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sions were multiplied upon them, till to make their escape. The storm a moderate fortune was no longer which seemed to threaten bis repose equivalent to their support. Under baving now passed over, he gradathese circumstances, M. Denon, who ally resumed his former habits, and had always hitherto refused to make soon found himself once more in his a profit of his talents, was compelled natural element, amid all the charms to offer his own engravings for sale. of polished and agreeable society. This means of subsistence, however But the success of the armies of the bonest and respectable, could not shel-republic, and his own passion for ter him from the jealousy of a feeble, / glory, shortly opened to bim a more and yet inquisitorial, government. brilliant career. Chance had brought

Ordered by the state to quit the him acquainted with Madame de BeauVenetian territories, and tear himself harnois, and subsequently with the from a circle of beloved friends, he hero of his age. From their first inretired to Florence, where he met with terview, Denon was inspired with the numerous exiles from Rome. But highest admiration for the character soon after, he qnitted that city also, of Napoleon, and an earnest desire with the intention of settling in Swit- of attaching himself to him and his zerland, there to wait, in retirement, fortunes. In this he so far succeeded the result of the troubles which dis- as to acquire the esteem of the general, tracted his native land. Scarcely, how- and to receive the firmest assurances ever, had he entered the country of of future friendship. From that time, the Grisons, when a decree of the he seldom passed a day without seeing Convention announced to him, that he this extraordinary being, and every must either forsake his present tran-interview heightened his admiration quillity, and enter upon the duties of and strengthened his attachment. activelife, or expect the forfeiture of his When the expedition to Egypt was property. As he had originally quit- proposed, the heroic and romantic plan ted his country without the intention so perfectly coincided with the taste of emigrating, he obeyed the decree, and pursuits of Denon, that he did not to avoid the suspicion of having hesitate an instant in accepting the formed such a design. Notwithstand offer of the general to accompany him; ing this, he found himself, on his To render the proposal nore flatreturn, in the most afflicting solitude; tering, his nephew was attacheď to the many of his friends had perished dur staff of the commander-in-chief; and ing the reign of terror, and the rest he was allowed to be with his uncle were wanderers in foreign lands, seek throughout the whole of that perilous ing a temporary refuge from the op enterprize. In that interesting region pressors of their natal soil.

Denon met with all he wished, and · He re-commenced his career in the the perusal of his travels will prove capital of the French republic, void | that every day offered him some new of political ambition, and, as he be- enjoyment, and inspired him with fresh longed to no party, was respected by vigour for the next day's exertion. all. -A decree ordering bim, as a On his return, he published the renoble, to retire to his department, was sult of his researches; and this elaboannulled by another, which nominated rate work, sought by every one, and him as the most eligible person to read with the greatest avidity all over engrave the designs of the dresses Europe, by its profits, amply repaid the which the National Convention pro- losses wbich the author had experienposed to assume. Upon this employ-ced during the revolution. Of this perment he entered with all the zeal and formance, which is so generally known, ardour of lively gratitude. During the that a particular character of it is unreign of Jacobinical despotism, it was necessary, it may be proper to observe, the good fortune of Denon, not only that it contains an agreeable mixture to escape proscription himself, but to of incident and description; and if preserve many persons from the revo the journal of a campaign interrupts, lutionary axe. But he did not merely now and then, an account of the veseek to rescue his personal friends, nerable monuments of Thebes or Tenvirtue and innocence ever found him tyra; yet this very interruption bea ready protector; and he not only comes a stimulus to excite the curisaved the lives of several worthy per-osity of the reader, who, in the end, sons, but furnished them with money meets with full satisfaction. Denon, not being a soldier by profession, and the hero to whose service he had therefore not hardened to the atrocities | devoted his life, and whose friendship of war, bas, with all his pational par- he considered as his proudest boast. tialities and personal friendships, given He had thought himself too old, at the a faithful narrative of this unprincipled commencement of the Revolution, to expedition. In his work we see what enter the army. That gaiety of chaa dreadful license of lust, rapine, and racter, which had been the first cause slaughter, the French troops were in- of his prosperity, accompanied bim, dalged in; and how whole villages however, through the deserts of Africa, were exterminated upon the slightest as it had done through the north of suspicion of meditating resistance to Europe, and rendered him equally the ravishers of their women, the deso- acceptable to the army as to their lators of their fields, and the incen general. His unfailing hilarity, and diaries of their dwellings. We see eager curiosity, animated him to con. that so far from conciliating the esteem tinual exertion, and gave fresh zeal to of the Egyptians, the French dominion | every new enjoyment. was confined to the range of their can- The habit of accompanying Napopon; that their stragglers were cut off leon, and of receiving and executing his like beasts of prey; and that, pressed orders, was untired by fifteen years of by the Arabs on one side, and by the warfare; and whilst the splendid tro, Mamelukes on the other, they were phies of success were erecting under kept in a constant state of watchful- bis orders at Paris, he followed bis ness and alarm.

hero through Austria, Prussia, Spain, The military transactions, however, and Poland, illustrating the exploits, are neither the most pleasing nor the and enumerating the victories, of the most prominent part of the work. armies of France; thereby sketching, The author was, by profession, an for posterity, the history of his own artist, and a man of letters; hence, times. His delight in these occupathe remains of architecture, sculpture, tions rendered him upmindful of the and painting of the ancient Egyptians, wrinkles of old age, and the gradual were the principal objects of his atten- decay of his bodily vigour. Adversity tion: and these he has described, both at length withdrew the veil of decepin language and by his pencil, so as tion from his eyes, and wisdom per. to render them highly interesting to suaded him to retire from an unstable all those who feel any curiosity about world to the calm tranquillity of a a nation, from whom Greece derived retired life. her sublimest philosophy; and whose | Connected with the splendid work history, moreover, is inseparably con- on which the fame of Denon will pernected with the sacred oracles. manently rest, two anecdotes have

When Buonaparte, after his dis- been told, worth preserving. Napocomfiture at Acre, returned to Egypt, leon, whose mind had formed the and formed the sudden resolution of loftiest expectations from the great embarking for Europe, he did not expedition which he undertook to the neglect bis friend Denon ; but sent east, said, one day, while contemplat. him and his nephew from Cairo to ing the graphic illustrations of his Alexandria, where they embarked with friend the Baron, “Well, if I have lost the general, and landed at Frejus. Egypt, Denon bas conquered it."

On the exaltation of Napoleon to When pope Pius VII. visited Paris the rank of first consul, Denon was to crown Napoleon, Denon was de. appointed Director-general of the Mu-puted to shew his holiness the Mint, seum, and ordered to complete that the Museum, and imperial printingmagnificent collection, the fantastic offices. In his presence, the Lord's grandeur of which oply exists as a Prayer, in one hundred and fifty landream of the imagination, to those guages and dialects, was struck off, who have seen it and felt its merit. and presented to the pontiff. The He was afterwards nominated to super-pope expressed his admiration, and, intend the series of historical medals, turning to Denon, said, “But you the erection of the column de Ven- have not given me your work!"“Please dome, and of numerous other public your holiness,” replied the Baron, “I monuments. Thus he had at once should never have presumed to offer the happiness of gratifying his own it to you, since you must recollect taste, and of proving his gratitude to having excommunicated me, for at

Memoir of Baron Denon.


wron .................. tempting to prove that the world is The concourse of amateurs which this more than six thousand years old !” sale had drawn together, was immense, “ Psha!” exclaimed the pope, “ You and rendered the room so oppressively did your duty, and I did mine. Give hot, that the Baron, unable to endure me the book at any rate."

it any longer, retired for relief to the On the fall of Napoleon, Denon was fresh air. The day was chilly, and maintained in his place; but, on his the sudden change of temperature return from Elba, he could not resist produced an almost instantaneous the ties of old affection and gratitude, effect upon him : he was seized with for which, as a matter of course, he a tremor, and getting into his carriage lost his place on the second restora- proceeded immediately home; medical tion of the king.

assistance was procured without delay, His cabinet, open several days in but the symptoms of approaching disthe week, was the resort of strangers solution came on so rapidly as to confrom all parts of the world ; and his vince the faculty that their efforts affability rendered him the most inte- were vain. In fifteen bours he was resting object in the collection. A no more. The remains of Denon were friend one day asked him how he had interred in the cemetery of Pere la been able to form such a vast assem- Chaise, attended by upwards of one blage of curiosities of every kind, and hundred persons of the most distinof such extreme rarity. He replied guished literary eminence. His twowith his wonted frankness, “At the nephews followed as chief mourners; period of the revolution, when the and an immense crowd of the poorer palaces and mansions of the great orders bore testimony by their tears, were pillaged, the objects of art, which to the loss they had sustained. the monsters did not destroy, were | The Baron possessed a vast fund of brought to the Hotel de Bouillon, the knowledge, which he was ever ready Parisian mart, to be sold publicly by to communicate; and his sentiments auction. I took lodgings in the hotel, were always liberal and elevated. and examined the immense quantities He was an accomplished nobleman of daily brought in; and, as both the the old French school, and the protecplunderers and auctioneers were tor of rising merit, which he assisted equally ignorant of the value of the both by precept and example. Many articles, I purchased numerous objects of the first artists owe to his interest of all kinds at a cheap rate, and thus and influence their introduction to laid the foundation of my cabinet: public notice. As he died unmarried, Fortune has since favoured me in every bis property, which was very considerway; and her favours have been con-able, devolved to his two nephews; secrated to the acquisition of fresh one of whom resided with him, and objects for my collection. Sovereigns, the other is a colonel in the army. nobles, the great, and the learned, Many instances are related of Dehave all honoured me with marks of non's humanity and feeling, while in their munificence and friendship, so Egypt. Those persons who have visitthat at length my cabinet has become | ed his cabinet at Paris, will recollect, what you see it."

with strong emotions, the terrific picFor the last seven years he had ture of the Arab dying in the desert employed the leisure moments, disen of hunger and thirst. The sketch was gaged from the offices of friendship, in taken by Denon, whose modesty would the composition of a work on the His not suffer the painter to tell the whole tory of Art, with between three and of the story; but it is to be hoped, four hundred plates from his own cabi- now he is no more, that the circumnet. The subscription was closed in stance will be represented as it actua short time after his intention was ally occurred, and that we shall see made known; and he resolved not to Denon, as the good Samaritan, raising print one copy more than what was the poor Arab's head, and pouring subscribed for, the total number being into his parched lips the last drop of limited to five hundred.

water which he had for his own subThe death of Denon was remarkably ' sistence. The eyes alone of the dying sudden. He was attendiny, on the man could speak his gratitude ; a 26th of April last, at the sale of the burning tear gushed from their orbs, valuable collection of paintings by the and he expired in the arms of his noble old masters, the property of M. Perrier. I and generous friend.

THE HISTORY OF THE BRITISH CUR- | was by Henry III. in the year RENCY, TO 1821.

1257. But these gold pieces, which

were called gold pennies, were in so The most ancient English coin known, confined a circulation, that, until an Mr. Camden says, is that of Ethelbert, accident brought the fact to light, in king of Kent, the first Christian king | the year 1732, Edward III. had always of this island. Since the Heptarchy been supposed the first of our kings was united under one head, the silver who made gold money. Notwithstandpenny, or steatta, continued to be the | ing this misconception, howerer, as to general coin of the kingdom ; and ex- the period when gold was first coined tended, in a regular series, from in this country, the series of gold coinEgbert almost to the present reign, age commences properly from Edward except during the periods when Ed. III. In 1344, this monarch first struck mund Ironside, Richard I. and John, florins, in imitation of those in Italy, swayed the English sceptre. For of six shillings value. The half and nearly two centuries after the Con- quarter florin were struck at the same quest, the only money of British ma. time. The florin, however, being found nufacture was silver coin.

inconvenient, gave place to the poble, Halfpennies and farthings were first of 6s. 8d. currency, and which had its struck in silver, in the year 1280, by name from the nobility of the metal, Edward I.; the former continued to the gold of which it was coined being the time of the Commonwealth, and of the finest sort. This continued, the latter ceased with Edward VI.) with the half and quarter noble, to be During the reign of the Norman kings, the only gold coin till the angels of this part of the coinage was formed Edward IV. appeared in 1465. These from the penny, which was so deeply latter had their name from bearing the impressed with a cross, that it might | impression of Michael and the Dragon. be easily parted, and broken into The angelets, of 3s. 4d. value, were halves, which, when so broken, was substituted in their place. called half-pence; if into four parts, In the year 1527, Henry VIII. added, four-things, or farthings. The groat, to the gold coined, the crown and the (from the French gros, a large piece,) | half-crown at their present value; and as also the half groat, were published the same year he gave sovereigns at in the reign of Edward III. in 1354 ; 22s. 6d., and reals at lls. 3d., angels these continne current to the present | at 7s. 6d., and nobles at their old time, although not in circulation. value of 6s. 8d. In 1546 he caused

Shillings were first coined by Henry sovereigns to be coined, of the value, VII. in 1503. At first they were called of 20s.; and half-sovereigns in proportestoons, from the teste, tête, or head tion. His gold crown is about the of the king, upon them; the name of size of our shilling, and the half-crown shilling being derived from the Ger- of sixpence, but thin. All his coins, man Schelling, as was the word ster however, gold as well as silver, are ling from the Easterlings, inhabitants much debased; and it was not withof the eastern parts of Germany, and out much labour and trouble that Edwho were employed in fabricating the ward VI. brought it back to its former money of this country. The crown standard. was first coined in its present form 1 Ontheonion of the two crowns, James. by Henry VIII. Formerly it had ap- gave the sovereign the name of Unite, peared only in gold, whence the phrase the value continuing of 20s. as before. * crowns of gold.” It had its name He coined also rose-reals, (called so from the crown stamped on one side, from both sides being impaled in an and was first coined by Charles VI. of undulating circle) of 30s. value, sporFrance, in 1384. The half-crown, six- reals of 15s., angels of 10s., and anpence, and threepence, were coined by gelets of 5s. Under the CommonEdward VI. In 1558, queen Eliza-wealth, the sovereign got the name beth coined three-halfpenny, and in / of 20s, or broad-piece, and continued 1561, three-farthing pieces; but they current till the coinage of guineas, in were discontinued in 1582. From the 1663. These were so called from their year 1601, to the present time, the being coined of Guinea gold, and were coinage of England has remained the at first to go only for 20s. ; though, by same.

an universal, but tacit, consent, they The first gold coined in England always passed for 21s. Half-guineas,


History of the British Currency.


double-guineas and five-guinea pieces, I In 1685, halfpence of the same kind were also coined during the same reign; were coined ; and the tin coinage conwhich still continue, though the two tinued till the year 1692, to the value latter are not in common circula- of more than £65,000; but next year tion, Quarter-guineas were coined by the tin coinage was all called in by George I., and likewise by his late government, and the copper coinage majesty ; but on account of their small recommended. The farthings of queen size, their circulation was stopped Anne are all trial pieces, excepting within a year or two, when received those of 1714, the last year of her at the Bank of England, and therefore reign. “They are,” says Mr. Pinkerthey are not to be met with at present. ton, “of exquisite workmanship, exIn the latter reign, also, seven-shilling | ceeding most copper coins, either anpieces were first coined: the first of cient or modern; and will do honour this coinage is distinguisbed by the to the engraver, Mr. Croker, to the lion above the helmet; but of these end of time.” The one whose reverse none have been issued..

is Peace in a car, “Pax Missa per The first money coined of copper in Orbem," is the most esteemed ; and Britain was the Styca of Northumber- next to it the “ Britannia,under a land, value about half a farthing. But portal. The other halfpence and farthe first copper coinage of which we things, of her reign, are less valuable. have any knowledge, was during queen. Having stated the rise and progress Elizabeth's reign, in the year 1594, of the British currency, and the variwhen a small copper coin was struck ous mutations it has undergone, in about the size of a silver twopence, value and denomination, we sball prowith the queen's monogram on one ceed to mention in whom the right of side, and a rose on the other, the run- coinage, and of giving it its proper ning legend on both sides being “the value and authenticity, subsists; and pledge of a Halfpenny.Of these there shall conclude with the different deare patterns as well in copper as sil- | basements it has experienced during ver, but both of them soon fell into the reigns of the respective monarchs disuse.

who have swayed the English sceptre." On the 19th of May, 1613, king - In ancient times, the right of coinJames, by royal proclamation, issued age was sometimes usurped by the farthing tokens, of the same size with more powerful barons: and, indeed, the twopence, with two sceptres in the ancient Saxon princes communisaltier, surmounted with a crown on cated it to their subjects; insomuch, one side, and a harp on the other; that towns of any note, and ecclesiaswith an intention, as it would seem, tical establishments and palaces, had that if they were refused in England, their respective mints; at London, they might pass in Ireland; for an there were eight; at Canterbury, four aversion to copper coinage was always for the king, two for the archbishop, prevalent throughout the British na and one for the abbot of Winchester ;

six at Rochester; at Hastings, two; In 1635, Charles the First issued &c. But Henry the Second appears copper coins, stamped with the rose finally, to have suppressed this abuse; instead of the barp; but their circula- and since his time no subject has ever tion was entirely stopped by the vast interfered with the coinage, except in number of counterfeits which appear- so far as the crown has, at different ed, and by the king's death in 1648. periods, delegated the right of coinage After this, the private tokens, which to certain great corporations, who gave birth to Elizabeth's copper coin- were always bound to exercise it acage, were again introduced, till put a cording to the rules prescribed in the stop to by the coinage of farthings, in grant, and were never permitted to the year 1672, when the halfpence, of vary either the alloy, the denominapure Swedish copper, which had been tion, or the device. This practice of coined two years before, began to cir- devolving the coinage upon subjects, culate.

has, however, been entirely relinquishIn the year 1685, or 1686, tin far- ed since the reign of Edward VI. tbings were coined, with a stud of Various statutes have recognized the copper in the centre; and inscribed rights of the crown, both to fix the round the edge, as the crown-pieces, value of the coins, as they were issued with the words“ Nummorum Famulus.” | from the mint, and to alter that value


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