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coals (each holds eight hundred weight) at the mine, for the convenience of being eafily landed through this well; they therefore enter the subterraneous canal, and move on, until they come under the well; there they stop, and the ropes, which are fixed to the crane above, being let down with hooks, at the end are fastened to the boxes, (which are ironed for that purpose) and then
respect, (the quantity not to be less than two statute acres,) to be hoed and kept clean from weeds, a silver medal, value 21. 25.
Prem. 12th. For any tenant, or occupier of land, who shall have the best crop of turneps upon the same conditions as in the last premium, the sum of 51. 55.
CLASS IV. Premium ift. For any person who shall have the best bull calf (calved after the first day of January next,) and from a cow, at that time, his or her property, a silver medal, value al. 25.
Prem. 2d. For any person who shall have the beft cow calf, upon the same conditions as the last premium, a silver medal, value 2l. 25.
Prem. 3d. For any tenant, or farmer, who shall have the best bull calf (calved after the first of January next,) and from a cow his or her property, the sum of 51. 55.
Prem. 4th. For any tenant, or farmer, who shall have the best cow calf, upon the same conditions, the sum of 51. 55. By order of the President, J. Wright, Clerk.
of this crane is that of a wather wheel, contrived in a very simple man
The best way of explaining it will be by a little sketch, Plate V. Fig. 3. But remark, that I only draw this from idea, the cavern in which the wheels work being under ground, and below the surface of the subterraneous canal; and all the light I had was that of a farthing candle. I offer it
Mr. Bayley explained the culture of the new potatoe to the Society in the following letter.
Hope, near Manchester, Nov. 13, 1769. To Richard Townley, esq; of Belfield, President
of the Agriculture Society, in the hundred of Salford, in the county palatine of Lancaster.
Dear Sir, As a member of a Society, which in a great measure owes its rise and present flourishing state to your patronage, I beg leave, in this public manner, to inform you, and the Society in general, that I have this year raised an uncommon kind of Potatoe, which, from its amazing increase, well deserves the attention of the public. The most authentic accounts I have yet been able to procure, say, that this kind of potatoe originally was brought from North America; that it was first cultivated in England, last year, by one Mr. Howard, a gentleman of Bedfordshire ; and that its increase is eight times as great as that of the common potatoe. If set at considerable diftances, they grow to an enormous size, and may rather be called a congeries of many, than one potatoe, and are too large either to roast or boil for
only as an explanation, which may give
a. Is the canal arched over.
trough, into which the water is let
the table : this is not the case if the sets are placed in drills, at two feet distant, with intervals of the same width. Mr. Howard cultivated those which he raised on a stiff rich foil; but this, as well as all other potatoes, flourishes best in light land, and will certainly yield greater crops, if earthed
from time to time, as the stalks grow. This potatoe grows longer in the ground, and will bear the frosts voftly better, than any of our forts; and as it will yield a vast increase, even on a stiff clay, (as was Mr. Howard's,) it seems peculiarly adapted to the foil and climate of this county: Mr. Howord generously sent two hampers of these potatoes to the Society of Arts, &c. in London, the last spring; and I procured two large roots from their Register, and shall now, Sir, proceed to tell you, how I have succeeded in the cultivation of them.
I divided the first into two, the second into thirty sets, and put them into the ground on the 6th of May last; the soil was a fine loose loam, but rather too damp.
The two sets were placed at considerable diftances, and each of them occupied a circle, whose diameter might be near four feet.
d. A water wheel, into the cavities of
which the water falls out of the
trough b. e. A wooden cylinder, to which the
ropes are fastened; turned by the above water wheel, which winds the
ropes round it.
ff. The ropes which are fastened at top
to the crane.
The thirty sets were planted on a bed four feet wide, and at two feet one half distant from each other. They were kept clean from weeds, and as the plants grew, the stalks were laid down, and fresh earth trenched over them.
N. B. A very trilling quantity of dung was used in preparing the ground.
On the 11th of this inst. Nov. I saw them taken up, and exactly weighed, and the produce of the first was 222lb. of the second 3641b. My gardener afterwards counted them, and found the first number 700, and the second 1100.
Is not this a most amazing increase? The above is an exact and most faithful account; I can attest its veracity, for I was myself an eyewitness, and assisted both in the planting and taking up the potatoes. From this plain narrative of facts, you, Sir, (and others, who, like you, devote their learning and leisure to the improvement of useful arts,) will be induced, by a course of accurate experiments, to discover with greater precision, the peculiar excellencies of this potatoe, (which, I think, ought to be called the Howard Potatoe.)
You will probably plant it on wet, stiff, and clayey soils, in light, fandy, and gravelly land,