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1. It is not to be supposed that the extempore, has the very same effeét. above topics are by any means ex- particularly if the mind is in any de hausted in a solitary discourse, when gree confused. . any single one among them would Again: we can join in the audible furnish materials for à volume. On supplications of another person, with some few prominent characteristics, the utmost devotion : but the act of wbich scarcely admit of two opinions, listening to him has a tendency to the author fixes his attention, and divide the attention, and impair the that of his hearers, and infers from spirituality of our minds. In fact, the whole, that Popery is the Anti the extempore prayer of the minister christian system foretold in the sacred is as substantially a form to the conwritings. In this discourse, the rea gregation, as a written one ; for in sonings are fair, and the conclusions both cases, the words are chosen for are legitimate.
them by another. There may, it is true, in the extemporary prayer, be
an adaptation to present circumON FORMS OF PRAYER.
stances-an advantage in which for: MR. EDITOR.
mal prayers are sometimes deficient ; SIR, -It has happened that I have but this is no very weighty consideJately heard a great deal said against ration, for it is possible to obtain or the use of forms of prayer. I have compose forms of prayer sufficiently heard ministers, in their public dis- comprehensive and circumstantial courses, pass the most unmerciful for every necessary purpose. Where animadversions upon it; and, not is the pious person, however averse satisfied with wielding the legitimate to forms, who has not thousands of weapon of sober argument, they have times joined in the devout aspirations availed themselves considerably of of the Psalmist, and in the fervent that dangerous, and not very honest breathings of many a sacred hymn? one, ridicule. By many other reli- and has felt all the rapture and subgious persons, I have heard the prac- limity of devotion, although repeattice condemned in the most unquali- ing the words of another person... fied manner; and mentioned with all | Farther, Jesus Christ has himself imaginable contempt, as being utterly given us a form of prayer. "O yes," foolish and indefensible. The fre- says an objector, “but he only intendquent recurrence of these violent cen- | ed it to be a model." I am not satissares has induced me to examine the fied that this was bis only intention. subject rather closely ; and the result If praying by the help of a form be as is, I have found that weighty arga- great an evil as some think it is, ments may be advanced in favour of might we not suppose that Christ, in praying by the help of a form.
bis infinite wisdom, would have mere1. It may be proved, that it is quite ly given us general directions conpossible to pray in this manner, with cerning the duty, and have declined the utmost sincerity and devotion. supplying us with any kind of model, Prayer is the offering up of our de lest it should unhappily be prostituted sires, gratitude, or penitential. ac- to the purposes of a form ? or at least, knowledgments to God: the language | we may suppose that he would have which we employ, is bat the outward forbidden its being used as such. But expression of these emotions; and is our blessed Lord has not only furquite a distinct thing from prayer. nished us with a form of prayer, Now, if I have before me a form of without laying any interdiction upon prayer, which is exactly expressive of it, but, if we are to credit St. Luke, my devoat feelings, whether of praise, he has actually enjoined its adoption. supplication, or penitence, or all these “ But the use of forms of prayer," together, why may I not adopt this lan- it is said, “insensibly leads to deadguage as the vehicle of my thoughts, ness, and mere mechanical worship." since I can invent none more suitable? I answer, it does not necessarily lead But it is objected, that the act of to this. If I am in a devout frame, I looking at the book, has a tendency shall not worship God mechanically, to divert the attention and damp the though I utter the language of another ardour of devotion. This I acknow- person. Multitudes who pray extemledge, but the act of seeking accept- pore, are mere formalists: it may, able words for myself, when praying however, be conceded, that these
characters exist in greater numbers is usually presented to us, drawn from amongst those who employ a form the beggar who reads, instead of utters,
2. It will not, I think, be difficult to his requests. , prove, that in certain circumstances, “If you were the most illiterate the use of forms of prayer is indis- mendicant," says one, “and wanted pensable, or at least higbly advan- to ask alms, would you find any diffitageous. We must allow, that every culty in declaring your wants?" I anperson who is placed at the head of a swer, No, if I could declare my wants family, ought to worship God in his in half a dozen words ; but if my pefamily, by offering daily prayer and tition consisted of a string of comthanksgiving to the divine Author of plaints and requests, which I could all their mercies. But many persons not recite in less than ten minutes,-if are so oppressed with an unconquer- \ I had this recital to make to some disable timidity, arising from constitu- tinguished personage, and in the pretional diffidence, or nervous inability, sence of many standers-by-I might augmented perhaps by an unhappy then, perhaps, feel myself so deficient education, that they find it impossible in confidence and self-possession, as to exercise in a public way. It is by gladly to avail myself of a written no means my intention to assert, that form, and, though “reading what I the predominance of fear is a suffi- | never wrote," I might very probably cient apology for every one who al-escape the imputation of folly.. lows it to deter him from praying Even some of those who are accusextempore; but I do think there are tomed to pray ex tempore, feel, on some many, (though their comparative occasions, their minds so confused, number may not be considerable,) bewildered, and embarrassed, -expewho can never command sufficient rience such a paucity of ideas, and courage and recollection, to perform poverty of language, -as renders the this duty to their own edification : duty a most painful and unprofitable these must either live like heathens, task, both to themselves and others. or avail themselves of the assistance Now, if, on such an occasion, capriof a form.
cious prejudice were set aside, and a Let not the man of inflexible nerves, form of prayer resorted to, migbt we and stern resolation, who has been not be better able to worship God accustomed to public speaking for without distraction? twenty years, rudely brand with pu By this time, I imagine I hear some sillanimity, and dereliction of duty, reader exclaim,, “0, this writer is the humble Christian, whose excessive some churchified subject or other, who modesty, and secluded habits, dis- has been bred up in the trammels of qualify him for the duty. Though we episcopacy, and cannot believe that grant, that there are few but might any thing is right, which is not recogsurmount their fears by repeated en- nized in the 'rites and ceremonies' of deavours; yet, towards this few, let the church established by law." To us exercise forbearance and charity, this he would reply, that though for and admit them to be sincere Chris- the venerable establishment he entertians, notwithstanding their mode of tains no feelings but those of respect; worship differs in some degree from yet, he must say, that he cannot be our own.
termed a churchman, unless the cirAgain, there are many upright Chris- cumstance of his having been baptized tians who have no talent for public by a clergyman constitute him such. prayer. I assert this on the evidence He frequently exercises, in public of my own senses and experience; prayer, in his humble way, and always having repeatedly heard individuals extempore; having never learned a attempt to pray, who appeared to be form in his life, except the Lord's so unacquainted with language and Prayer; and, notwithstanding the apoforms of speech, as to be unable to logy he has made for praying with a speak coherently, or even intelligibly. book, he believes it, in general, a far But if these persons are at the heads more excellent way to worsbip God of families, they must perform family without one. His object in writing, is worship: their only recourse, there to promote candour and liberality. fore, is a form.
He thinks, that to remonstrate with . I think it is somewhere about this those who conscientiously perform stage of the debate that the argument their duty by the help of forms of
prayer, should be felt to be a point of aspirates are distinguished by a quick so much delicacy, as to restrain us breathing, with very little vocal noise ; from a harsh or sarcastic method of the other by a slow breathing, and doing it, and lead us to adopt one of a humming sound united. Take p, as more conciliating and indulgent cha- an instance of the aspirated, and b, of racter.
the vocal consonants; both are pro
H. ROBINSON. | duced by a stoppage of the breath Rainton, April 16th.
against the lips, but the former requires a sharp puff, the latter a kind of vocal hum, to complete it. D et
Let a series be formed of each class ON THE SOUNDS OF Letters.
respectively, let a vowel sound be the MR. EDITOR.
common property of one series; the Sir, - I take the liberty of submitting aspirate, or letter h, of the other; it the following observations to your may be easily seen, that his heard readers:
more or less in every gradation of the There is a property in the sound of latter, and a vowel or vocal sound acconsonants, which I do not remember companies the former; for instance, to have seen explained fully to my the a in saloon, pronounced exceedsatisfaction. Every consonant has ingly short. Let each series comeither an aspirated, or a vocal, sound; mence with gutturals, proceeding as each vocal has its corresponding as- they are pronounced, through the pirated consonant, and vice versa. The mouth to the lips, as follows:Vocalss.
A SPIRATE. (* (Saloon) a ..............h, n, Greek smooth'. Gutturals. Newcastle r in roll, rhg ....n, hh, Greek rough'. (x(sing) ng..
..... ngh, not used. [(you) y ...
· yh, not used. Palatines. Gaelic, gh ....
..X, P. Lg hard, Y, 2...
k, J, K. en ....
sp, rh, French r in sombre, Somer
setshire, r in red. Linguals. <3,,1.....
.... lh, Welsh II, French l in resemble. v, 2, n ......
nh, not used. Co, n,d ......
(3, 1,2 .............. ...8,0.
... f, g, Welsh ff.
M, s, m .................. mh, not used. (p, a,b ...................
.....P, ., . From a, y, and w, and their combi- | is given by placing it as the correnations, flow all the vowels. The sponding vocal to the Hebrew rough Hebrew y, Greek , , and English c, aspirate, n. 9, x, j, and 9 soft, are to be found sim- The Gaelic gh, and Greek X, are reple or compound, among the rest. spectively similar to Newcastle r, and
Mh, nh, yh, and ngh, are sometimes Hebrew n; but I think it may be seen pronounced by people who stutter. by a little attention, that the former The Welsh 11, by some who have an are pronounced in the mouth or palate, impediment, for s.
| the latter in the throat, the passage The guttural sound used by the for the breath being in each instance common people of Newcastle-on-Tyne nearly closed. for r, is not easily represented in let- A knowledge of the difference beters; it is to be heard among the tween a vocal and an aspirated conkeel-men, and the inhabitants of a sonant, with a table similar to the street called Sandgate, in the greatest above, to which the compounds might perfection. It is sounded low in the be added, would, I think, be useful in throat, and the best idea of its sound | teaching the sound of such as are not
met with in our native tongue, a diffi- 1 Those who doubt of these and similar facts, culty not often easily overcome.
may refer to the following gentlemen for their : Should this paper meet with your
several testimonies, viz.
The Rev. Sam. Marsden, Principal Chaplain approbation, I shall trouble you with
of New South Wales. Rev. S. Leigh, Sydney. a few more remarks, together with a Messrs. Williams, Hall, Kendall, Packey, series of symbols, whose shape will King, Shepherd, Remp, Turner, and White, nearly point out the sound signitied. pow at New Zealand. The Rev. Join Butler, It is with the greatest deference,
na | No. 9, President-street, East Goswell-street
| Road, London. Mr. Sam. Butler of Sydney, that the above lucubrations are sub
and Mr. W. Laury, St. Austle, Cornwall. Many mitted to your readers; my gutturals of these can say, "I have seen men eat men.” have, I fear, set them yawning, if not Banian Tree.- On the banks of the river growling: some apology is almost
ne anology is almost Narbudda, in the province of Guzzerat, is a necessary for presuming to becloud
Banian tree, supposed, by some persons, to be
the one described by Nearchus, and certainly your pages with my dulness; but the
not inferior to it. It is distinguished by the brightness of truth is often elicited by name of Cubbeer Burr, which was given it in obscure means; and if I should only honour of a famous saint. Higb Doods have, be the mere flint, which some master at various times, swept away a considerable hand may strike against bis polished
inst his polished part of this extraordinary tree; but what still steel, to produce that spark, which his
| remains, is nearly two thousand feet in circum
ference, measured round the principal stems; genius may breathe into an eradiating the overhanging branches, not yet struck down, glow, it will be matter of no small cover a much larger space; and under it grow thankfulness, that the Creator has a number of custard-apple and other fruit trees. given, at least, a useful dulness to
The large tranks of this single tree amount to
three hundred and fifty; and the smaller ones Mr. Editor, yours,
exceed three thousand; every one of these is A JOURNEYMAN MECHANIC. constantly sending forth branches and banging Lambeth, March 24th, 1825.
roots, to form other trunks, and become the parents of a future progeny. The Cabbeer
Burr is famed throughout Hindostan, not only GLEANING S.
on account of its great extent, but also of its Cannibalism.-Among the tricks to which surpassing beauty. The Indian armies genescepticism has resorted, to retard the propa rally encamp around it; and at stated seasons, gation of Christianity, it has been asserted by solemn Jatarras, or Hindoo festivals, to wbich its advocates, that the reports long circulated thousands of votaries repair from every part respecting cannibalism have little or no sounda.
nda. of the Mogal empire, are there celebrated. tion in truth, and that those by whom the cer is said that seven thousand persons find ample tainty of this abominable practice is supported, room to repose under its shade. being interested in their declarations, are there To prepare Quills.—The following method of fore unworthy of credit. Tbe melancholy fact preparing these useful articles is recommend. is, however, too well attested to be generallyed: "Suspend them in a copper, containing disbelieved, and we give the following in con- | bot water, just to touch their pibs; then, closfirmation of wbat we advance.
ing the copper, so as to be steam-tight, leave It bas been stated by several eye-witnesses, the quills, for a considerable time, exposed to tbat in the Isles of the South Sea, but more the heat and moisture of the steam, by which especially at New Zealand, human flesh is often the sat they contain will be melted and drawn eaten. Immediately after the late depredatory out; after this treatment has been continued wars carried on by Sbunghee against Enackey about four hours, they will attain a considera and others, buman victims bave been seen cat able degree of softness and transparency. Next in two or more pieces, and each piece throwbday, open the bibs, draw the pith, and having into a fire prepared for the purpose, and forth- rubbed them with a soft and dry cloth, place with eaten. 'Human heads have been seen them in a gently-heated oven, or at the side of roasting before a fire, with a design to preserve a fire, for a while; and it will be found, on the them as articles of barter with Europeans, while following day, that, together with the firmness the remainder of the victim has been eaten by and hardness of born or bone, they have actbe savages. This has happened frequently, quired the transparency, though not the britand been seen by many witnesses. In New tleness, of glass.” Holland, men's arms and legs bave been seen German Method of Cooling and Purifun the in the nets of the aborigines, among other Air in Summer.-In the hot days of sommer, articles of subsistence. In the Friendly Islands especially in houses exposed to the meridian it has been known that the savages not anfre- sun, a capacions vessel filled with cold water quently dash out and eat each other's brains. is placed in the middle of a room; and a few
On a certain occasion, a savage came to one green branches of lime, birch, or willow, are of the gentlemen mentioned below, in a state plunged with the lower ends into the fluid. of considerable agitation, and on being asked By this easy expedient the apartment is, in a the cause of his half-suppressed violence, re. short time, rendered much cooler; tbe evapoplied, that having met with another savage, ration of the water producing this desirable who had offended him, he had cleft bis skull effect in sultry weather, without any detriment with his club, and left him dead on the spot. to health. Besides, the exhalation of green He added, “ But tbe vex not all go away, I plants, under the influence of the solar rays, bave eaten bis brains."
I greatly tends to purify the air; but they must
not remain in the apartments after night-lall, -With regard to their religion, they may be or in the shade.
estimated as follows:Increase of Height at Rising,—The cartilages Pagans, ......... 490,000,000 between the vertebræ of the back-bone, twenty Mahometans, ...... 130,000,000 four in number, yield considerably to the pres Roman Catholics, . ... 100,000,000 sure of the body in an erect posture, and ex, Protestants, ....... 43,000,000 pand themselves during the repose of the night; Greeks and Armenians,. 30,000,000 hence a person is considerably taller at his Jews,........... 7,000,000 rising in the morning than at night. The dif. From this estimate it appears, that there are serenice in some amounts to so much as one more than four Pagans and Mahometans to one inch; and recruits who have passed muster for Christian, and only one Protestant to seventeen soldiers in the morning, have been rejected at of all the other denominations. night as below the standard.
Bolivar and Joseph Lancaster.- Mr. Lancas, Candles from Hog's-lard.--Dr. O'Neil, ofter, lately residing in the Caraccas, bas recently Comber, has discovered a process by which received an interesting letter from Bolivar, inJard may be used for making candles : he ren- viting him to his newly acquired dominions, to ders this substance superior to the Russia tal-establish among the Colombians bis celebrated low, and not so expensive. The lard, after system of education. He states, that the having undergone bis process, resembles white government has placed a million of dollars at wax or spermaveti. Candles made of this pre- his disposal, for the purposes of mental cultipared substance burn with a brilliancy supe. vation, and that be thinks this som cannot be rior to common candles, and, it is said, even more advantageously expended, than in giving to gas'; they are free from any unpleasant extension to the Lancastrian mode of instruo smell, and do not feel greasy to the touch, nor tion. give off any sınoke; they burn much longer Atmospheric Pressure. The pressure of the tban candles of tbe same weight, and, by a whole atmosphere upon the earth, is computed slight alteration in the process, they can be to be equivalent to that of a globe of lead 60 rendered yellow, or of any other colour, or of miles in diameter, or 5,000,000,000,000,000 a perfect whiteness, which neither, light, air, tons; that is, the whole mass of air which surnor smoke, can alter. ;!
rounds the globe, compresses the earth with a Mental Process for conceiving the Earth's Mag-force or power equal to that of five thousand milnitude. It bas been estimated, that the sur-| lions of millions of tons. face of the earth contains nearly 200,000,000 of Nalural History.-A splendid collection of square miles.-Now, were a person to set out stuffed birds has been presented to the Ashon a minute survey of the terraqueous globe, molean Museum, by the Honourable and Rev. and to travel till he passed along every square Arthur Philip Percival, Fellow of All Souls' mile on its surface, and to continue bis route College. The specimens now collected in the without intermission, at the rate of 30 miles Museum illustrate the grand divisions of the every day, it would require 18,264 years before systematic arrangements of Linnæus, Cavier, he could tinish bis tour, and complete the sur-and Lamark-pamely, the classes and orders vey of this huge rotundity on which we tread :' of Animalia vertebrata; Mammalia; Aves; Cheso that had le commenced his excursion on lonia; Pisces; et Insectæ; together with Conthe day in which Adam was created, and con- chylia.
it to the present hour, be would not Pompeii.-The most recent excavations made have accomplisbed one-third part of this vast at Pompeii have brought to light some of the tour.-Again: Were the earth a hollow sphere, most interesting objects wbich have yet been surrounded merely with an external shell of discovered. They consist of a bouse, which, earth and water 10 miles thick, its internal from its paintings, has been named the Casa del cavity would be sufficient to contain a quantity Poeta Dramatica; a public bath complete; a of materials one hundred and thirty-three times marble statue, similar to those of Cicero, a greater than the whole mass of continents, large equestrian statue in bronze, sapposed to islands, and oceans, on its surface, and the be that of the Emperor Nero; and various other foundations on which they are supported. objects.
Northern Expedition. The plan to be par Consecrated Ass.-A short time ago a fine sued by Captain Franklin and his party is as ass was imported into Liverpool, from Alex. follows: Proceeding along lakes Huron and andria in Egypt. The animal has since been Superior, they are to winter near the Great Bear purchased of the importer by the followers of Lakes. In the spring they are to proceed to the late Jobanna Southcote, at Ashton-underBebring's straits, where a ship will be ready Line, and it is said they regard it as an invato transport them to India. The same vessel | luable treasure, in consequence of its being a will then take in provisions for Captain Parry, native of the East. They gave 125 guineas for and sail again for Behring's straits, where about the animal. that time he is expected to be met. For the Writing.—The common writing of the CalJand expedition, provisions will be laid in by | macks, as well as of some other Oriental nathe Hudson's Bay Company, in various depots tions, is read vertically—that is, in lines from on their route. They are also provided with the top to the bottom, wbich appears also to, portable water-proof canvass, which, if re have been originally the case with most of the quired, may easily be converted into a canoe. hieroglyphics of Egypt; but these were, in pro
Population of the Globe.The number of in- cess of time, placed horizontally, in the manner habitants which people the earth at one time now generally practised. may be estimated to "amount to at least eight New Comet.-Professor Harding, of Gottinhundred millions; of which 500 millions may be gen, on the 23d of August, discovered a new assigned to Asia ; 80 millions to Africa; 70 mil- oomet in the constellation Orion; it appears lions to America; and 150 millions to Europe. without a tail, and is travelling to the south.