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And now that voice of burning eloquence,

Impetuous,-strong,
Which with a pent-up torrent's violence

Once madly rushed along;
-Yes, now is hushed that voice of thunder dread,
'Tis like the summer torrent's empty bed.
Weep, Empress, o'er thy work—the world shall see

Henceforth for aye,
No such soul-moving, gold-mouthed majesty :

Races unborn shall stay,
And read enchanted, in his magic page
The life-fraught picture of a vicious age.

S. X.

FAITH.

When tempests rage, and billows swell,

And nought is seen around,
Our fears to calm or griefs to quell,

Let songs of faith resound.

Faith points us to a happy rest,

And wafts us on our way ;
It sheds a glory o'er the breast,

And lightens with its ray.
And when we've ploughed the raging main,

And for the haven wait,
Faith points the trembling soul again,

Towards the long'd-for state.

The soul then dwells in hope most bright,

And ponders on its rest; 'Till faith give place to blissful sight,

And love is constant guest.

R. W.L.

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THE

YOUTHS' MAGAZINE;

OR,

EVANGELICAL MISCELLANY.

SEPTEMBER, 1848.

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.

Almost every one has heard of the Electric Telegraph; but few perhaps have seen it, and fewer far have understood exactly how it works. Indeed, it has never been our good fortune to meet with any one amongst these who have heard or read an explanation of it, who could give a satisfactory account of the manner in which messages are transmitted by it. Some could scarcely tell us whether it spoke by signs, by letters, or by words; and until we had ourselves seen it, we could not possibly make out how by means of a single wire all the letters of the alphabet could be passed along the line in the varied order required to compose a sentence, or series of sentences. It was, indeed, very easy to comprehend how a shock communicated at one end of the wire could be felt at the other, even though the distance might be some hundreds of miles, but how that shock could be so varied as to represent the several letters as they were wanted, remained a profound mystery. But this mystery is cleared up in a few words. It is not by a change in the character of each individual shock, but by

S

a succession of shocks, that this apparent difficulty is over

come.

Thus, for example, a single shock may represent A; two shocks B; and three shocks C,—the number of shocks corresponding to the place which the letter occupies in the alphabet. This is the simplest, though not the most expeditious, mode of communicating intelligence by means of the Electric Telegraph, the messages being spelled, letter for letter, at one end of the wire, and read off at the other; and though, as we shall soon see, this method is not the most rapid, it is admirable for its simplicity, and sufficiently quick in its operations, when we bear in mind that, so far as distance is concerned, time is actually annihilated. It matters therefore very little whether five minutes, or ten, or even twenty, are occupied in transmitting a message over a space that could not be traversed by the swiftest locomotive in as many hours.

The other method, and that most generally employed, consists of a different management of the index, which instead of travelling, as in the other case, through the whole circuit of the alphabet, makes much fewer movements--seldom, we believe, exceeding five or six. Every one at all conversant with, the properties of Electricity or Magnetism, knows that it exists in two states, called positive and negative, and possesses the double property of attracting or repelling. A familiar illustration of this fact is furnished by the little Dutch toys called magic swans, which, placed in water, are attracted or repulsed alternately as each end of the magnet is turned towards them. This principle will explain how an index can be moved to the right or left, at pleasure, by means of an electric or magnetic current, although placed hundreds of miles distant from the spot where the shock is first given. We will suppose, then, that a dial-plate like that of a clock or watch, without the numerals, and furnished with two or

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