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treated as Barbarians; a religion that was scarce followed by any but the populace; whose suffrage seemed fitter to discredit an opinion, than propagate it. A religion, which, by irs attack
upon the gods, passed for atheisin, and was on that account looked upon as the cause of public calamities; a religion profcribed from its first rise by the laws of the empire; and punished by the most dreadful infli&tions; a religion, whose plain unadorned worship made no court to the senses; a religion, which required men to suffer present evils, in expectation of an invisible reward. - What contrariety can be more striking than that of idolatry and Judaism to Christianity ? Let us estimate by this the difficulty of making the change.'---The author considers,
2. The amazing extent of this undertaking. It has no limits, but those of the world. It is proposed to alter not only some indifferent cuftoms, but every thing, that every nation
held most holy, most hallowed, most venerable, and indis- pensible.
3. The time chosen for executing this design: the most polite, the most enlightened, the most elegant; the age wherein Rome advanced to the summit of power, by the dint of her arms, became also the mistress of the world by her literature and laws. The whole empire was filled with philosophers, orators, poets, and historians...Yet never was there so great a depravation of manners. To men drowned in voluptuousness, accustomed to deny nothing to their appetites, in whom the habit of licentiousness has formed a second nature, rules of conduct are to be prescribed, which oppose the inclinations, thwart the natural affections, and wound the heart.
4. The authors. Fishermen, without learning, without abilities, weak and pufillanimous; twelve men whose condition, appearance, and manners, inspire nothing but contempt. These are the men, who undertake to instruct the Greeks, the fathers of arts and sciences; the Romans, the masters of the world. These are they who purpose to convict the sages of folly, the philosophers of ignorance, and the whole world of error.
The profeffor proceeds to the means, the obstacles, the success, of this great enterprize. The apostles, he observes, were unacquainted with the arts of Cicero and Demosthenes ; they spoke like the lowest of the people. Their language was neither calculated to captivate the imagination, nor affect the heart. They appear to have used no artifice, no intrigues, no secret management to draw in followers. They preach Jesus crucified, at Jerusalem before his murderers ; and far from being ashamed of the humiliations of their master, they take a pride in them, and boast of knowing nothing but Jesus Christ, and him crucified. They had neither riches, power, nor
force. They are fheep, which have nothing to oppose to the fury of the wolves that devour them, but an unalterable meekness : their only armour is suffering, bleeding, dying. The obstacles which their adversaries threw in their way
The Pagans and Jews blaukened. Christianity by calumnies, and set up miracles in opposition to it. The heretics rent it by their trrors, the philosophers attacked it. with their writings, the princes and the people persecuted it with violence, and ftrive to seduce those, whom they could not vanquish.
Yet in spite of all opposition Christianity prevails.
• Twelve Galileans introduce the worship of their crucified master, not only among a great number of Jews, who demanded his execution, but even an innumerable multitude of Gentiles. Their found went into all the earth, and their words. into the ends of the world. There is no country, where they have not a numerous progeny of believers ;, no region where they do not erect trophies to Jesus Chrift: they bring under the gospel yoke nations, to whom even the Romans were not able to give law; and the church is, at its rise, already of larger extent than the dominion of the Cæfars... In the midst of these concussions, which make the universe, the church of Christ alone iņ moveable as its author, knows no viciffitude. She is encreased by the losses of Rome. She fees those conquerors, who have held the capital of the world in chains, submit to her yoke, and glory in being her children...
• Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Zeno, were great philosophers. They were held in esteem, as sages. Their abilities, their learning, their genius were admired They joined to the strength of reasoning the charms of eloquence, and all the graces of compofition. Yet these sages were never able to bring their countrymen to live according to the rules of the morality, which they taught; they could never check the vices, that reigned among them, nor had they ever any considerable num. ber of disciples.
: The alteration of man, the change of the universe, even if all human means promoted it, could not fail of looking like a prodigy. What a prodigy then, or rather what a number of prodigies are [is] implied in the success, which the apostles have had, being such persons as they were, and having met with the most powerful obstacles to their enterprize? To give light to a man born blind is a miracle, and shall it not be deemed a miracle to change the religion, the manners, the laws, the customs, the practices, the prejudices, the opinions, the sentiments, the taste, the inclinations, the propensities, in a word, the mind and the heart, in an infinite number of men'
The author answers the objections, which have been urged against the Christian religion, and concludes in this manner.'
" We have from the Jews and Pagans a two-fold confeflion. They acknowledge explicitly the reality of the miracles of Jesus and his disciples, and they supply us with the facts, from which bave (has] been compiled the history of the establishment of Christianity; fa&ts which necessarily suppose che reality of those miracles. Facts confefled by those, who have the greatest interest in gainsaying them, are incontestable. Therefore the miracles of Jesus and his disciples have the highest degree of certainty. It has been proved, that God is the author of these mi. racles; therefore God is the author and institutor of the Christian religion. Now, a religion that has for itself the testimony and approbation of the Deity, and is the very work of the Deity, is certainly true. Therefore the Chriftian religion is true.'
To this discourse the author subjoins remarks in favour of contested proofs : fuch as, Nero's inscription, mentioned by Gruter, p. 238, Tiberian's Letter to Trajan, Antoninus's Ediet to the States of Asia, the Edict of Decius, mentioned in the Acta S. Mercurii, and the testimony, or the filence of Jo. sephus concerning Jesus Christ.
Admitting, says Mr. Bullet, that the contested paragraph in Jofephus concerning Jesus Christ is an interpolation, and that Josephus has not spoken of him at all, let us see what in. ferences may be drawn from his filence.
This historian, who was born three or four years after the death of Christ, could not but know, that one Jesus, called a cheat, an impostor, a magician, a prophet, had appeared in Judea. . . In his time the Christians were lo considerable a body, that they drew the attention of the emperors. These masters of the world enacted laws against them; they decreed capital punishment to them, and injoined the magistrates to search for and apprehend them. The fidelity therefore of history required, that mention should be made of them. This was the opinion of Tacitus and Suetonius, men to whom the feet of the Christians were a much less interesting object, than to a Jew, as Josephus was. These two historians were persuaded, that the rise and fettlement of Christianity was of importance enough to be ranked among the great tranfactions which they tranimitted to posterity, Josephus is very exact in mentioning all the impostors or heads of parties, which had started up among ihe Jews, from the reign of Augustus to the destruction of Jerusalem. But the feet of Christians had a much better claim, than any of the rest, to be taken notice of in his history; our author therefore argues thus :
« This historian either believed, that the whole account of Jesus's disciples, concerning their master, was false, or he believed that it was true. In the first case he would not have been
filent. Every thing led him to speak on such an occasion; the interest of truth; zeal for his religion, the foundations of which the Christians fapped by their impostures; love of his countrymen, whom the disciples of Jesus accused of having put to. death, by a malignant and cruel jealousy, the Messiah, the son of God. By detecting the impostare of the apostles, Josephus would have covered the enemies of his' people with confusion, rendered himielf agreeable to his countrymen, conciliated the favour of the emperors, who would fain have stifled Christianity in its birth. He would have engaged the applauses of all those, who held this religion in abhorrence, and undeceived those very Christians, whom the first disciples of Jesus had deluded. Now, is it poffible to believe, that a man well acquainted with a cheat, which it is so much his interest to publith, Thould be fo fcrupulously and profoundly fuent upon it, especially when so natural an occasion offered itleif to mention it? Il faise miracles should be vented among the people, tending to unsettle their faith, with what zeal would our writers labour to detect the impofture, and to prevent their seduction? Would they not think, and with good reason, that filence on fach an occasion was a criminal preyarication ? It seems evident therefore, that, if Josephus believed, that'what the apostles said of their master was false, he would have taken care to make it known. If he did not believe it to be false, he believed it to be crue. And it was nothing, but the fear of displeasing his own nation, the Romans, and the emperor, that stopped his mouth ; in which cafe his filence is good as his teftimony, and equally serves to authenticate the truth of the facts, upon which Chriftianity is founded.'
This is the substance, or rather a specimen, of our ?uthor's reasoning in defence of Christianity. The argument itlelf is old; but the professor's manner of treating it is new and ingenious. He has indeed managed it with unconmon fpirit, force, and eloquence, and placed every circumstance, which he takes into consideration, in the clearest and the strongest light. She translator has subjoined some useful and judicious notes, on Polegon's exagefes, Toledoth Jesehu (the production of a malignant and lying Jew, about five or fix centuries ago), the testimony of Tacitus, Josephus, &c, and so ne strictures on Mr. Gi bon's account of Christianity, and its first teachers.
The re-rences are placed at the conclusion. But the proofs at large, translated from the original authors, will compose a second volume,
The History of Gunnery, with a new Method of deriving the Theory
of Projectiles in vacuo, from the Properties of the Square and Rbombus. By James Glenie, A. M. 8vo. . 45. 6d. Cadell.
the preface to this little work we are informed, that
IN is to
before the reader an historical account of the different dilcoveries which have been made relative to the refinance of the air, by the most eminent writers who have treated of this subject ; but likewise, to give the theory of projectiles in vacuo, derived in a new manner from very simple principes, with a method of reducing projections on inclined planes, to those which are made on the horizon. Mr. Glenie seems to be no contemptible mathematician, and on more mature confideration he would not, we apprehend, denominate a few fcattered thoughts, the History of Gunnery. The hurry in which the performance seems to have been run up, may have betrayed him into many unguarded expreslions, which we apprehend he may wish to have altered in a second edition ; and when he is better acquainted with the practical parts of this subject, he may see many things belonging to it in a light different from that in which he has hitherto viewed them. A gentle man of his scientific knowledge, and seeming disposition for exjer rimenting, is doubtless a great acquisition to the regiment of artillery, in which such characters are perhaps too uncommon.
The part of this book which the author calls the History of Gunnery, consists chiefly of a loose account of fome of the attempts that have been made to determine the relistance of the medium to bodies projected in it; a subject not yet brought to an exact determination, notwithstanding the endeavours of our immortal Newton. Mr. Glenie seems to have bestowed some time and labour on this subject, though the result is not bere published, but reserved for consideration and improve ment. For this purpose we would recommend for his inspection, what the famous profeffor Euler has written on this subject in his comments on the Gunnery of our countryman Mr. Robins. Mr. Glenie, in this piece, takes occasion, we think with justice, to defend Mr. Robins against one of feveral unjust reflections thrown on his memory by Mr. Muller,
Galileo, among many other great discoveries, first, of any that we know of, explained the true law of the descent of gravity, and the nature of the resistance of the medium; and was very naturally led to make an observation, that since the yelocities generated by gravity are proportional to the times, but that the resistance of the medium is in the duplicate or