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436

439

304

172. Cross of Kanadagea..

.Page 256 267. Arnold's Residence, New Haven

.Page 12)

173. Cross of Tinyahasara, or Little Abraham

256 268. Savin Rock....

422

174. Signature of Daniel

256 269. West Bridge and Milford Hill

423

175. Excavations at Little Falls.

259270. Campbell's Monument,

423

176. View of Little Falls ..

259 271. Landing place of General Tryon.

424

177. View below Moss Ibland..

259 272. The Buckley House..

426

178. General Herkimer's Residence.

260 273. Humphreys's Monument.

429

179, Herkimer's Grave..

260 274. Portrait of Colonel Humphreys.

429

180. Castle Church.

261 275. Portait of Dr. Eneas Munson.

430

181. Fort Plain..

261 276. Signature of Nathan Beers..

431

182. Fort Plain Block-house

262 277. Initial Letter

432

183. Lipe's House

263 278. First Meeting-house in Connecticut

433

181. Old Parsonage and Church

263 | 279. The Charter Oak

4:34

185. Initial Letter.

264 280, The Webb House.

186. Armed Settlers.

266 281. Elder Brewster's Chest, brought in the May Flower. 437

.87. Signature of Walter Butler.

270 282. Key of the Chest..

437

188. Portrait of General Sullivan.

272 283. Fac-simile of the Signatures of the Pilgrimg.

438

189. Order of March against the Indians

274 284. Ancient Chair

438

190. Initial Letter.

284 285. Chopping-knife.

438

191. The Butler House..

285 286. Putnam's Tavern Sign.

192. Signature of John Butler

285 287. The old Colony Seal.

445

193. North Front of Johnson Hall

286 288. Ancient Map of Massachusetts Bay.

416

194. Signature of Sir John Johnson.

286 289. The “Pine tree Shilling"

449

195. Vignette on Sir William Johnson's Diploma.. 288 290. The Beacon in Boston.

451

196. The Kane House ..

292 291. Fac simile of the first American l'aper Money. 452

197. Portrait, House, and Signature of J. Dievendorf. 293 292. Seal of George III., the Purse, and Chancellor's Mace. 456

198. Mansion of Judge Campbell..

296 293. Initial Letter

457

199. Distant View of Cherry Valley

297 294. Portrait of George III. at the Time of his Accession.. 457

200. Brant's Rock...

297 295. Usual Appearance of King George III., 1776.

458

201. Portrait of Hendrick Hudson

301 296. Portrait of Queen Charlotte.

458

202. Schuyler's Mansion at Albany.

297, Portrait of George Grenville.

400

203. Initial Letter ...

305 298. Portrait of Colonel Barré.

463

204. Washington's Head-quarters at Morristown.

309 299. Liberty Tree.

466

205. Schuyler's Head-quarters at Morristown.

315 300. Portrait of Governor Hutchinson.

469

206. Fac-simile of the Continental Paper Money. 317 301, Portrait of Charles, Marquis of Rockingham

470
207. Fac-simile of the first Money coined in the United 302. Portrait of William Pitt

472

States ...

318 303. The Province House.

474

208. Cipher Alphabet.

320 304. Portrait of John Dickinson..

476

209. Fac-simile of Cipher Writing

320 305. Faneuil Hall....

479

210. Old Apple-tree at Springfield.

322 306. Portrait of Augustus Henry, Duke of Grafton.

211. Plan of the Battle at Springfield.

322 307. Portrait of Lord North.

483

212. Mrs. Mathews's House

323 308. Initial Letter ..

213. Caldwell's Monument.

326 309. Title-page of the Boston Almanac, 1770.

486

214. Boudinot's Vault..

326 310. Music of the “Massachusetts Song of Liberty"

487

215. Old Tavern at Elizabethport.

328 311. The “Old South" Meeting-house.

490

216. Franklin's Stove.....

328 312. Signature of James Otis..

492

217. “Liberty Hall"

329 313. Portrait of Lord Dartmouth.

495

218. Portrait of Governor Livingston.

330314. Portrait of David Kinnison..

499

219. Steuben's Head-quarters at Middlebrook..

333 315. Portrait of G. R. T. Hewes.

501

220, Washington's Rock..

334 316. Portrait of Edmund Burke..

5003

221. Initial Letter

337 317. Hancock's House, Boston

507

222. Scene in the Wyoming Valley

341 318. Skull and Cross-bones"

507

22. Portrait of Count Zinzendorf

342 319. Disjointed Snake-device at the head of Newspapers 508

224. View near Toby's Eddy..

343 320. Initial Letter ..

509

225. Site of Wintermoot's Fort.

351 321. Portrait of Samuel Adams.

510

226. Position of the Wyoming Forts.

353 322. View of Boston from Dorchester, 1774

512

227. Signature of Colonel 2. Butler.

355 323. View of the Lines on Boston Neck.

513

228. The Susquehanna at Monocasy Island.

356 324. Portrait of John Hancock..

515

229. Queen Esther's Rock

357 325. Medallion Likeness of Adam Smith.

517

230. The Treaty Table....

359 326. Portrait of Edward Gibbon

519

231. Initial Letter..

364 3:27. Medallion Likeness of John Wilkes.

520

232 Wyoming Monument

365 328. Clarke's House, Lexington..

523

233. Frances Slocum-Ma-con-a-qua..

369 329. Skirmish at Lexington.

524

234. Timothy Pickering..

374 330. Signature of Colonel James Barret.

525

235. The Red House"

375 331. Colonel Barret's House.

526

236. Cars entering the Mines at Carbondale.

378 332. Battle-ground at Concord...

526

237. Lamp of a Miner..

378 333. Plan of the Monuments at Concord

527

238. Appearance of the Chambers in the Mines.

379 334. Initial Letter

533

239. View from the Shawangunk Mountains

381 335. Reverse of a Massachusetts Treasury Note, 1775. 534

240. Initial Letter

382 336. Charlestown and adjacent Hills in 1775..

538

241. The Van Kleek House, Poughkeepsie

383 337. Plan of the Redoubt on Breed's Hill.

540

242. The Livingston Mansion.

385 338. The New England Flag

541

243. The Constitution House, Kingston

387 339. Action on Breed's Hill

543

244. The Yeoman House....

388 340. Portrait of Joseph Warren

548

245. Monument in Church.yard, Kingston

389 341. Warren's Monument

549

2-16. View at the Mouth of the Rondout

390 342. Initial Letter ..

551

247. Van Schaick's Mill...

391 343. Monument at Concord

552

248. Portrait of General Stark

394 344. Monument at Lexington..

5553

249. Plan of the Battle of Bennington

395 345. Near View of the Monument.

553

250. The Bennington Battle-ground.

396 346. Portrait of Jonathan Harrington

554

251. Initial Letter ..

401 | 347. Washington's Head-quarters at Cambridge.

555

252. Distant View of Compo

402 | 318. The Riedesel House, Cambridge..

557

253. Head quarters of Agnew and Erskins.

403 | 349. Bunkcr Hill Monument.

558

254. Dibble's Barn..

404 350. Signature of the Baroness Riedesel

558

255. Portrait of Joel Barlow

405 351. Chantrey's Statue of Washington.

561

256. Portrait of Joseph Dilble.

406 352. Mather's Vault..

561

257. Portrait of General Wooster.

408 353. Cotton Mather's Writing

562

258. Place of the Barricades, Ridgefield

409 354, Speaker's Desk and Winthrop's Chair.

562

259. Place where Wooster Fell..

410 355, King Philip's Samp-pan

562

260. Putnam's Quarters..

411 356. Captain Church's Sword

562

261. Putnam's Hill

412 357. The Washington Elm, Cambridge

5564

262. Fitch's Point, the Landing place of the British. 413 358. Boston with its Environs, 1776

566

263. Darien Church

414 359. The Pine tree Flag

570

234. Grummon's Hill

415 360. Signature of Governor Gage

265. The Green, Fairfield

416 361. British Fort on Bunker Hill.

574

206 The Regicides' Tomb-stones

420 362. American Floating Battery.

575

573

363. Initial Letter

Page 577 444. Initial Letter

Page 698

364. Gold Medal awarded to Washington..

584 445. Great Chain and Mortars.

700

365. Medal struck in Honor of Lord North

586 446. View from Fort Clinton, looking North.

701

306. Roxbury Fort...

592 447. Koscuiszko's Garden..

701

367. Ground Plan of the Fort

592 448. Koscuiszko's Signature.

701

368. Initial Letter

595 449. Interior of Fort Putnam.

703

369. Signatures of Uncas and his Sons.

597 450. Signature of Bernard Romans

703

370. Uncas's Monument....

598 451. Plan of Fort Constitution

203

371. Residence of General Huntington

600 452. Plan of the Magazine...

104

372. Portrait of Jonathan Trumbull.

601 453. Signature of La Radiere

704

373. Governor Trumbull's War Office

602 454. View of West Point in 1780

704

374. The Trumbull House.

602 455. Signature of Duportail..

704

375. The Alden Tavern

603 456. Map of West Point

705

376. The Williams House

603 457. Ruins of Fort Putnam, as seen from Fort Webb, 707

377. The Trumbull Vault

603 458. View from Constitution Island.

708

378. Birth-place of Benedict Arnold.

604 459. Arnold's Willow..).

708

379. Governor Huntington's Mansion.

606 460. The Robinson House.

708

350. Governor Huntington's Tomb..

607 461. Portrait of Beverly Robinson

709

381. General Huntington's Tomb..

607 | 462. Portrait of Benedict Arnold

710

382. Map of New London Harbor..

609 463. Fac Similes of a part of Arnold and Andrè's Letters. 714

383. New London Harbor, looking North.

610 464. Signature of Elisha Sheldon.

715

384. View of the Landing-place of Arnold.

611 465. Map showing the Scene of Arnold's Treason.

716

385. Monument at Groton

614 466. Smith's House.

720

386. Portrait of Mrs. Bailey.

617 467, Signature of Villefranche

721

387. Bishop Seabury's Monument

618 468. Signature of Major Bauman

722

388. Initial Letter.

619 469. Fac Simile of Arnold's Pass..

723

389. Landing-place of Roger Williams.

620 470. Signature of Joshua H. Smith..

724

390. Signature of Roger Williams

623 471. Initial Letter,

125

391. Hopkins's Monument

624 472. Signatures of Arnold's Aids

725

392. Governor Cooke's Monument.

625 473. The Breakfast Room..

726

393. Signature of Stephen Hopkins

625 474. View at Beverly Dock.

729

394. Old Tavern in Providence

626 475. View near Fort Montgomery.

731

395. Stone Tower ..

628 476. Lake Sinnipink, or Bloody Pond

731

396. Gaspee Point.

628 477. Portrait of Beverly Garrison.

732

397. Signatures of the Commissioners

630 478. Picture of part of a Boom..

732

398. Old Tower at Newport

633 479. Plan of Attack upon Fort Montgomery

734

399. Inscription on Dighton Rock

634 480. View from Peekskill Landing...

734

400. Prescott's Head-quarters.

635 481. Signatures of Vaughan and Wallace..

736

401. Perry's Monument

635 482. The Birdsall House.

738

402. Top of 'Tonomy Hill.

636 483. Signature of Philip Van Cortlandt.

739

403. Hubbard's House and Mill.

636 484. Paulding's Monument, and St. Peter's Church.

739

404. Initial Letter

642485. View froin Gallows Hill

740

405. Portrait of Colonel William Barton.

643 486. Signature of Alexander M.Dougal..

740

406. Prescott's Head-quarters.

644 487. Signature of Sainuel H. Parsons

742

407. Portrait of D'Estaing.

646 488. Map of Verplanck's and Stony Points.

743

408. Plan of Operations upon Rhode Island in 1778. 648 489. Rear View at Stony Point,

744

409. Scene of the Engagement on Rhode Island, August 490. Portrait of General Wayne.

745

29, 1778

651 491. Wayne's Monument

745

410. Ancient Sycamore

053 492. View of Stony Point from the Southwest.

746

411. Quaker Hill, from the Fort on Butts's Hill.

657 493. Fac Simile or Wayne's laconic Dispatch toWashington 747

412. View Northward from Butts's Hill.

658 494. Gold Medal awarded by Congress to General Wayne. 748

413. Portrait and Sign-manuel of King Philip..

659 495. Medal awarded to Lieutenant-colonel De Fleury: 749

414. Three Signatures of chief Warriors of King Philip.. 659 496. Medal awarded to Major Stewart

750

415. Handwriting of Elliot and Gookin..

660 497. Initial Letter ..

751

416. Conannicut, or Dumplings Fort.

665 498. The Ferryman.

751

417. Initial Letter..

606 499. King's Ferry Sign-board..

751

418. Washington's Head-quarters at Newburgh

667 500. View 'from Smith's House

753

419. The Dining-hall, or Room with seven Doors. 668 501. View of the Place where Andrè was captured.. 754

420. Monument at Goshen..

671 502. Colonel Jameson's Head-quarters.

756

421. Signature of Lewis Nicola..

672 503. Ancient Dutch Church..

758

422. Portrait of John Armstrong.

674 504. Bridge over Sleepy Hollow Creek.

759

423. Portrait of James Clinton..

680 505. The Vane

759

424. Remains of Fortifications at Plum Point.

681 506. Communion-table

759

425. Head-quarters of Greene and Knox

682 507. Receiving Tomb

760

426. Signatures of young Ladies on a pane of Glass. 683 508. Van Wart's Monument,

760

427. The Square, New Windsor..

683 509. View of "Sunnyside," the Residence of Washington

428. Residence of Mrs. Falls...

684

Irving...

761

429. The Temple.

685 510. View from the Ruins of the old Fort

430. View of the Camp Ground

685 511. The Livingston Mansion...

703

431. Ancient Stone House near the Temple.

685 512. Washington's Head-quarters at Tappan.

764

432. Portrait of Robert Burnet.

686 513. Portrait of John Andrè, from a Miniature, by himself 765

433. Portrait of Usual Knapp.

687 514. Major Andrè, from a Pencil Sketch..

7765

434. Signatures of the Officers of Washington's Life Guard. 688 515. Andrè's Monument in Westminster Abbey

767

435. Banner of Washington's Life Guard.

688 516. Portrait of Aaron Ogden....

768

436. Fac Simile of a Return of the Commander-in-chiels 517. Major André, from a pen-and-ink Sketch, by himself 771

Guard.

689 518. Place of Andrè's Execution.

772

437. The Wharton House.

690 519. The Captor's Medal

773

438. Portrait of Enoch Crosby

690 520. Ruins of a Forge near Ramapo Village.

778

439. utch Church, Fishkill.

691 521. Torn Rock

780

440. Trinity Church..

692 522. Remains of Intrenchments at the Ramapo Pass. 781

441. The Verplanck House.

693 523. The Hopper House...

782

442, Society of the Cincinnati--Member's Certificate. 696 524. Hopper's Monument.

782

443, Order of the Cincinnati.

697 525. Burr's Head-quarters.

703

INTRODUCTION.

OF THE NIVEA CITY

Far o'er yon azure main thy view extend,
Where seas and skies in blue confusion blend :
Lo, there a mighty realm, by Heaven design’d,
The last retreat for poor, oppress'd mankind;
Form'd with that pomp which marks the hand divine,
And clothes yon vault, where worlds unnumber'd shine.
Here spacious plains in solemn grandeur spread;
Here cloudy forests cast eternal shade;
Rich valleys wind, the sky-tall mountains brave,
And inland seas for commerce spread the wave
With nobler floods the sea-like rivers roll,
And fairer luster purples round the pole.

TIMOTHY Dwight.

VERY nation eminent for its refine

ment, displayed in the cultivation of the arts, had its heroic age; a period when its first physical and moral conquests were achieved, and when rude society, with all its impurities, was fused and refined in the crucible of

progress. When civilization first set up its standard as a permanent ensign in the Western hemisphere, northward of the Bahamas and the great Gulf, and the contests for possession began between the wild

Aborigines, who thrust no spade into the soil, no sickle into ripe harvests, and those earnest delvers

from the Old World, who came with the light of Christianity to plant a new empire and redeem the wilderness by cultivation, then commenced the heroic age of America. It ended when the work of the Revolution, in

the eighteenth century, was accomplished ; when the bond of vassalage to Great Britain was severed by her colonies, and when the thirteen confederated States ratified a federal Constitution, and upon it laid the broad found

ation of our Republic. Those ancient civilizations, registered by the stylus of history, were mere gleamings of morning compared with the noontide radiance which now lights up the Western World ; and even the more modern nations of Europe, brilliant as they appear, have so many dark spots upon the disk of their enlightenment, that their true glory is really less than that of the waxing Star in the West. These ancient and modern civilizations, now past or at their culminating points, were the results of the slow progress of centuries ; the heroic açe

[graphic]

1521.

of America, meteor-like, was brilliant and rapid in its course, occupying the space of only a century and a half of time from the permanent implanting of a British colony, weak and dependent, to the founding of our government, which, like Pallas Athena, was, at its birth, full panoplied, strong, eminently individual in its character, and full of recuperative energies. The head of Britannia was cleft by the Vulcan of the Revolution, and from its teeming brain leaped the full-grown daughter, sturdy and defiant.

Long anterior to the advent of Europeans in America, a native empire, but little inferior to Old Rome in civilization, flourished in that region of our continent which now forms the southwestern portion of the Republic. The Aztec empire, which reached the acme of its refinement during the reign of Montezuma, and crumbled into fragments when Cortez dethroned

and murdered that monarch, extended over the whole of Central America ; and when

the Spaniards came it was gradually pushing its conquests northward, where all was yet darkness and gloom. To human apprehension, this people, apparently allied by various ties to the wild nations of North America, appeared to be the most efficient instruments in spreading the light of civilization over the whole continent; yet they were not only denied this glorious privilege, but, by the very race which first attempted to plant the seeds of Eu. ropean refinement in Florida and among the Mobilian tribes, and to shed the illumination of their dim Christianity over the dreary regions of the North, was their own bright light extinguished. The Aztecs and their neighbors were beaten into the dust of debasement by the falchion blows of avarice and bigotry, and they form, apparently, not the most insignificant atom of the chain of events which connects the history of the empires of the Old World with that of our Republic.

It is believed that, two hundred years before the Aztecs subdued the more ancient people of the Mexican valley and founded Tenochtitlan,' a handful of rough, half-civilized adventurers from the wintery shores of Iceland and the neighboring main, driven by adverse winds they knew not whither, touched upon the bleak shores of Labrador, and traversed the American continent southward as far as Rhode Island, and, it may be, the capes of Virginia.” These supposed first modern discoverers of America were the children of the “mighty sea kings" of the Teutonic romances—the Scandinavian reguli, who, scorning to own Gorm the Old of Norway, and Harold Fairhair of Denmark, their conquerors, as masters, forsook their country and colonized Iceland, Greenland, Shetland, and the Orkney Islands, whence they sent forth piratical expeditions, which became a terror to Western Europe. They traded as well as plundered, and by commerce and conquest became potential. Every coast was visited by their squadrons, either for war or traffic. They swept over Denmark and Germany, and by conquest obtained possession of the best portions of Gaul.' They invaded

the British Islands, and placed the renowned Canute upon the throne of Alfred.

Long before Christianity had shed its genial rays over their frozen territory of the North, and banished the barbarous rites of Pagan worship, the lamp of learning had been

1014.

* This city was founded about the year 1210, and was afterward called Mexico, which signifies the place of Mexitli, the Aztec god of war. The present capital of Mexico is upon the site of that ancient city. The Aztecs, at that time, were settled in Lower California. They were divided into six tribes. The Mexican tribe wandered off southward, subdued the Toltecs, and founded the city around which the whole Aztec nation subsequently gathered. The Toltecs were far more refined than their conquerors, and from members of that dispersed nation the Aztecs were first made acquainted with painting, sculpture, astronomy, and many of the useful arts, such as working in metals, building bridges and aqueducts, agriculture, &c.

* See note on page 633.

3 Charles III., called the Simple, the eighth of the Carlovingian kings of France, ceded to Rolf or Rollo, one of the Northmen chiefs, the large province called by them Normandy. This event occurred in the year 918. Rollo and his subjects embraced Christianity, and became tha guardians of France against further invasion from the Northmen.

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