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ments, for men naturally act from feel- | descent from the same impure stock, ing; passion has early predominance, and our common liability to err, the reason does not operate all at once, divine command “ Judge not would and when it does, how often do we be better regarded. Almost daily obpeglect or even reject its dictates! But servation teaches the melancholy and it is its province to induce us to quell humiliating truth, that a long course the ebullitions of the baser passions, of upright, and apparently consciento wrest from them the supremacy, tious deportment, is no security against and to make them but the handmaids the future commission of some unforof the soul.

tunate, perhaps disgraceful act. Not Did men reflect more, and did they only the mere moralist, but the real but act up to that standard of moral Christian, is sometimes permitted to rectitude which conscience presents soil the reputation of a consistent and to them, an uncandid and ungenerous even exemplary life. Holy writ redisposition would cease. The love cords errors against Moses, David, and practice of virtue would so occupy Solomon, and others, men peculiarly the breast, as to leave no room for any favoured by heaven; and if such as secret jealousy of apother's merit, nor these were not exempt from crime, for any invidious and irksome crav-how soon may the very best of those ings for superiority; filled with a quiet now existing stand in need of that and comfortable self-satisfaction, they charity and candour which it is our would have no inducement to make boundep duty to exercise toward all even an indirect attempt to deprive an- | mankind. other of his store. Fallible and short. Perhaps an uncandid disposition is sighted creatores as we are, an uncan- in no instance more quickly and more did judgment is unreasonable, because, visibly manifested, than when parties as wecanpot take cognizance of the mo- differ upon religious subjects; then it tives and designs of men, our opinions is most irrational, and frequently most of their outward and visible actions are mischievous. Not to allude to days liable to mistake. Their outward con- | now happily gone by, when popes, duct and its effects we obserye, but monks, friars, and executioners were the thoughts and intents of man are the ministers of religion; when flames concealed from our glance. A want and fagots were the emblems of their of candour is unreasonable also, be- zeal, and the instruments of its operacause it can have no good effect either tions; but to confine our observations upon our own minds or the minds of to our own times, and to our own beothers: it affords not the gratification loved land, where every one sits under we expect from it; it is soon followed the shade of his own vine and fig-tree, by a doubtful suspicion of its injus- and without fear of legal molestation, tice, a gloomy conviction of the worth-worships God according to the dic. lessness of that heart that can cherish tates of his conscience; even here what such a propensity, and by a fearful angry disputes still exist! Even now, expectation, that others may soon, if though Christian love is becoming althey do not already, judge us by our most universal, yet what coolness of own standard. In those toward whom religious friendship is in too many it is exercised, it produces no refor instances yet found, what calling of mation, no desire to amend; but it fails names, what unpleasant allusions, and not to awake in their bosoms feelings sarcastical expressions, even yet disof disapprobation and dislike. In the grace some of the votaries of religion! minds of spectators it excites disre- But can any thing that bears marks of spect, distrust, and disesteem; thus a persecuting spirit, or that is illiberal the habitually uncandid person at in its nature, convince a brother of his length loses his associates and ac-error? Does the wrath of man ever quaintances, unless, indeed, his easy work the righteousness of God? No. circumstances, a show of splendour, his The only legitimate method of enforrank in society, or some other local cing our own particular views is the cause, retain to him the intimacy of energy and solidity of our arguments; those whose specious, yet cold and their only recommendation is the puheartless friendship, is “but a name," rity and sanctity of our lives. and who in the hour of adversity would it is not probable that the difference “ leave the wretch to weep."

of sects and parties will ever altoDid we but remember our common gether cease; it appears hardly desirable that it should, for a spirit of party , tardy movements of a machine, when produces activity, watchfulness, and a torrent of vinegar would but have examination, and a sort of jealousy, corroded its joints, and effectually which, if kept within proper bounds, have stopped its operations ? have on the whole a salutary effect; But the good effects of candour, and under proper restrictions party though satisfactorily felt in the breast zeal is not incompatible with Chris of its possessor, are not confined there, tian candour and love; and a differ they spread and communicate; for ence of sentiment on minor points, our personal influence, however small, neither produces nor implies a dis and our immediate example, however union of heart and affection.

circumscribed the sphere in wbich we The disposition we urge, possesses move, both operate in their degree more advantages than are obvious at upon the minds of those among whom first view, and its existence implies wedwell, and are calculated to awaken also the existence of other good and in them a determination to imitate the amiable qualities; integrity of princi conduct of those whose behaviour ple, suavity of manners, sweetness affords them so much delight. and cheerfulness of temper, generally As candour. not only adorns real distinguish the generous and candid talent, but even makes up for a defimind. It engages the esteem and even ciency thereof, so it has the effect of the affections of others in our behalf; encouraging modest and unassuming they will respect the character and abilities in others; whilst the youthful enjoy the society of him who brings mind, diffident of its own merits, and with him the recommendation of a be- mistrustful of its own powers, sbrinks nevolent heart. Candour bears the from public exertions and public useappearance, and is indeed a compo- | fulness, it behoves the candid and pent part of good nature; this exhi-discerning to elicit the embryo talent, bits itself in our looks, manners, and and to patronize the rising worth. address; it secures the attention of How much society has lost for want those with whom we converse, and of such encouragement, and how much prepares a good reception for what it has gained by a contrary treatment, we may advance; our compliments let the biography of eminent men deand encomiums will have a greater clare. value, our friendly admonitions and By promoting the exercise of this advice an additional weight.

disposition, both by our precepts, inAs this amiable quality of the mind fluence, and example, we shall not only cannot fail to procure friends, so nei enjoy the pleasure arising from earther can' it fail to secure and retain nest and well-meant endeavours to their intimacy. Accidental circum- do good, but we shall in our degree stances may sometimes introduce us be the means of bringing the condito the friendship of individuals, but tion of society nearer to the resemgenuine worth and unaffected kind-blance of that happy state, where the ness can alone insure a continuance vexations of envy, the voice of detracof their love. Talents, wit, and hu- tion, the burnings of malice, the termour may dazzle the eyes of the mul- rors of bloodshed, and the devastatitude, and obtain the smile of occa- tions of war, shall give place to feelsional acquaintances, but friendship ings of perfect good will, friendship, requires more solid and durable qua and concord, to permanent and uniJifications; it exists not in exterior versal love, to consummate and uninendowments, its province is the heart. terrupted felicity. And surely he who And if a candid man can have ene would be instrumental in introducing mies, (and from some unfortunate cir- these glorious blessings to mankind, cumstance he may,) how will his can- must be considered valuable as a dour tend to conciliate existing dif-harbinger of mercy, and society shall ferences, how will his adversary learn hail him welcome as a herald of peace. to esteem the man with whom he dis- Deal.

E. B. putes, and soon, perhaps, without any compromise of justice on the part of the latter, an amicable agreement is

ON THE STUDY OF LANGUAGES. effected; and often has the old remark! MR. EDITOR. been thus verified, that a few drops Sir, I have hitherto delayed to anof oil have frequently accelerated the swer the letter of your correspondent,

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in your number of January, col. 102, | improved state of literature, constantly both because more serious occupa- on the decline. That man who cantion has totally engaged my attention, not utter a sentence, or give an opiand because I was not without hopes nion, without the introduction of some that some more able hand would have obsolete pbrase, or of some learned taken op a controversy, to which I quotation, ought rather to be regarded must confess myself to be by no means as a solitary victim to literary fanatiequal. And here I must beg leave to cism, than a fair specimen of the mareturn my sincere thanks to your cor- jority of those learned critics and literespondent, for the very handsome rary genii, with, which all quarters of and gentlemanly manner in which he the world at present abound. has answered my letter, but must Your correspondent has totally misagain repeat, that I saw no reason in understood my concluding observahis first letter sufficiently substantial tion. I did not allude to the acquireto induce me to alter my former opi-ment of one language, but the knownion on the subject; to which I must ledge of one thing, using the word in add, that the perusal of his last, has its most extensive sense." I should produced no other effect on me, than never have made an observation so to convince me, that the opinions I different to what I myself knew to be before entertained were far from erro- real, and I hope that this explanation neous.

of my real sentiments will be deemed If, as men distinguished for literary satisfactory by your correspondent.as well as philosophic knowledge I am, Sir, yours, &c. have in all ages asserted, that that

W-S-, Junr. which elevates the mind above the Lisle Street, June 11, 1825. common herd, and teaches it to know its own strength, and to depend on it, rather than on the labours of others

GLEANINGS. if I say, this hypothesis is to be found 1

Legal Advice to Shareholders in Joint Stock ed on truth, as who will deny thatit is? | Companies.--Mr. Justice Bavley, in an address

does not a knowledge of the learn- to a jury at the last Northumberland Assizes, ed languages produce the very effects in a cause, “ Blackett v. Weare,” in which required? I am far from arguing that

the defendant was a shareholder in the Mar

gate Steam Yacht Company, said, “It is desia mere knowledge and study of words

rable that those who take shares in Joint and phrases can possibly produce such

Stock Companies, should make some examinaeflects, but were even mere insipid tion into the solvency of the concerns into which study the only object wbich a know they embark. The members of such comledge of the learned languages has in panies are jointly and severally liable for the view, it has there an utility, -it would

debts of their respective companies, and those

who furnish them with goods can recover the occupy the mind, and prevent the en- value of them from any individual member trance of that which has a tendency they think proper to select. Such is the law to corrupt and harden it.

of the country, and I consider it a very benefiYour correspondent in his first let cial law. In the present case, your verdict

must be for the plaintiff.” ter very justly says, that no man can

Oysters.--The liquor of the oyster contains know when he may want a knowledge

incredible maltitudes of small embryo oysters, of the French language, either for pur covered with little shells, perfectly transparent, poses of business or information; may swimming nimbly about. One hundred and not his own remark with equal justice !

twenty of these in a row would extend one be applied to a knowledge of the clas

inch. Besides these young oysters, the liquor sic languages? Can any man say that hundred times less in size, which emit a phos

contains a great variety of animalcules, five he shall never want them, or will that

phoric light. The list of inhabitants, however, man who has had opportunities of does not conclude bere, for, besides these last learning them, but who has never ac mentioned, there are three distinct species of quired even a slight knowledge of

worms, called the oyster-worm, half an inch

long, found in oysters, wbich shine in the dark them, never regret, when he feels his ne

like glow-worms. cessity for them, bis culpable neglect? Natural History. The large ants of Africa There are some instances of scholars | Dave been know

of scholars I have been known to strip bare to the bone, the who are much better acquainted with carcass of a cow in a single night. Mr. Abson,

abon “ all the ancient stores of Greece and the governor of the English fort at Grewbe, in

| Dahomy, was once reduced to that state of Rome,” than with their own vernacu

thacus | debility by a severe attack of fever, as to be so lar language; but their number is com- | wholly helpless, that the ants attacked him in paratively small, and on accountof the the night when lying in bed; and if, fortu.

pear

nately, one of his domesties bad not awoke, kind, indicate poisonous plants. The calyx tbey would have devoured him before morn. double, glume valyed, three stamina, two ing, so incapable was be of calling for belp, or pistils, and naked seed, indicate plants of a of straggling with his assailants.-Captain farinaceous quality, and fit for food. Adams's Remarks on the Coast of Guinea.

Africa.-Captain Clapperton, R. N. accomNew Worlds.--The time has arrived wben panied by Dr. Wilson, and Captaio Pearse, America is to lose the name of New World, accompanied by Dr. Morrison, embarked in There is a newer world than America, whose the Brazen, 28, Captain George Willes, on name is not as yet fixed. It is variously called, Tuesday se'nnight, for the purpose of proceedAustralasia, Oceanica, and Polynesia. The ing to the Bight of Benin, and commence their fiftb part of the globe is composed of New I journey thence into the interior of Africa; the Holland and New Zealand; of New Caledonia former party taking the course of the newly. and the Hebrides; of the New Philippines; of discovered city of Sandon, the latter to TimVan Diemen's Land, tbe Solomon Isles, the buctoo. Friendly Isles, Navigators' Land, the Society New Quarantine Laws.—The Order in CoanIslands, the Low Islands, and all the islands of cil for carrying the Quarantine Laws into the immen

of the Pacific Ocean. effect, has been published. The immediate Geography.-Two British vessels have been | admission of vessels from the Levant, with lately employed in surveying the Persian Gulf, clean bills of health, can no longer be practised. laying down the coast, settling the latitudes of Sach vessels and their passengers inost perplaces, &c.

form a quarantine of fifteen days, and all their * Wild Man. -The German papers state, that goods, wares, and merchandise must undergo á man, apparently about thirty years of age, the asnal airings. Vessels with suspected or has been broaght to Prague from the Harlswald foul bills of health, are to perform one of thirty forest, in Bohemia, where he was found in a days, and the goods and merchandise to go perfectly savage state. His actions and habits through all the airings and fumigations which are those of the ouran-outang; and he appears have ever been practised in such cases. to be irreclaimable.

Soda Water --wben prepared in the best man. Noxious Air in Wine Cellars.--In all wine or ner, ought to contain a very small portion of beer cellars which are but seldom visited, or, carbonate of soda, which has a tendency to in other words, are not often allowed to have correct acidity in the stomach. It should also any ventilation of the air, a vessel containing contain about eight times its own bulk of a solation of lime-water, with a wide surface, carbonic acid gas, which is generated in the and placed in the lowest part of the cellar, gasometer from chalk and diluted salphurio would serve to absorb part of the carbonic acid acid. Much that is sold under the name of gas; whilst it would not in any degree inter- soda water, contains scarcely any soda, being fere with that equable temperature, which it merely water impregnated with carbonio acid is desirable to maintain in such sitoations. gas, by means of a sorcing pamp, and conse,

Economical Buildings. A patent bas lately quently liable to be contaminated by copper, been taken out, by a Mr. Hall, for a cheap zinc, or lead, according to the vessels in which mode of bailding, applicable principally to the condensation is carried on. A pleasant cottages, schools of industry, &c.; the princi, saline draught is made by dissolving thirty pal feature of which appears to be that of beat. grains of carbonate of soda or potash, and ing a compound of clay, &c. into wooden com. twenty grains of citric acid (acid of lemons) in partments, which, on being removed, leaves two separate glasses, mixing them, and then the wall hard, firm, and substantial. The drinking them in a state of effervescence. specifications of the patentee represent bis Artificial Cold.—The greatest artificial cold method to be as durable as brick or stone; less that bas yet been produced, was effected by pervious to the weather, and consequently the mixture of diluted solphuric acid with warmer in winter, and cooler in summer. Its snow, which supk Fahrenbeit's thermometer specific gravity exceeds that of sand-stone; to minus 90°, or 1230 below the freezing and it can be carried on in any weather, as point. well as building with the materials at present Light and Motion. It is known by experi. in ase. The construction proceeds more ment, that every sudden stroke, every rapid rapidly in its progress; it requires mere la- | motion, impressed on a mass of air which canbourers to carry it on; and in cost does not not yield with safficient quickness, excites in

eed one-fourth that of brick-work. Mr. it a degree of light. Hall's plan is now on trial in the vicinity of Marine Cravat. A Mr. Bell, of Alnwick, London, and in some other parts.

has invented an instrument to preserve perZoology.-Fecundity: So quick is the pro- | sons from drowning; to wbich be has given duce of pigeons, that in the course of four the above appropriate name. It is a cylinder years, 14,760 may come from a single pair; of leather, water-proof, three inches in diameand in the same period of time 1,274,840 from ter, sufficiently long to surround the neck, and a pair of rabbits.-One cod fish bas been found | fasten bebind with a backle or clasp. It pos. to contain 3,686,760 eggs;a flounder 1,357,400;sesses a buoyancy sufficient to keep a person's a herring 36,960; a sole, 100,362.-Rapid head above water, so that by its use, any one, Flight: The rapidity with wbich the hawk, and though upable to swim, might venture into the many other birds, occasionally fly, is probably deepest water, and remain suspended in senot less than at the rate of 150 miles in an curity. bour; the common crow 25; the swallow, 92; 1 Action of Sulphur upon heated Iron.and the swift, three-times greater. Migratory Colonel Evasin, Director of the Arsenal at birds probably about 50 miles an hour. Metz, in a letter to Gay Lussac, states the

Botanical Characteristics.-Five stamina, one following experiments :-"I placed a bar of pistil, one petal, and the fruit of the berry wrought iron, about sixth-teuths of an inob in

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thickness, in a common forge, fed by fossil portion gave a hectolitre of corn more for hall coal, and when it was welding bot, I drew it a hectar of land. Afterwards, an equal quanout, and applied to the surface a stick of sol- tity of flour from the wheat of each portion was phor, six-tenths of an inch in diameter. In made into bread ; that of the corn reaped green fourteen seconds, the sulphur had pierced a gave seven pounds of bread more than the hole through the iron perfectly circular. An other, in six decalitres. Lastly, the weevil other bar of iron, two inches thick, was pierced attacked the corn which was cut ripe: the in fifteen seconds. The holes had the exact other was exempt from it. The proper time form of the stick of sulphur employed, whether for reaping is, that when the grain, on being cylindrical or prismatic. They were, however, pressed between the fingers, has a doughy apmore regular on the side at which the sulphur pearance, like the crumb of bread jast hot came out, than on that to which it was applied.” from the oven, when pressed in the same Mechanic's Magazine.

maoner. The above fact, however, was first Vegetable Tallow. A vegetable tallow, ex- | stated, and experiments published in support tracted, by boiling, from the fruit of the Veteria of it, by a farmer in East Lothian. Indica tree, growing in Canara province, and Easy methods of Analyzing Flour.Take a others on the western coast of the peninsula of tea-spoonful of floor, patting it into a wine India, wbich sells in Mangalore at about 2 d. glass, which fill ap with clean water, stirring per pound, and is called by the natives piney it up well; allow it to stand for half an hour, tallow, though not ased by them for affording then decant the milky fluid off the top, which light, but medicinally, in plasters, and as a consists of starch in a state of solution. To substitute for tar, in paying the bottoms of their the remainder add a tea-spoonful of sulphuric boats, has lately been brought to London, in a acid (oil of vitriol), wbich, if it is pure, will very hard and tough cake. It can, with faci- dissolve the whole of it: allow it to remain lity, be made into mould candles, which afford for ten minutes, tben till the glass again with as bright a light as the best animal tallow, and water, when the burnt bones, plaster of Paris, without any unpleasant smell, even when blown or chalk, will be easily discovered at the bota out.

tom. Shonld the adulteration consist of chalk, Freach Protestants.--By the census of 1815, a violent effervesence will ensúe upon the ad. the number of Protestants in France was dition of the acid. Or, take a small quantity 322,259. Since that period, a very consider of the suspected flour, put it in an iron spoon, able increase bas taken place. Three priests and pass the flame of a candle with a blow-pipo have lately renounced Popery. The spread of upon it. Should it be pure, it will burn black, the Bible, and the labours of the missionaries but if it contains any of the above-mentioned on the continent, and other societies, lave ingredients, the whole particles will imme. done much to advance true religion ; and therediately be visible. is a very great revival in the French Protest-1. Anatomy.Dr. Barry, an English physician, ant Churches. They are now estimated at lately read before the Academy des Sciences, 1,500,000.

at Paris, a memoir of the motion of the blood The Baltic.- A singular and interesting fact in tbe veins. From reasoning, as well as from bas been ascertained respecting the level of direct experiments upon living animals, the the Baltic. It was suspected, that the waters author of this memoir has been led to conclade, of this sea were gradually sinking; but'a me that the return of blood to the heart is caused moir in the Swedish Transactions for 1823, has directly by atmospheric pressure. According put the change beyond doubt. From latitude | to him, a vacuum is formed in the thoracic 56 to 63 degrees, the observations shen a cavities at the moment of inspiration, which mean fall of one foot and a half in 40 years, or produces apon all the flaids in commupication four-tenths of an inch annually, or 3 feet ten with those parts, the same effect as the ascent inches in a century. The Baltic is very shallow of the piston does in the pump. The 'con. at present, and if the waters continue to sink sequences likely to result froin this new docas they have done, Revel, Aho, and a bundred trine of Dr. Barry's, if established, are stated other ports, will, by and by, become inland to be highly interesting to medical men. towns ; the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, and Artificial Chalybeate Water. If a few pieces ultimately the Baltic itself, will be changed of silver coin be alternated with sheet iron, on into dry land.-Glasgow Mechanic's Mag. placing the pile in water, it soon acquires a

Reaping Corn.—The French claim the merit chalybeate taste and yellowish -hae, and, in of a new discovery in the advantages which twenty-four hours, flakes of oxide of iron apresult from the practice of reaping corn before pear : hence, by replenishing with water, a it is perfectly ripe. This theory, which has vessel, in which such pile is placed, after each just been promolgated by M. Cadet de Vaux, draught, we can obtain a substitute for a chalyoriginates with M. de Salles, of the Agrical- | beate spring. tural Society of Beziers. The following are . Huge Timber-ship.

shin_The Baron Renfrew, of

The Baron Reptrew, or the particulars: Corn reaped eight days be 1,400 tons fore the usual time is, in the first place, secured has been launched at Quebec. It is calculated from the dangers which threatened it at that that it will carry 8,000 tons of timber. time: this is only accidental; bat a positive Steam-skip to India. The first steam-vessel, ad vantage is, that the grain is fuller, larger, called the Enterprise, lately left the Thames finer, and that it is never attacked by the for India. It is said that governmect has weevil. The truth of these statements has annexed a reward of £10,000 to the aocombeen proved by the most conclusive compara plishment of the first voyage to India by steam tive experiments apon a piece of corn, one navigation. half of which was reaped before the usual | British Colonial Slavery.-From a return of time, and the other half, at the degree of matu- | the Slave population of the British colonies, it rity fixed by the ordinary practice. The first appears, that the slaves of our West India

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