History of Europe: From the Fall of Napoleon, in 1815, to the Accession of Louis Napoleon, in 1852, Volume 3

Capa
W. Blackwood and sons, 1854
 

O que estão dizendo - Escrever uma resenha

Não encontramos nenhuma resenha nos lugares comuns.

Páginas selecionadas

Conteúdo

The whole civil business of the country is conducted by the Greeks
12
The lives and property of all belong to the Sultan
19
Contrary principles of good in Turkey Weakness of power
25
Small revenue derived from Turkey
31
Prosecutions against the Liberal press
37
Description of the city
39
Turkish cavalry
45
Causes of the obstinate defence of fortified cities by the Turks
51
The command of the sea or the support of Austria is essential to the suc
57
Examples of the application of this principle
63
Affairs of Wallachia and Moldavia
69
Defensible nature of the country
80
Page 3 Recent spread of information and passion for independence
82
Formation of the society of the Hetairists
83
Different gradations in the Hetairists
84
Extraordinary secresy preserved regarding the affairs of the society
85
Their eyes are all fixed on Russia 9 Consternation of the Pargiotes at their abandonment
87
Heartrending scene at the evacuation of the town
88
Debates on this subject in Parliament
89
Effect of the Spanish revolution on Turkey and Greece ib 13 State of Turkey at this period
90
Its weakness in a military point of view
91
Commencement of the insurrection in Wallachia
92
Ipsilantis insurrection in Moldavia
94
Ipsilantis first measures
95
Reasons which urged the Emperor Alexander to intervene in Turkey at this time
96
Reasons which induced him to remain neutral ib 20 Ethusiasm of the Turks and measures taken against Ipsilanti
97
Commencement of the insurrection in Greece Proper and the Islands
98
The insurrection spreads over all Greece
99
Violent excitement at Constantinople and murder of the Patriarch
100
Succession of murders by the Turks
101
Vigorous measures of Sultan Mahmoud
102
Atrocious acts of cruelty in Asia Minor
103
Massacres in Cyprus
104
Universal spread of the insurrection in Greece
105
Official declaration of Russia against Ipsilanti
107
Treachery and death of Theodore
108
Defeat of the insurgents at Galatz ib 32 Disasters of Ipsilanti
109
His total defeat at Dragaschan
110
Naval successes of the Greeks
111
Bloody action in Cydonia
113
Successes of the Turks in the Morea ib 37 Battle of Valtezza
114
Raising of the siege of Athens and defeat of the Turks in Thermopylæ
116
its description
117
Progress of the siege ib 41 Storm and massacre of Tripolitza
118
Importance of the conquest and subsequent measures of the Greeks
119
Fresh inassacre of the Christians in Smyrna
120
Operations of Chourchid Pacha before Janina Fall and recapture of Arta
121
Failure of the Greeks before Napoli di Romania and Patras
122
Forcing of the line of Cassandra
123
Operations in Crete
124
War with Persia
125
Angry negotiations with Russia ib 50 Russian ultimatum and its refusal by the Divan
127
Ultimatum of the Turks
128
Efforts of Lord Strangford the English minister to avert a rupture
129
Alarming state of Constantinople and efforts of the ambassadors
130
Capitulation of Ali Pacha
132
Perfidious seizure and death of Ali Pacha
133
Sensation this produced at Constantinople
134
Turkish plan of the campaign
135
Success of the fleet and defeat of Chourchid Pacha by the Souliotes
136
Extension of the insurrection to Chios
137
Frightful massacre in the island by the Turks
138
General massacre in the island
139
Signal retribution which befel the Turks
140
Operations of the Greek fleet against the Turks
141
Successful attack on the Turkish fleet
142
Destruction of the admirals ship
143
Renewed massacre in Chios
144
Unsuccessful expedition of Mavrocordato into Epirus ib 69 Insurrection and its suppression in Macedonia
145
Grand invasion of the Morea
146
Dangerous position of the Turks and able measures of the Greeks
147
Disastrous retreat of the Turks
148
Further successes of the Greeks
149
First siege of Missolonghi
150
Operations in Cyprus and Crete
151
Fall of Napoli di Romania
152
Fresh naval successes of the Greeks
153
Destruction of another Turkish ship of the line ib 79 Glorious results of this campaign to the Greeks
155
Dreadful earthquakes in Asia Minor
156
Negotiations with Russia during the year
157
The Congress of Verona declines to recognise the Greek state
158
Revolution at Constantinople in favour of the janizaries
159
Dreadful fire at Constantinople in spring 1823
160
Preparations of the Turks for the next campaign ib 87 Destruction of part of DramaAlis corps by Niketas
161
Divisions among the Greeks
162
Plan of the campaign on the part of the Turks
163
Dispositions of the Greeks
164
Early successes of the Greeks ib 92 Victory of the Greeks on Mount Helicon
165
Divisions among the Greeks in the Morea
166
Revolt of the Albanians and advance of the Pacha of Scodra
167
Nocturnal surprise of the Turks and death of Mark Bozzaris
168
Commencement of the siege of Anatolico
169
Operations in Candia during 1823
170
Naval campaign of 1823
171
Increased dissensions in the Morea
172
Increasing interest in Greece abroad Arrival of Lord Byron at Missolonghi
173
Continued divisions of the Greeks
174
Contraction of the Greek Loan
176
Preparations and plan of the campaign by the Turks ib 104 Operations of the Turks in the Archipelago
177
Capture and destruction of Ipsara
178
Glorious resistance of the Psarriotes
179
Immense spoil made by the Turks in Ipsara
180
Gallant conduct of the Greeks after this disaster
181
Defeat of the Turks in the straits of Samos
182
Junction of the Turkish and Egyptian fleets
183
Naval victories of the Greeks
184
Land operations in eastern Greece
185
Results of the campaign by sea and land
186
Renewed dissensions in Greece
187
Death of Odysseus
188
Curious statistics of Athens and Attica
189
Favourable prospects of Greece in the opening of 1825
190
Preparations of the Turks ib 120 Landing of Ibrahim Pacha at Modon
191
Defeat of the Greeks by Ibrahim Pacha
192
Capture of Sphacteria by Ibrahim
193
Naval successes of the Greeks
195
Victory of Sakhtouri over the Capitan Pacha
196
Successes of Ibrahim and gallant resistance near Arcadia
197
Further successes of Ibrahim and capture of Tripolitza
198
Fresh defeat of the Greeks ib 129 Commencement of the second siege of Missolonghi and description of the place
200
First operations of the siege
201
Raising of the blockade of Missolonghi by sea
202
Attack on the town by a mound and its defeat ib 133 A third assault is repulsed
203
Critical position of the Turks and preparations of the Sultan
204
Heroic spirit of the garrison
205
Progress of the Turks
207
Greek plan of a general sortie ib 139 Commencement of the sortie
208
Vast effects of the siege of Missolonghi and general despondence in Greece
210
Deplorable condition of Greece in the end of 1825 and opening of 1826
211
Commencement of the negotiations for the independence of Greece
212
Conclusion of the first protocol in favour of the Greeks
213
Its provisions
214
Operations in Attica ib 147 Deplorable situation of Greece at this period
215
Naval operations ib 149 Progress of the siege of Athens
216
Unsuccessful attempts to raise the siege of Athens and its fall
218
Treaty of 6th July ib 152 Its provisions
219
153154 Counter manifesto of the Porte 220221
220
Strength of the allied squadron
222
Preparations of the Porte ib 157 Final note of the Allies to the Porte
223
Who was the aggressor at Navarino
232
CHAPTER XV
238
New statute regarding the janizaries
244
Civil reforms of the Sultan
250
Operations in Persia
256
Fresh rupture with Persia and conclusion of the peace at Tourkmantchai
262
Mutual recriminations of the Russians and Turks
263
Forces of the Russians
264
Passage of the Pruth and commencement of the campaign
265
Preparations of the Turks ib 33 Forces they had collected in Europe and Asia
266
Russian plan of the campaign and its dangers
267
Vast influence of Constantinople on the fortunes of mankind
268
Passage of the Danube by the Russians
270
First operations Fall of Kustendji
271
its description
272
Commencement of the siege
273
Bloody repulse of the assault ib 41 Fall of the place
274
Further successes of the Russians and Turkish system of defence
275
Capture of Anapa by the Russians
276
Combat of Bazardjik
277
Farther cavalry actions ib 46 General cavalry action before Schumla
278
Blockade of Schumla and plans of the Russians
279
Journey of the Emperor to Odessa and measures adopted there
280
Position of the Russians
281
Defensive measures of the Turks ib 51 Operations before Schumla
282
Surprise of a Russian redoubt
283
Attack on Prince Eugene and EskiStamboul
284
Retreat of the Russians from the south of Schumla
285
Operations before Varna ib 56 Attack on Wittgenstein
286
Advance of the Turks to raise the siege ib 59 Bloody defeat of the Russians
289
The siege is not interrupted ib 61 Fall of Varna
290
Reflections on this surrender
291
Operations before Widdin
292
Abandonment of the siege of Silistria and retreat of the Russians beyond the Danube
293
Disastrous retreat of Wittgenstein
294
Commencement of the campaign in Asia
295
Description of the theatre of war
296
Siege of Kars
297
Siege of Kars and its description
298
Appearance of the plague in the Russian army
299
Capture of Akhalzikh
301
Paskewitchs plan of attack and its chances
302
Nocturnal attack on the Turkish camp
303
Its perilous chances ib 77 Desperate conflict on the heights
304
Total defeat of the Turks
305
Reduction of Alskhur and Ardagan
308
Operations on the Russian flanks and results of the campaign ib 83 Paskewitchs plans and formation of Mahommedan corps
309
Vigorous defensive measures of the Porte in Asia during the winter
310
Assassination of the Russian minister at Teheran and siege of Akbalzikh by the Turks
312
Extreme danger of the besieged
313
Their deliverance ib 89 Measures of Paskewitch against the Persians
314
Opening of the campaign with the Turks
315
Defeat of Hadgi Hassan
316
Paskewitchs dispositions and position of the Turks
317
Paskewitchs plan of attack
318
Subsequent movements of Paskewitch
319
Advance upon Kainly and dispositions of attack
320
Success of the Russians in the centre and on the left
321
Defeat of the Seraskier
322
Storming of the intrenched camp at MilliDuz
323
Results of these conflicts
324
Advance of Paskewitch against HassanKale and its fall
325
Fall of Erzeroum
326
Further movements
327
Submission of the Pacha of Mush and of Baibout ib 105 Disaster before Khart
328
Retreat of Paskewitch to Erzeroum
329
Defeat of the Turks in Guriel and subsequent checks of the Russians ib 108 Advance of Paskewitch against Baibout
330
Total defeat of the Turks and termination of the campaign
331
Conclusion of an armistice and summary of the campaign
332
Preparations of the Turks for the campaign in Turkey in Europe ib 112 Preparations of the Russians
334
Operations during the winter
335
Retirement of Wittgenstein and appointment of Diebitch to the com mandinchief
336
Naval forces of the Russians and Turks
337
Russian plan of the campaign and Turkish and repulse of the latter at Sizepolis
338
Commencement of the campaign on both sides
339
Bloody combats at EskiArnautlar
340
Commencement of the siege of Silistria and its description
341
First operations of the siege and Redschid Pachas movement against Pra vadi
342
Diebitch throws himself on the Turkish communications
343
Description of the country and movements of the armies ib 123 Turkish movements
344
Battle of Kouleftscha
345
Fresh dispositions of Diebitch
346
Measures of Diebitch after the battle
348
Progress of the siege of Silistria and its fall
349
Description of the passes of the Balkan
350
Irruption of the Pacha of Scodra ib 140 Affairs of Greece in 1828
360
Progress of the Greeks in 1829
361
Convention of March 22 1829 regarding the limits of Greece
363
Reflections on this convention
364
Remarkable words of the Emperor Nicholas on this subject
366
What of the alleged regeneration of Turkey
367
Astute policy of Russia in the treaty of Adrianople
368
Difficulty of the conquest of Turkey evinced in this war
369
Great strength of Russia in force and of Turkey in situation
370
ib
371
The final triumph of Christianity in Turkey is secure
372
CHAPTER XVI
373
Character of Charles X
374
His defects
375
The Duke dAngoulême is declared Dauphin
376
The secret Camarilla of ecclesiastics
377
Entry of the king into Paris
379
Abolition of the censorship of the press ib 8 Dangers of this step
380
Increase of the Jesuits influence at the court and their efforts in the country
381
32
383
Their opponents in the Chambers and the press
384
General prosperity in France ib 13 Injudicious measure regarding the army
385
comparative strength of parties
386
Flourishing state of the finances
387
Restoration of the estates of the Orléans family
388
Law of indemnity to the sufferers by the Revolution
389
Embarrassment of the Government from other claims
393
2430 Argument against the project by the Liberals 394398
394
Recognition of the independence of St Domingo
407
Result of the debate
415
Its provisions
421
Its immediate success and ultimate effects
427
Elections and riots in Paris
433
Answer of the King to the Address
439
Opening of the Chambers
445
CHAPTER XVII
453
Lafayettes triumphant journey in the south
459
Vast influence of the press in France
468
Vote on the subject
477
Indirect taxes and general revenue
483
Landing at SidiFeruch near Algiers
489
Commencement of the attack on Algiers and fall of the Emperors Fort
491
Secret agreement with Russia for extending the French frontier to the Rhine
495
Dissolution of the Chambers
496
Result of the elections
498
Resolution of the Cabinet on a coup détat
499
5456 Report on the ordonnance by M de Chantelauze 501502
501
Lamartine on this report
503
The ordonnances ib 59 Signing of the ordonnances
504
Reflections on the ordonnances
505
Total want of preparation for the coup détat on the part of Ministers
506
First effect of the ordonnances
508
Commencement of the insurrection Signing of the protest
509
The first disturbance
510
Attitude and extraordinary security of the Court
511
Rapid progress of the insurrection
512
Meeting of the Liberal chiefs at Casimir Periers
513
Marmonts plan of operations and commencement of the conflict
515
Vehement contest on the 28th
516
Measures of the Government and Marshal Marmont
517
Marmonts offensive measures and their temporary success
518
Operations of the second column
519
Disaster of the third column
520
Proceedings of the Liberal chiefs
522
State of affairs at St Cloud and firmness of the King
523
Feelings of the combatants during the night
524
Forces on the opposite sides on the morning of the 29th
525
Mission of M Arago to Marmont
526
Decisive resolution of the deputies at M Lafittes
527
Interview with M de Semonville and M dArgout
528
The Louvre is carried by the insurgents
530
Decisive effects of this success
531
Marmonts first interview with Charles X at St Cloud
532
Deliberation in the Council
533
The King submits dismisses his Ministers and sends for M de Montemart
534
Ineffectual attempt to make a Ministry under M de Montemart
535
Completion of the Revolution at Paris
537
Last attempt at a negotiation ib 89 The Duke of Orléans refuses the lieutenancygeneral of the kingdom
538
Violent scene between the Duke dAngoulême and Marmont
540
Abdication of Charles X
541
Revolutionary army which set out from Paris for Rambouillet
542
Falsehoods told the King by Marshal Maison
543
Journey to Maintenon and farewell to the Guard
545
Journey to Cherbourg
546
Adieu to the last of the Guard at Valognes
547
Last interview of the King and Prince Polignac
548
His embarkation at Cherbourg ib 99 Reflections on the fall of the Restoration
550
Secret objects of the Liberal Opposition in France at this period
552
Great error of the King in the ground he took for resistance
553
Extraordinary want of preparation on the part of the Government
554
Great fault of Government in not at once arresting the leaders of the Liberals
556
Ruinous effects of the treachery of the troops
557
Ruinous effects of this military treachery on the cause of freedom in France ib 108 Great error of the military commanders on this occasion
559
Cause of this in the composition of the French army ib 110 Military errors committed on the occasion
560
Mode of combating an urban insurrection
561
Dangerous influence of the Partiprêtre on the Government
562
Strange vehemence of the opposition which the Restoration experienced in France
563
Though the constitution was then as popular as the country could bear
564
Obloquy thrown on the Bourbons from their having succeeded after the national disasters
565
Effect of the continuance of peace in France
566
Which thwarted the strongest passions of the Revolution ib 118 Which was the reason why the expeditions to Spain and Algiers were undertaken
567
Political reasons on which these projects were founded
568
Ruinous effects of the destruction of the aristocracy in France
569
General absence of the restraint of religion in the towns
570
Number of natural children in the great towns
571
Effect of this in a political point of view
572
It produced 80000 bastard combatants in Paris
573
Curious circumstance which mitigated these evils
574
Decline in the material comforts of the working classes
575
Causes of this miserable state of the working classes
577
Way in which the division of land affected the industry of the country
578
Immense burdens on the land in France
580
Crowding of the inhabitants of towns from these causes
581
Effect of the destruction of commercial capital during the Revolution
582
Excessive general competition and wretched state of the working classes
583
Want of any representation of the working classes
584
Were the ordonnances illegal?
585
Previous instances of royal ordonnances not objected to
586
Reasons why coups détat are necessary in France
587
Conduct of the King
588
CHAPTER XVIII
590
Its distinguishing features
591
Violent antagonism between the opposite schools
592
Character of the romantic school
593
Pernicious character of their works of imagination
594
Page
598
His defects
601
his early rise
606
His peculiar style of thought 20 His style of writing
607
His mode of viewing human affairs 22 His chief publications
609
Lamartine
610
His defects as a historian 25 His defects
612
His want of authorities in his writings and personal vanity 27 Sismondi
613
His social and political essays
614
his principles
620
His merits and defects 37 His History of the Consulate and Empire 3840 LacretelleCapefigueMichelet 41 Military histories and memoirs 42 Napoleon...
626
His merits and defects 44 His disregard of truth
628
General Jomini
629
General Mathieu Dumas 47 General Pelet
630
Count Segur
631
Baron Fain
632
The Memoirs of France during the Revolution 51 Bourrienne 52 The Duchess of Abrantes
634
his great meritsHis errors 60 Cuvier
642
Humboldt
643
Causes of the decline of the drama in France
648
Romance writers
649
7072 Victor HugoGeorge SandEugene Sue 650652
650
Periodical literature of France since the Revolution
653
Different class of writers in the daily press in France and England
654
Causes of this difference Destruction of the influence of property
655
Owing also to facility of Revolution in France
656
their decline in France 64 66 The Abbé DelilleBérangerPaul Courier 67 Decline of the drama in France
657
7981 Madlle GeorgesMadlle MarsMadlle Rachel 658660
658
Architecture of Paris
660
Modern French school of painting
662
Conclusion
663
CHAPTER XIX
665
Light which experience has thrown on this subject
666
Effect of the South American Revolution on the currency of Great Britain
667
Causes which augmented the currency in 1823
668
The change of prices through extension of currency is not immediate but gradual
670
Effect of the expansion of the currency on prices in 1823 and 1824
671
Notice of the general prosperity in the royal speeches in 1823 and 1824
672
Symptoms of increased general prosperity
673
Mr Wallaces picture of the country from 1815 to 1823
675
Budget of 1823
676
Conversion of the Dead Weight
677
Reduction of the 4 per cents to 3
678
Simplifying of the National Debt accounts and provision for the perma nent reduction of the National Debt
679
Grants for new churches Windsor Castle and the National Gallery
681
Ministerial changes from 1822 to 1825
682
Liberal measures of the Cabinet
684
Character of Mr Huskisson ib 20 Sketch of the Navigation Laws
686
Retaliatory measures of other nations
687
Mr Wallaces five Freetrade bills in 1822
688
Menaces of retaliatory measures by Prussia
689
2426 Mr Huskissons argument in favour of the Reciprocity System 690692
690
2728 Answer by the shipowners 693694
693
Effect of these acts
694
Page
695
ib 604 605 606 607 ib 608 609 610 611 612
696
613
697
621 622 623624 625 626
698
ib 635 637639 640641 642 643 644
699
Great increase of the colonial trade has compensated reciprocity decline
700
3435 Cause of the failure of the Reciprocity System in this respect 702703
702
Commencement of the Freetrade system
704
Reflections on this petition
706
Indication this afforded of the growth of the commercial class
707
4246 Argument of the Protectionists 708711
708
Results of the system of Freetrade as proved by experience
712
State of the silk trade
713
First introduction of Free Trade in reference to it
714
645647 647
716
Reflections on these changes
717
Repeal of laws against emigration of artisans and combinations among workmen
718
Disastrous effects of the change ib 54 Argument in favour of the repeal of the Combination Laws
720
Reflections on this subject
722
Causes of the frequency of strikes
723
System which must be adopted on the subject
724
Its advantages
725
Gloomy aspect of affairs in the West Indies and Ireland
726
Lord Dudleys picture of the Empire in the opening of 1825
727
Picture of the country from the Annual Register
728
Picture of the times from the Quarterly Review
729
Sound condition of trade and manufactures to the end of 1824
730
Preparations of Russia for a war with Turkey
731
Causes of danger which were now impending
732
Drain of specie produced by the South American speculations
736
The Chancellor of the Exchequers budget
737
Reduction of taxation introduced and public accounts of the year
739
Mr Robinsons argument in favour of the reduction of the duty on spirits
740
Vast increase of crime which has arisen in consequence
741
7374 Reflections on this subject 742743
742
Temperance Leagues
744
Renewed measures in favour of Free Trade
745
Great and wise change in the laws regarding our colonial shipping
746
Reflections on this decay
747
Approach of the monetary crisis
748
Dreadful severity of the crash
749
Increased circulation forced upon the Government
750
The crash was not owing to the instability of the banks but to the mone tary laws
752
Conclusions to be drawn from this catastrophe
753

Outras edições - Visualizar todos

Termos e frases comuns

Passagens mais conhecidas

Página 54 - Above me are the Alps, The palaces of Nature, whose vast walls Have pinnacled in clouds their snowy scalps, And throned Eternity in icy halls Of cold sublimity, where forms and falls The avalanche — the thunderbolt of snow ! All that expands the spirit, yet appals, Gather around these summits, as to show How Earth may pierce to Heaven, yet leave vain man below.
Página 79 - The isles of Greece ! the isles of Greece ! "Where burning Sappho loved and sung, — Where grew the arts of war and peace, Where Delos rose, and Phoebus sprung ! Eternal summer gilds them yet, But all, except their sun, is set. The Scian and the Teian muse, The hero's harp, the lover's lute, Have found the fame your shores refuse ; Their place of birth alone is mute To sounds which echo further west Than your sires'
Página 59 - Where rougher climes a nobler race display, Where the bleak Swiss their stormy mansion tread, And force a churlish soil for scanty bread ; No product here the barren hills afford, But man and steel, the soldier and his sword.
Página 702 - That the maxim of buying in the cheapest market, and selling in the dearest, which regulates every merchant in his individual dealings, is strictly applicable, as the best rule for the trade of the whole nation.
Página 704 - But it is against every restrictive regulation of trade not essential to the revenue— against all duties merely protective from foreign competition — and against the excess of such duties as are partly for the purpose of revenue, and partly for that of protection — that the prayer of the present petition is respectfully submitted to the wisdom of parliament.
Página 50 - The blue-eyed myriads from the Baltic coast The prostrate South to the destroyer yields Her boasted titles and her golden fields • With grim delight the brood of winter view A brighter day, and heavens of azure hue, Scent the new fragrance of the breathing rose, And quaff the pendent vintage as it grows.
Página 702 - That, unfortunately, a policy, the very reverse of this, has been, and is more or less adopted and acted upon by the government of this and...
Página 743 - ... per cent. If the article be not manufactured much cheaper or much better abroad than at home, such a duty is ample for protection. If it be manufactured so much cheaper or so much better abroad as to render 30 per cent, insufficient, my answer is, first, that a greater protection is only a premium to the smuggler ; and, secondly, that there is no wisdom in attempting to bolster up a competition which this degree of protection will not sustain.
Página 745 - ... ships of those countries, allowing the latter to import all articles, the growth, produce, or manufacture of the country to which the ship belongs, and to export from such Colonies all articles whatever of their growth, produce, or manufacture, either to the country from which such ship came, or to any other part of the world, the United Kingdom, and all its dependencies, excepted. All intercourse between the Mother Country and the Colonies, whether direct or circuitous, and all intercourse of...
Página 685 - The act of navigation is not favourable to foreign commerce, or to the growth of that opulence which can arise from it. The interest of a nation in its commercial relations to foreign nations is, like that of a merchant with regard to the different people with whom he deals, to buy as cheap and to sell as dear as possible.

Informações bibliográficas