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Review.--The Christian Philosopher.

750

assist each other. With this view he tions. For although it could be proved, (which has conducted us through the leading it cannot be) that no such displays have hitherwalks of all the more important and

a to been made to any other beings, yet who

| can take upon him to assert, that displays of useful branches of pbilosophical know

Divine perfection, far more glorious and asledge, pointed out their leading pecu tonishing, will not be exbibited during the liarities, and resolved the origin of countless ages of eternity which are yet to all into the mysterious but powerful come? To set limits to the operations of

Almighty power and boundless benevolence, operation of the divine agency, The sciences, he conceives, might province of any created inteltigence, and far

during the lapse of infinite duration, is not the be cultivated with much success, in less of man, who stands so low in the scale of reference to the power, the wisdom, universal being. 4thly, It tends to damp the and the goodness of God, and he cau hopes and prospects of immortal beings, when tions divines against the prevailing

in looking forward to an interminable existence. practice of discarding them altogether that they are already acquainted with the

For, this sentiment leads them to conclude, from their theological discussions. He greatest display of Divine glory which can be censures also the unguarded expres made ; and that, whatever scenes of wonder sions with which our pulpits and print

may be exhibited in the future world, they ed sermons greatly abound, respecting

must, of course, be all inferior to this, in ponit the superlative and ultimate display

of extent and grandeur.

"The redemption of the human race, as dis. of the power, wisdom, and mercy of

played in the Christian revelation, is a theme God. But, on this point, we beg leave sufficiently grand, astonishing, and interesting, to introduce his own language.

to command the attention of all who are con “ The sentiment referred to in this paragraph, vinced that they belong to an apostate race of That there never was, nor ever will be, | intelligences, and to excite the admiration and tbrough all the ages of eternity, so wonderful gratitude of all who have experienced its a display of the Divine glory, as in the cross benefits; and it stands in no need of such onof Christ,” has been reiterated a thousand foonded and extravagant assertions, to display times, and is still repeated by certain preachers, its riches and glory. Will a man speak de as if it were an incontrovertible axiom, which ceitfully for God? Shall pot bis excellency ought never to be called in question; and is, i make you afraid, and his dread fall upon you ?' no donbt. intended to magnify tbe Divine at. 1-We pronounce nothing decisively on this tributes, and the work of redemption. But it subject. We feel ourselves chained down to is nothing more than a presumptuous assump- an obscure corner of God's dominions, to be in tion, which has a tendency to limit the perfec. the very infancy of our knowledge, and withal, tions of Deity, and to present a partial and to be connected with a race of beings wbose distorted view of the economy of human re- " understandings are darkened by reason of demption. For, in the first place, it has nuo sin ;” and are therefore unable to pronounce an foundation in scripture. There is not a single infallible decision on what God will, or will passage from which it can be legitimately de- not do. Were we to hazard a conjecture on daced. The onus probandi, on this point, rests this subject, we would say, that the converse with those who make the assertion. A gentle. of the proposition under consideration, is more man, when lately conversing on this subject, probable than the proposition itself. We can brought forward the following interrogation, conceive worlds ten thousand times more as a demonstrative argument on this subject: populous than ours, and peopled with a higher • Is not Redemption declared in Soripture to order of intellectual beings, towards whom a be the chief of all the works of God?' bat he was similar display of benevolence and meroy, not a little surprised, when he was informed, I were it necessary, may be inadev and therefore that the passage, which he had partly mis in point of the extent of its objects, we can conquoted, is applied to the Beheinoth, or Eleceive the love of God more illustriously mani. phant, as stated in Job xl. 19.--2ndly, The as- fested than even to the inbabitants of our globe. sertion is as presumptuous as it is unfounded. But whether such an event shall ever take It takes for granted, that we know all the place, it would be presumption in us to deevents which have already bappened, and termine. For the thoughts and the ways of which are now taking place throughout the God as far transoend ours 46 as the heavens whole range of God's Universal Empire. This are high above the earth.” It demands our empire appears unbounded; and that portion of bigbest tribute of grateful adoration, that the it which we can minutely explore, is but as a Alinigbty condescended to "regard us in our point in comparison of the whole. But before low estate, and to deliver us from the moral we can, on good grounds, hazard such an as-degradation into which we had fallen; but sertion as that under consideration, we must surely, it would be unreasonable to conclude, bave explored all the dispensations of God, from this consideration, that, of all the rational through every portion of his vast dominions; tribes wbich people the universe, Man is the and be able to form a comparison between the only favourite of the Most High, " when thoudifferent displays of Divine glory, made to all sand worlds are round

ound. Thougli myriads of

Thongli myriad the different classes of intellectual beings, other intelligences were to share in similar faunder the government of the Creator, And vours, it would not lessen the bappiness conwho, among the sons of Adam, can lay claim ferred on us, por ought it, in the least, to deto such high qualifications for pronouncing tract from our admiration of the love of God, so sweeping a decision on this point! 3dly, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord."-p. 521 It sets limits to the Divine perfections and opera- to 523. is 80.-VOL, VII.

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Without subscribing to the sterling | perties of this queen of the parterre. accuracy of every expression in this He also adverts to its emblematical, volume, or even in the paragraph just metaphorical, and mythological chaquoted, we feel no hesitation in assert-racter ; enumerates various imaginary ing, that their general validity and properties with which fable bas entruth need only be seen to be ad- dowed it, both in the allusions of romired. From trivial errors, no merely mance and the consecrations of poetry. human composition was ever free; but It must, however, be admitted, that on the present occasion, the imperfec. more amusement than real instruction tions of this volume bear scarcely any is to be found in this volume; but the proportion to its intrinsic worth. The amusement is innocent; and from the author's propositions are by no means numerous passages of poetry scattered difficult to be understood, and that throughout its pages, many valuable reader who makes himself acquainted and pleasing sentiments may be transwith what this book contains, will be planted into the mind. no contemptible philosopher; and From the garden, the author somewhat is of infinitely more moment, he times takes us to the distillery, sprinwill be led through all his inquiries, kles us with rose-water, and regales to carry bis ultimate researches up to our senses with perfumes. To make God, and to rely for salvation on the the celebrated Otto, or Ottar, of roses, divine mercy as it is revealed in the he gives the following direction:holy scriptures.

“ Take a very large glazed earthen or stone so much useful information being jar, or a large clean wooden cask ; fill it with compressed in this work, the common the leaves of the flowers of roses, very well plea, founded on a want of time and

picked, and freed from all seeds and stalks ;

pour on them as much pure spring water as will opportunity for reading, which fur

" cover them, and set the vessel in the sun, in nishes laziness with a plausible re- the morning at sunrise, and let it stand till fuge, cannot now be urged. The price the evening, then take it into the house for the is only eight shillings, and he that night ; expose it in this manner for six or cannot find time to peruse 525 pages,

seven successive days, and at the end of the

third or fourth day, a pamber of particles of in which so much is to be learnt, de

a fine yellow oily matter, will float on the sore serves to suffer from the ignorance

face, which in two or three days more, will which he will not make a trifling effort gather into a scam, which is the ottar of roses. to remove.

This is taken op by some cotton, tied to the end of a piece of stick, and squeezed with the

finger and thamb into a small pbial, which Review.-Memoirs of the Rose, com must be immediately well stopped; and this is

prising Botanical, Poetical, and Mis repeated for some saccessive evenings, or cellaneous Recollections of that cele

while any of this fine essential oil rises to the

surface of the water. It is said that an banbrated Flower. 12mo. pp. 189.

dred pouods weight of roses will not yield London. Westley. 1824.

above half an ounce of this precious aroma."When this volume first reached our

p. 33 and 34. hands, we were led to conclude, from In a subsequent page, a pleasing a basty glance on one of its pages, tale from the German is introduced; that it contained nothing more than a but it is too long to be transplanted. gaudy bouquet, made up to please the We must now quit this literary nosefancy of the frivolous and the giddy. gay, having no doubt that it will be It has, however, lately undergone a admired by the ladies, and enjoy prosfair examination, and we are glad to perity among a swarm of bees. find that it has fragrance as well as colour. We do not mean to insinuate,

: | Review.-Transactions of the Cymmthat the author has extracted the otto of this celebrated flower, but he has

rodorion, or Metropolitan Cambrian

Institution. 8vo. Part I. and II. pp. taught us how to make it, has placed

423. London. William. 1822-1825. the rose in many pleasing lights, and given to his readers a comprehensive PERHAPS no department of our nasurvey of the high estimation in which tional literature has been more geneit has been held in all ages, and among rally and deservodly encouraged, than various dations.

that wbich takes cognizance of the In a series of letters to a young lady, local manners, customs, and tradi. the writer notices the antiquity, va- tions, existing in various parts of the rieties, modes of cultivation, and pro- | island. There is, however, a lamenta

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ble exception to be made here, as far ) faithful picture of the condition of that as respects those traits of nationality country during the period which imobservable among the inhabitants of mediately followed the celebrated the principality of Wales ; and which “Glyndwr's abortive attempt to regain have given to them a character pecu- the liberties of his country.” liarly their own. While the pen of Scott, like the potent wand of a magi- ! during this unbappy period, afforded ample

" The disordered state of the Principality, cian, has rescued from oblivion tbe opportunity for the commission of illegal de. superstitions of bis native land, and predations; and “soe bloody and ireful were given to the fast fleeting shadows of quarrells in those days,' says the renerable past ages “ a local habitation and a

historian of Gwedir, and tbe rerenge of the name;" and tbe muse of Moore, and

sword of such liberties, as almost nothing was

punished by law, whatsoever bappened.'. We still more powerful political causes,

mast not be surprised, therefore, at the exist. have mutually contributed to give ence of the numerous outlaws with wbicb publicity to the legends and traditions Wales was then infested; nor must we marvel of Ireland, and have made the most

that they gained their sabsistance by robbery romantic portions of its history per

and rapine, selecting, for the most part, as the fectly familiar to us; the literary trea- | the confines of their country.

objects of their prey, the English who dwelt on

These outlaws sures of another division of our island, or brigands were generally the descendants of separated from us only by the streams petty chieftains, commanding vassals devotedly of the “princely Severn," have ex

attached to their leader, and inheriting that perieneed a most unaccountable neg

deadly hatred towards the English, which had

so conspicuously signalized iheir ancestors, lect. Those treasures, being locked

They were by no means fastidious as to the upin the depths of an unknown tongue, manner in which they attacked, or otherwise sufficiently account for the general ig barassed, their foes; and, from their intimate norance of the English respecting them;

knowledge of the mountain passes, they proved but this will by no means excuse the

a source of no trilling annoyance to their neigbapathy which has for so long a period the folly of pursuing their tormentors beyond

bours : for experience had taught the Eoglish existed on the part of those, who, the line of demarcation ; and they very rarely being natives of the principality, we succeeded in capturing them on their own may naturally suppose are acquaint ground; but, when such a circumstance did ed with its language, and who ought,

occur, certain and immediate death was the therefore, to have, ere this, exerted

consequence to the aggressor. . themselves to remove this stigma.

“One of the most celebrated, as well as most

daring of these marauders, was Reinallt ab By the work before us, we perceive

Meredydd ab Grufydd, who resided in the they are about to do so at last, and we neighbourhood of Mold, in Flintshire, at a sincerely hope they will meet with strong bold called Tower, a castellated buildthat encouragement which they so ing of great strength, part of wbich is yet to be well deserve. They have an ample

seen. Here, tben, lived Reinallt, in the fiffield before them ; let them cultivate

teenth century, exercising undisputed authority

over his little clan, by whose willing assistance it well, and we doubt not that the he continued to molest and plunder all who harvest will be such as to confer ad- were obnoxious to bim. The principal objects ditional honour upon the country of of his attention, in this respect, were the inAneurin and Taliesin!

habitants of Cbester, with wbom he was con

tinually involved in dispute : nay, a regular The principal contents of the pre

system of warfare is said to have been carried sent“ Transactions,” consist of poems on between the two parties, and many a dire (in Welsb) and essays on historical, and deadly conflict was the consequence. In topographical, and literary subjects.

1465, a considerable number of the tradesThere is also “ An Outline of the Cha

people of Chester repaired to Mold fair, to racteristics of the Welsh, and its Uti

dispose of their commodities. This was an

opportunity not to be resisted by the unconlity, in connexion with other ancient

sciopable freebooter; and he determined to reLanguages, for developing the Primi venge former grievances by enriching himself tive Speech of Mankind ?” This arti at the expense of the good men of Chester.' cle, we perceive, is a contribution by

He assembled bis followers, therefore, and the learned author of the Welsh and

hastening to the town, a quarrel was soon

generated, and a contest ensued, in which, after English dictionary, Dr. O. Pughe, several lives were lost on both sides, Reinallt and well deserves the attention of the gained the victory. This was yet farther enphilological student.

hanced by the capture of Robert Browne, or The following extract from an “Es

Bryne, the mayor of Chester, who had led on say on the State of Wales, from the

his fellow-citizens, and had attended the fair

for purposes connected with bis trade, which Conquest in 1284 to the Union in 1535,"

was that of a draper. Browne was an invetepresents us with, we believe, a tool rate enemy of Reinallt, and his life paid the fr

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feit of bis temerity, ia ventaring too hear the lose bis gratuity, and if bé aot indecently, or haonts of the oataw, He was harried op to in any way improperly, either to a married or Tower, after the action, and hanged, without single woman, in any place where he may be, ceremony, on an iron staple, fixed to the ceil. | he shall suffer fine and imprisonment for his ing of the great ball.

bad conduct, and be deprived of his circuit fees * Browne's fellow-townsmen attempted, a for the succeeding seven years. short time afterwards, to avenge his death by “Likewise, that they should not go to alethe seizare of Reinallt, and his principal ac houses, or places of scoret resort, nor play complices in the murder, on whom they doubt with dioe or cards, or any otber game, for gain; less intended to inflict the same summary and should they do so, that it is incumbent on mode of punishment. For this purpose, there. erery one to take from them all they have in fore, two hundred stout and active men Jeft their porses. Chester, and proceeded forth with to Tower. "Likewise, that they shonld not learn lamBat the wily freebooter gained timely notice poons, or slanderous rhymes, or any thing of the of their approach, and quitting his house, re- | kind; nor mock, nor deride, por detract, nor tired with his men to a neighbouring wood, | pry into other persons' affairs, nor plunder, where he remained, to watch the operations of nor invent uptruihs, nor tell them after others, his visitors, who, as be bad anticipated, rusbedoni pain of fine and imprisonment. eagerly into the boase. No sooner had they Likewise, that they should not cause entered, than Reinallt hastened from his am contentions, or broils, or fraud, or robbery, or bash, surrounded Tower with his men, and way-laying; nor keep company with thieves, or set fire to it, cutting down the Chester men as with any others who act criminally, on pain of they barried out, without mercy or remorse. tine and imprisonment. For bards are to be Few escaped to relate the fate of their com- | of friendly conversation, peaceable, obliging, rades, and tbe outlaw of Mold received no humble, and fond of doing good offices : and further molestation from the intimidated in all who are true subjects to the king, and his babitants of Chester. Notwithstanding bis magistrates, should countenance and patronize uojustifiable contempt of the laws, and his numerous atrocities, Reinallt procured a par The two extracts which we have don from Thomas Lord Stanley, president of made above, will give our readers the council of Wales, which was subsequently ratified under the great seal of Edward the

some idea of the work before us, Fourth. And he died, as many other rogues

though, it must be confessed, but a bave died, at a good old age, and, no doubt, very imperfect one. The interesting grievously lamented by his lawless but faithful nature of its contents will, we are followers.”-page 79.

sure, recominend it to all who take A translation of Dr. Rhys's “ Consti- any pleasure in observing the state of tutions and Ordinances, anciently pre- the human mind, under all its endless scribed to be observed by the Bards changes, or in tracing to their sources and Minstrels,” is replete with infor- | those streams of learning which have, mation on the state of these orders in the present day, deluged the land. uoder the government of their pative Among other papers which the present princés. It furnishes matter of the volumes contain, are essays on “ The utmost importance towards the illus- Harp,"_" On Welsh Music,"__"On tration of the literary and poetical Welsh Congresses,”-“ On the Imhistory of this country, and shews us, provement of the Britons under the that though much has been done by Influence of the Romans," -- " Ou Warton, Percy, and other enterpriż- Welsh Pedigrees, and their Utility," ing antiquarians, much yet remains &c. &c. From the last, it was our for their successors to do. Wc had full intention(had our limits permitted) marked several parts of this article, to have extracted some of the ingenifor the purpose of presenting them to ous and cogent reasons produced by our readers, bat find we must content the author, in order to account for the ourselves with the following extract, , attachment of the Cambrian to a highly illustrative of the semi-barba. I practice, which has subjected him, rous state of society during those tur- from time immemorial, to the laugh and bulent eras to which it refers : Tjeer of his neighbours, and furnishes

Among many other regulations for the traveller among his the proper conduct of the minstrels,

“Rude romantic shades and woods, " It was ordered, that no one should go,

Hanging walks, and falling floods," during a wake, from the house to which he

| with some of his happiest anecdotes. came first, so long as the banquet continued! But, for additional information on tbere, without leave of his liost, or by invita- / Welsh peculiarities, we must refcr tion from anoiher, on pain of losing his circuit the reader to the work itself, in which fees. And should he go from liouse to house, the literary antiquarian, who delights he is to be taken up as a vagabond, his circuit fees taken from bim, and consigned to the

to become familiar with the manners watchful care of the church. Auď, should he and customs of other days, will find a become intoxicated at the banquet, he is to rich repast.

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Review.-A Letter to the Rev. Dr.

Du “first a Protestant, next a Catholic, Milner, occasioned by some Passages

and lastly a Socinian;" while bishop contained in his Book, entitled, The

Jewell is designated as “a vain boaster, End of Religious Controversy.By

a hypocrite, and a falsifier of the fathe late Rev. S. Parr, LL.D. 8vo.

thers.” Such are the rhetorical flowers pp. 60. Mawman.

which the modern Bolsac has thought

proper to throw over the graves of the That this important letter, written illustrious dead, who were the orpåsix years ago, upon a pressing occa- ments of former days. sion, should not have been published But not content with venting his in the life-time of the learned author, malice upon these eminent characters, is very unaccountable. It appears, merely because they were vigorous that his original design was to have opponents of the usurpations of popery communicated the substance to the in their day; this wholesale calamGentleman's Magazine; but that, after- niator ventured to hazard some very thoughts enlarged its dimensions, and daring statements, respecting two induced him to resolve upon a sepa- modern divines, of the first rank in rate publication. On some account literature and the church, one dead, or other, though three different copies and the other living. Of the late Dr. of it were prepared, the letter never Samuel Hallifax, who died bishop of went to press till it came into the hands St. Asaph in the year 1790, Dr. Milner of the doctor's grandson, who now expressly says, that he became a dassends it into the world, pursuant to tardly apostate in his last moments, the last will and commands of his This horrible story is told three times deceased venerable relative.

in the course of the work, and at each The lapse of time, however, has not repetition with some additionalcolourtaken from the interest of the per- ing. The principal version of the tale formance; and we hail it, at the pre- is contained in the following note :sent moment, with peculiar pleasure, “ The present writer has been informas a seasonable exposure of the fraudu-ed, on good authority, that one of the lent artifices of the Romish faction. bishops, whose calumnies are here But, waving any farther preliminary quoted, when he found himself on his reflection, we shall proceed to the death-bed, refused the proffered minishistory of this valuable tract.

try of the primate, and expressed a In 1818, Dr.John Milner,(not Joseph, great wish to die a Catholic. When as he is here erroneously named) one urged to satisfy his conscience, lie of the four vicars apostolic, as they exclaimed, 'What then will become of are called, with the barbarous title of my lady and my children?"" bishop of Castabella, printed a pon- Shocked at this piece of scandal, derous work, in answer to a pamphlet and tender for the reputation of a man, by the present bishop of Salisbury, whose virtues and learning he ad. then of St. David's. The whole drift mired, Dr. Parr, on reading the acof the furious polemic, in this ponder-count, sat down to remonstrate with ous mass of venom, was to blacken the the narrator, and to demand from bim characters of the reformers in general, some unequivocal proofs of his bold without a single exception; and to assertion. hold up some of the most zealous of Our modern divines, as a pack of

“In what genuine work which bears the knaves, fools, or apostates. Thus,

name of Hallifax,” says the doctor, “or in

what respectable pablication, which professes " Luther was the sport of unbridled

to give a fair and well-founded account of his passion, pride, resentment, and lust;" | faith and practice, do you trace even the slightCranmer, « from his youthful life till est vestiges of the thoughts and the words his death at the stake, exhibited a which you have ascribed to him? Reflect, I continued scene of libertinism, per

beseech you, upon the excruciating and peril.

ous situation in which Dr. Hallifax must bave jury, hypocrisy, barbarity, profligacy, been placed, if your narrative, Sir, be wellingratitude, and rebellion;" Melanc founded, at that moment, when hypocrisy, as thon, "lamented that the Protestants Dr. Young says, drops the mask, and real had renounced the pope ;” and Beza and apparent are the same. He, from want of

conviction, could not find consolation in the “negotiated to return to the Church

Church of England, and, from want of forti. of Rome." The amiable and pious

tude, he did not seek it in the Church of Rome. Mede is called " a blasphemer ;" Chil- | In a man so accustomed, as bishop Hallifax lingworth is represented as being was, to the study of theology, such a change

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