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In general, all these branches find, that their best friend is an high price of provisions. I was particular in my enquiries on this head, and found the sentiment universal. The manufacturers themselves, as well as their families, are in such times better cloathed, better fed, happier, and in easier circumstances, than when prices are low for at such times they never worked six days in a week; numbers not five, nor even four; the idle time spent at ale-houses, or at receptacles of low diversion; the remainder of their time of little value; for it is a known fact, that a man who sticks to his loom re, gularly, will perform his work much better, and do more of it, than one who idles away half his time, and especially in drunkenness.
The master manufacturers of Manchester wish that prices might always be high enough to enforce a general industry ; to keep the hands employed six days for a week's work; as they find that even one idle day, in the chance of its being a drunken one, damages all the other five, or, rather, the work of them. But at the same time they are sensible, that provisions may be too high, and that the poor may suffer in spite of the utinost industry; the line of separation is too delicate to attempt the drawing : but it is well known by every master manufacturer at Manchester, that the workmen VOL. III.
who are industrious, rather more so than the common run of their brethren, have never been in want in the highest of the late high prices. Large families in this place are no incumbrance; all are set to work.
America takes three-fourths of all the manufactures of Manchester.
I am obliged to Mr. Archibald Bell, of St. Anne's Square, and Mr. Hamilton, two of the principal manufacturers in the town, the first in the fustian branch, and the latter in the check, for the heads of the preceding intelligence. Had I been fortunate enough to meet with gentlemen equally knowing and obliging, at many other manufacturing towns, I should have been able to give a much better account of them; but the fuccess of such undertakings as this Tour, must depend, in a good measure, on the people one meets with *.
* Since the first edition of these papers, I have been informed that a great spirit of improvement is roused in several parts of Lancashire. An agriculture society meets regularly at Manchester, which offers premiums for sundry matters in rural æconomics.
The following papers will shew with what judgment they proceed.
Manchester, Oet. 3, 1769. AGRICULTURE SOCIETY, within the hundred
of Salford, in the county of Lancaster. On Wednesday last, at a general meeting of the Society, held at Crompton's coffee-house, the
To-morrow begins with the Duke of Bridgwater; I shall therefore conclude this long epistle, by assuring you, that I shall ever remain &c. &c.
following premiums were adjudged to the under mentioned persons.
CLASS I. Premium ist. For the owner of any farm or parcel of land not having less than fifty statute acres in the neatest order as to fences, gates, stiles, &c. a silver medal, to Richard Townley, esq; of Belfield.
Premium 3d. For the tenant of any land not less than fifty statute acres, upon the same conditions, the sum of 71. 75. to Mr. John Hardman and Co. of Manchester.
Premium 4th. For the tenant of any land, not less than twenty-five statute acres, upon the same conditions, the sum of 31. 35. to Mr. John Duncuff, of Oldham.
CLASS II. Premium ift. For the owner who shall drain the greatest quantity of wet, springy, or morass ground, not less than two statute acres, a medal, to William Hulton, esq; of Hulton.
Premium 2d. For the tenant who shall drain the greatest quantity, not less than two statute acres, on the same conditions as the last, the sum of 71. 7s. to Mr. Samuel Brierley, of Pendleton.
Premium 6th. For any tenant for clearing the greatest quantity of land from whins, broon, &c. not less than three statute acres, and prepare the fame for tillage, the sum of 61. 6s. to Mr. Samuel Kay, of Heywood, within Birtle.
L E T T E R XIX.
THE original design of the Duke of
Bridgwater, was to cut a canal from Worsley, an estate of his Grace's, abounding with coal mines, to Manchester, for the easy conveyance of his coals to fo considera
Premium 2d. For any tenant for the best crop of wheat, on the same conditions, the sum of 71. 75. to Mr. James Chorlton, of Old Hall, within Withington.
For any tenant for the second best crop of wheat on the same conditions, the sum of 31. 35. to Mr. John Harman, and Co. of Manchester.
Premium 3d. For the owner for the best crop of barley, not less than three statute acres, a medal, to William Hulton, efq; of Hulton.
Premium 4th. For any tenant for the best crop of barley on the same conditions, the sum of 51. 55. to Mr. Jobn Royle, of Staney-street, within Worsley.
Premium 5th. For any tenant for the fecond best crop of barley on the same conditions, the sum of 2l. 25. to Mr. James Kearsley, of Hulton.
ble a market; and, in 1758-9, an Act of Parliament for that purpose was obtained. The course of the canal prescribed by this act, was afterwards varied by the same authority, and the Duke further enabled
greatly to extend his plan; for he now determined, and with uncommon spirit, to make his canal branch not only from Worsley to Manchester, but also from a part of the canal be
Premium 6th. For any tenant for the best crop of oats, not less than three statute acres, the sum of 51. 55. to Mr. Sandford, of Burnage, within Withington.
For any tenant for the second best crop of oạts on the same conditions, the sum of 2l. 25. to Mr. Duncuf, of Oldham.
Premium 7th. For the owner for the best crop of
potatoes, not less than one statute acre, to be set in rows or ridges, at the distance of twenty inches, or more, a medal, to Thomas Butterworth Bayley, esq; of Hope.
Premium Sth. For any tenant for the best crop of
potatoes on the same conditions, the fum of 51. 55. to Mr. Samuel Part, of Eccles.
CLASS IV. Premium 2d. For any person for the best cowcalf, calved after the ist day of January, 1769, a medal, to Thomas Butterworth Bayley, efq; of Hope.
Premium 3d. For any tenant or farmer for the best bull-calf on the same conditions, the sum of 5l. 55. to Mr. John Arnold, of Newton-Heath.