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To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures: To establish post-offices and post-roads: To secure to authors and inventors copy-rights and patents: To punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and against the law of nations: To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal; raise and support armies; provide and maintain a navy; to regulate the land and naval forces: To exercise exclusive legislation over the District of Columbia, and over all places purchased for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, &c. The Executive power is vested in a President of the United States of America. The President is Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States; he has power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. He has power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur: and he nominates, and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoints Ambassadors, other public Ministers, and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not otherwise provided for. The Judiciary is composed of a Supreme Court, of one Chief and six associate Justices; of 33 District Courts, of one Judge each, except that six of the states are divided into two Districts each; and of 7 Circuit Courts, composed of the Judge of the District and one of the Justices of the Supreme Court. The Judges both of the Supreme and inferior Courts, hold their office during good behaviour. The judicial power extends to all eases in law and equity arising under the constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made under their authority: to all cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers, and Consuls: to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction: to controversies to which the United States is a party: to controversies between two or more states; between citizens of different states; or between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects. The principal Executive officers, are the Secretaries of State, of War, and of the Navy, the Post-Master General, and the Attorney General. The Secretary of State conducts the negociations with foreign powers, and corresponds with the public Ministers of the United States abroad, and with those of foreign states near the United States. He has the charge of the United States Seal, preserves the originals of the laws and treaties, and of the public correspondence growing out of the intercourse between the United States and foreign nations; he grants passports to American citizens visiting foreign countries; has the control of the the Patent Office, and preserves the evidence of copy-rights.
REvenue AND MEANs For 1839, ÉxcLUSIVE of TRUSTs AND THE POST OFFICE.
The balance in the Treasury on the 1st of January, 1839, which could be considered available for general purposes, was - - - - - - $2,466,961 95 The receipts from customs, the first three quarters, $18,328,393 50 Receipts from lands the first three quarters, including also some collected last year in Trea
sury notes - - - - - - 5,417,286 31 Miscellaneous receipts - - - - - 125,208 78 Estimatetl receipts for the fourth quarter from
all those sources - - - - - 5,700,000 00
Receipts on some of the debts against banks not available on 1st January, 1839, but since paid 1,322,686 00 From the third issue of Treasury notes under
the act of March 2, 1839 - - - 3,857,276 21 Aggregate means 37,217,812 75
ExPENDITURES FOR 1839, ExcLUSIVE of THE Post of FICE AND
TRUSTS. Civil, foreign, and miscellaneous, for the first three quarters - - - - - $3,649,508 23 Military, for the first three quarters - - 10,791,799 21 Naval, for the first three quarters - - 4,713,701 57 Estimate for all, during the fourth quarter - 5,600,000 00 Funded debt for the year - - - 14,658 98
24,769,667 99 Redemption of Treasury notes in the first three
quarters, interest as well as principal - 9,891,859 83 Estimated amount of notes redeemed in the
fourth quarter - - - - - 1,000,000 00
- Aggregate payments 35,661,427 82
Leaving an available balance of money in the
37,217,812 75 20,156,385 00 76,346,635 29 of the interest and charges of this debt, amounted to - - - - - - - $76,374 77
ExpoRTs AND IMPORTs witHIN THE commeRCIAL YEAR 1839.
The exports during the year ending September 30, 1839, are computed to have been $118,359,004. This is $9,872,388 more than those in the year 1838.
Of the whole exports only $17,408,000 were of foreign origin, and of the excess in exports over 1838, only about five millions were domestic produce.
The imports during the same year were about $157,609,560, being the very large excess of $43,892,156 over those during the previous year. The difference between the imports and exports, being $39,250,556 in favor of the former.
ESTIMATE OF THE RECEIPTS AND ExPENDITURES FOR 1840.
It is computed that the aggregate of receipts available for public purposes, will not exceed $18,600,000, viz: from
Customs - - - - - - $15,000,000 00 Lands - - - - - ... • - 3,500,000 00 Miscellaneous - - - - 100,000 00
Add to these the balance available and applica ble to other purposes, which it is supposed will be in the Treasury on the 1st of January, 1840. - - - - - - 1,556,385 00
The efficient means in that year will then amount in the aggregate to If Congress should make appropriations to the extent desired by the different departments, the expenditures for 1840, independent of the redemption of Treasury notes, are estimated at - - - - - " - - 20,000,000 00 Including all the Treasury notes to be redeemed, o the aggregate expenditure would be about 22,750,000 00 This would leave a deficit in the Treasury at the close of the year, amounting to - - 2,593,615 00 But there will be due from the United States Bank, in September next, on its fourth bond, about - - - - - - - 2,526,576 00 The principal now due on the Treasurer's deposites in the other banks, which suspended specie payments in 1837, is - - - 1,149,904, 00 Should all these claims be collected in 1840, they would prevent a deficiency, and leave an available balance in the Treasury of nearly 1,082,865 00 According to the opinions of the different departments, as to the sums of money proper for each, and which constitute the basis of the estimates submitted to Congress, the new appropriations required for the next year will equal the sum
Receipts and Expenditures of the United States for the year 1838.
Balance in the Treasury on the 1st January,
1838 - - - - - - RECEIPTS.
Customs - - - - $16,158,800 36
Lands - - - - 3,081,939 47
Second and third instalments due from the Bank of the United
States - - - - 4,542,102 22
Miscellaneous items - - 369,813 29
Treasury notes - - - 12,716,820 86
Trust funds - - - 2,149,906 40
Civil, miscellaneous, and foreign
intercourse - - - $5,666,702 68 Military - - - 19,936,311 57 Naval - - - - 5,941,381 94 Public debt - - - 2,217 08 Treasury notes redeemed, inclu
ding interest - - - 5,603,503 19 Trust funds - - - 2,305,321 89
Balance on the 1st January, 1839
Of the public debt.
The payments on account of the (old) funded and unfunded debt, since the 1st December, 1838, have been as follows:
1. On account of the principal and interest of the funded N debt:
Principal - - - - - - - $13,012 48
Interest - - - - - - - 1,000 34
Leaving unclaimed and undischarged - 311,508 01
Principal - - - - $62,941 99
2. On account of the unfunded debt - - $646, 16
Leaving the amount of certificates and notes pay
able on presentation - - - - - $36,267 24 Wiz: o
Certificates issued for claims during the revolutionary war, and
registered prior to 1798 $26,652 15 Treasury notes issued during the
late war - - - - 5,295 00 Certificates of Mississippi stock 4,320 09
Debts of the corporate cities of the District of Columbia, assumed by the United States, viz: Of the city of Washington - - - - $1,000,000 00 Alexandria - - - - 250,000 00 Georgetown - - - - 250,000 00
$1,500,000 00 iThe payments during the year 1839, on account