of Gibbon's history, thus following in close order,—“ fabulous martyrs and relicsmiracles-revival of polytheism-introduction of pagan ceremonies.”+

“ In the long period of twelve hundred years, which elapsed between the reign of Constantine and the reformation of Luther, the worship of saints and relics corrupted the pure and perfect simplicity of the Christian model. The progress of superstition would have been less rapid and victorious, if the faith of the people had not been assisted by the seasonable aid of visions and miracles, &c. The tombs of the martyrs were the perpetual theatre of innumerable miracles. The sublime and simple theology of the primitive Christians

* Brewster's Encyclop. vol. xii. p. 618. Art. Law, by the late James Bell, Esq. Advocate.

+ Gibbon's Hist. vol. v. pp. 127-136, four conclud ing paragraphs of chap. 27.

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