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The Camera Obscura-Some Account of the Lunarians.

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parity and contentment into mere , quantity of food they ate, and the devilry. I have seen people mad with filth and misery of the houses in which fear, mad with anticipation, mad with they dwelt.--Need I say, that such a hatred, and, in sbort, have learnt, that character is a madman? a man may make himself crazy by the In our world, pleasure means, or unchecked influence of any passion, should mean, that amusement which

I will tell a tale.--There lived an recreates the senses, and conduces to individual at the bottom of one of their improvement; but in the moon, those deep pits which are so common even pleasure is insanity. Her votain the moon, (for the purpose of as-ries pursue her till they are weary of cending from, and descending into pursuit, and yet, amid all their weariwhich, the inhabitants use iron wings, ness, pursue her still. It would be who was remarkably passionate, and toil for any common man, night after whose anger was accustomed to settle night, to deprive himself of rest, in down into revenge. One day, as I order to compass some object, even if stood near the place where he dwelt, it conduced to his profit or benefit; an enemy of his was observed by him but when neither profit nor benefit is not far distant, and he, forgetful of his concerned, when, for amusement, and wings, which had been left behind that alone, beings frequent places of bim in bis house, ran furiously after entertainment, theatres, ball-rooms, his foe, who, having his wings on, im- and gambling-houses, night after night, mediately ascended into the air. The whilst their heads and hearts ache passionate man pushed his course each day succeeding; are they not unthinkingly up the side of the pit, mad? To illustrate, (which was nearly perpendicular,) and Extract from the journal of a fashionhad not gone more than two hundred / able Lunarian :yards, when, from the force of his “ Tuesday morning. - Went, last passion, and the greatness of his exer- night, to Jackdall's (a fasbionable tion, he fell down dead. If Horace hotel) with some select friends,-got had written bis odes in the moon, in- soundly drunk,-very ill this morning, stead of Ira furor brevis est,he obliged to doctor myself with sodawould most properly have said, “ Ira water, anchovies, &c.—have the headfuror longus est, if the latter mode of ache dreadfully,-can hardly see out expression did not destroy all the of my eyes, my face is so swollen, prosody of the line.

| begin to look pale and emaciated, I saw another species of insanity, bad sign; but what can I do? wbich I will call the madness of money “ Noon.-Been dunned all the time getting, and I will notice two ways in I stayed in the house this morning, wbich it was displayed.

went to Tom Tricksey's to drive away There were persons who bore an ennui by laughter, — laughed till I outwardly fair character, and were cried; and as I walked along the street generally reputed to be praiseworthy | from his house, cried in good earnest, men, and who never launched out-went to see what is called the most into any frenzied expression of their celebrated picture gallery in the planet, malady, but who, if their hearts were yawned seventy-four times while Í inspected, would be found bending staid in the rooms,- went to see the the whole force of their souls to this flying monkeys in Novelty-row; wishone point-how they might get mosted the monkeys at the earth, where money,-how heap together most trea they say wisdom dwells ; but, alas! sure. The craziness of such conduct she left us long ago ;- came home, is seen in the neglect of higher sources and here I am. of gratification, in order to draw from “Eight o'clock.—Just had my dinthis muddy spring.

ner,-feel as heavy about the belly, · On the other part, there were those, as I am about the heart,-dropt asleep who deprived themselves of all grati- | three times while reading a most infication, bodily and mental, steeled | teresting romance, -Bah !-a parcel their hearts to every benevolent feel- of women-kind been bothering me ing, lost the respect of all who knew about poetry,-swore at myself sixthem, and only gained universal con- | teen times, because I had nothing to do. tempt, in order to be rich men ; whose “Three o'clock, Wednesday mornwant of sense appeared in their volun- ing.-Been at theatre,-sick, tired, tary scantiness of apparel, in the small jaded,-knew I should have no plea

sure in going, and yet went,- had the very reasonably conclude, that in the strings of my heart well jarred, with same degree in which a man does not stale nonsensical conversation, which use his reason and his sense, he is I had heard many a time before,- mad. To act unreasonably, is to act joined in an expedition, for excitation's without sense; to be without sense, is sake; bepummelled three watchmen; to be insane. got well bruised myself, and was When a man acts insensibly, he laughed at into the bargain,-felt as displays his want of 'reason in many sore as—as the goddess of thrashing | different ways. Thus, we have in the herself, if there be such a deity.” obstinate and stupid man, a parallel

N. B.-I chose this extract, be- to the melancholy madman; for, as cause it contains an account of the the latter sits always in moody silence, only whole day I could find, whose in- so the former displays his insensibicidents were noted down. The days, lity by remaining heedless of the right, generally began, in the accounts which and stupidly attached to the wrong. I found kept of them, about noon, and | The map of gaiety, who has notbing some of them at dinner time.

more than silly and unmeaning nonSo much for the Lunarians. I will sense to recommend him, and who emconclude with two observations. ploys himself only in the imitation of

I am irresistibly led, most mourn- the airs of a man of fashion, levelling fully to deplore the condition of the bimself by folly to the standard of an people of whom I have been writing, ape or a parrot, may be compared, in one respect. Through the whole of without injustice, to the idiot, whose their planet, there is not so much as laughter is senseless, and whose inone lunatic asylum to be found. The sanity is joyfulness; and the furious crazy inhabitants wander about, and man, who loses reason in the whirlpractise their various absurdities pool of his passions; or who, in purwithout restraint: but as we, on the suing an object, forgets that he purearth, are very differently situated; as sues it beyond the boundaries of recwe have mad-houses for those who titude, and becomes, when carried may be unfortunately bereft of their away by his feelings, a raving monster senses, and different places in such and an afflictive scourge ; may be houses for the different degrees of the likened, not unjustly, to that poor malady, it would be but a reasonable maniac, whose insanity has given him conclusion to suppose, that if the va- | additional strength, and whose curses, rious classes of character to which I and ravings, and roarings tell the la have formerly alluded, existed below, mentable extent of his madness. they would all be confined in the

(To be continued.) places wbich each degree of their diseases required.

There is no more plentiful source of OF THE CULTIVATION OF THE APPLEgratitude, than that which is opened

Tree. by a comparison of our condition with

(Concluded from col. 615.) that of those whose privileges are in- It is not my intention to write a disferior to ours; and therefore the ob- sertation on the diseases of trees, yet servation I have last made, should the mention of one or two more will lead us to be unfeignedly thankful for not be amiss, although one is so far the mercies we enjoy in the article of from being a cause of sterility, that it mad-houses, which ought to contain is often a cause of premature, if not all persons such as those above allud increased, fruitfulness. This is, the ed to; and as this is an age of specu Canker,which consists in an ulceralation, I think it would be no bad tion of the bark of one side of a plan to fit out an expedition to the branch, and extends, perhaps com. moon, and also to any other planet that mences, in the wood near the pith. contained such characters as are to be When this seizes on a tree of luxuri. found in her, in order to build lunatic | ant growth, in which it is most comasylums for the confinement of crazy mon, a usual effect is to cause the people of all stations and ages. :| branch in which it is seated, to be

I said something at the commence- come more productive. This effect is ment of this paper, about fixing the easily explained. If, as has already term madness. From the instances been remarked, the luxuriant formawhich followed, I think that we may tion of woodbuds prevents the forma

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tion or elaboration of fruit, whatever i principal organ of the circulation of stops this inordinate action, by inter- the sap, and that its inner portion, or cepting the sap, and decreasing the liber, is the source from whence the irritability, has the contrary effect of new layers of wood, that increase the bringing on the formation of fruitbuds. bulk of the tree, are derived. To the But, though the first effects of canker perfect production of these effects, it be rather favourable than otherwise, is necessary that there should be a the subsequent consequences are in- free transmission through its pores ; jurious in a high degree; and therefore and hence, when an old stock has a whatever tends to prevent its occur- new graft inserted into it, if the old rence, or, which is more easily accom- and dead layers of bark be not cut off, plished, to obviate its ill effects, must and the living portion exposed, it will be of benefit to the trce, Observation die ; but if this be done, the grafting of the state of orchards in general, is likely to succeed, If the activity of enables us to ascertain another cir- the living powers of the bark be sufficumstance, to which a deficiency of cient to cast off this exfoliation of the the crop may often be imputed. When external cuticle, the lichens and trees have been suffered to grow at mosses must drop with it; and hence random for several years, they get a freedom from them may be regarded very full of long and slender branches; both as a mark of health and a cause which, shutting out the air and light of it. from the interior parts, cause the ex- From the enumeration I have made tremities alone to be productive of of the causes that render apple-trees fruit. They thus become liable to unproductive, it appears, that in die injury from storms, although in differ- recting our efforts towards improveent ways, according to the season at ment, the following objects must be which the gale may happen. The ex- | kept in view :--the trees should be tremities of the branches, by being kept from producing such an inordibeat one against another, are deprived nate crop as may disable them from of their bark, and thus effectually de- continuing a prolific action ;-morbid stroyed; or at a more advanced period, delicacy must be obviated, by which the same cause deprives them of their they are made liable to the impresbloom or young fruit, with a still sions of disease, or changes of the further destruction of the bearing weather; - they must be kept so thin branches. This is far from being an of branches, as that the air and light unfrequent cause of unfruitfulness ; may penetrate to all parts, whereby and finally, I must add another, which the whole tree, as well within as withperhaps of itself is not of much avail, out, may be made productive ;-and but usually contributes its aid, where that by pressing on one another, esthe other causes are found in opera-pecially when agitated by the wind, tion. This is the moss, or rather the fruit and branches may not be lichen, an order of plants that rarely injured ;-still further to insure this flourishes on the ground, but is often effect, the stock and principal branches found clothing with its singular fronds should be rendered as stiff as possible, the bare stone, or trunks and branches and the extreme branches should be of not very flourishing trees. That made to taper very visibly, whereby these parasitic plants extract any they alone would have any very sensi. thing from the stones or trees on which ble motion. Another material object they grow, is not very probable; and is, to secure an annual supply of new therefore the injury which they do branches, by which the life of the tree must arise from the effect they have will be much extended, the regularity in keeping the bark from the action of of bearing provided for, the effects of the light and air, and also in offering disease obviated, and a provision a shelter to the insects, which in these made against accidents. seasons prey upon the blossom, bud, But before I proceed to mention the and fruit. It also appears to me, that plan by which these indications may besides these hurtful effects, the pre- be answered, it is necessary that I sence of lichens on the bark of trees is should endeavour to remove a coma sign of another kind of evil, that has mon impression that rests on the minds not been much noticed by naturalists of cultivators, that manure is all that or agriculturalists.

is necessary to make orchards to be It is well known that the bark is a as productive as we can wish. Whóever will notice the state of the soil In what I have said on the subject with which manure has regularly been of manure, I do not wish to undermixed in the eommon mode, must be value the application of nutriment to convinced that the effect of rain is not the minute ramification of the roots of to cause it to sink deeper in the earth, trees. This is of much service, partly and, therefore, that whatever expecta- | from the manure itself, and partly tions are built on this method of ap- from the loosening of the earth with plying it, will be disappointed. In which it must be accompanied. But illustration of this, I have a tree, now, where the trees are large, it is scarcely from the time of its being grafted, possible to dig so low down ; and if about the age of thirty years, which done once, it will not be done often; grows in a garden in a deep soil, that whereas by the method proposed, a has been regularly and plentifully permanent effect will be obtained; manured. For some years it grew and it may be repeated as often as it well, and bore plentifully a crop of is desired, with little trouble or exfine fruit; it then ceased to throw pense. forth new branches, so that no new From what has been said, it will wood was obtained in several years; readily be perceived, that pruning is it then began to bear fruit very regu- the method by which I expect to oblarly every second year, which was a tain the advantages here specified. year of plenty ; in the intermediate Such is the case; but the mode of season, scarcely an apple was pro conducting this operation differs maduced. The fruit then began to dwin terially from that which I have comdle in size ; and at last, their growth monly seen practised. It will be was so stunted, that they would crack readily allowed, that whatever parts on the trees as if cut with a knife, the of a tree are formed and elaborated incisions being very commonly as deep when its vital action is first restoras the core. This tree did not increase ed in the spring, are more likely to in girth or the extent of its branches / be strong and healthy than those for several years; in which it was a which make their appearance when singular contrast to a tree of much the vigour of the plant is nearly exyounger date, that stood at some dis-hausted, and the leaves, the organs by tance from itin shallower ground, that wbich the sap is formed for use, are had not had the advantage of manure; becoming rigid and inactive. Accordbut which had been treated in the ingly, the buds on that part of a newmethod I shall presently describe. At formed branch, which is nearest the last, tired with seeing the former tree root, have the greatest portion of produce but once in two years, and vitality, and give forth the best that too a crop, though sufficiently branches. At the end of the year, numerous, yet consisting of apples after they have done this, my method scarcely exceeding nutmegs in size, I is, to cut off the straigbt or leading began to apply the knife with a very branch close to the place where the liberal hand. The effect was apparent lowest or first lateral shoot is given in the first year; it was decisive in off. When, in the spring, this lateral the second; and now the tree is full shoot assumes its action, it is with of luxuriant branches, and the fruit vigour, which is propagated along the has shewn a disposition to become of whole line of growth to the roots, so an increased size. It is a singular that an evident increase in the size of spectacle to see the effect which this the trunk is the result. renovation of energy makes in a tree. It will depend on various causes, thus operated on. Branches wbich, whether this process of proning shall for several years, had not increased be repeated in every following year; in size, and whose bark had grown or whether, as seems preferable, an dry and rigid, expand with such force interruption shall not occasionally as to rend asunder the rind as if it take place for the space of a year, or had been divided with a knife. The even, perhaps, in extraordinary cases, place where this mark of increased for two. If, in the mean while, a wellcirculation occurs, is commonly in the looking shoot has been produced bebranches between the main stock and low the former selected branch, it is the small twigs, and it is usually di-preserved, and all above it, including rectly below and on the under side of even the space left below the former the giving off of a branch.

| pruning, is removed. This, however,

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is not very frequently to be done, as | ever, should not be continued in its it would interfere too much with advanced growth; and whether the the formation of fruit buds ; but the part removed be no larger than a crowbranches at the extremities are con- quill, or of the size of the handstantly to be thinned, on the same wrist, it is to be taken off close to anprinciple of leaving those that project other branch; by which precaution, from the side, and removing those an undue formation of upprolific which are a straight forward continua- shoots is prevented. The season of tion of the principal stem. After the the year when all this work is to be continuance for a few years of the dope, conduces to the same effect.' latter course, it will appear, that the The only time proper for pruning bearing extremities are removing fur- the apple-tree is between the fall of ther and further from the stock, and the leaf and its development in the that they are susceptible of a very spring. Other periods, it is true, will extended motion when acted on by the not interfere with the health of the wind. The former practice is then tree, but they had better be avoided, again to be resorted to ; and as some as rather interfering with the forma, promising branch will by this time betion of fruit buds. The instrument with found projecting at the side of the which the work is to be accomplished, former, much nearer to the stock, this is also of consequence. The small is to be made the leading branch ; and branches may be removed with a the former, with all its fruit-bearing knife, but it will not do for those that twigs, is to be taken off close to where are larger, and the saw is highly imthe selected leader is given off. Al proper. I would strongly recommend the first view, this will appear to make a cbisel, which should be fixed to a very great havoc in the tree, and to long handle, and used with a wooden reduce very considerably the quantity mallet. The trees which I have been of the expected fruit. This, however, accustomed to treat in this way, (a will not in reality be the case. On the way that has sometimes been denomicontrary, I have found, that however nated unmerciful,) are those which are great the deficiency may at first ap- either young, or of middle age. With pear, it is very soon supplied ; inso them it succeeds admirably, as it not much that I have known a tree thus only increases their vigour, but, if treated to contain a much greater Lord Bacon be correct, lengthens number of branches than those which their lives. But with trees that have had been left to grow without being been left to grow without interruption meddled with; and to bear at the same until they have become old, it does time a regular crop of fruit. For not appear to succeed so well. My though by the removal of the branches experience with them does not exless blossom is displayed in the ceed four or five years ; but in that spring, yet an equal crop of fruit, and space of time, it has somewhat dimithat too of an increased size, is the nished their fruitfulness, without addresult. I have never suffered the ing much to their vigour; a circumsize of the branch to be a sufficient stance that perhaps may be easily acreason against its removal, when this counted for, as old habits may be as was called for on other accounts; for difficult to change in them as in the the growth becomes so rapid, that the human body. wound is soon healed over. When a

J. Couch,* F.L.s. tree has been treated in this manner for several years, it will be perceived that some of the main branches, or OBSERVATIONS ON THE TREATMENT OF those which divide from the trunk,

INSANE PERSONS. are disposed to continue a vigorous MR. EDITOR. growth; while others shew little dis SIR,--Since I wrote my last letter for position to increase in size, and throw the Imperial Magazine, (vol. vi. col. off no lateral shoots. The latter are 1118,) I have had ample opportunities then removed, and the former suffered of investigating the subject upon to go on unencumbered.

| which my thoughts have been for many For a year or two after a tree has years intensely engaged. And though been first grafted, it is usual to shorten in my own practice I have had addithe branches, to cause them to produce new shoots. This practice, how-! *Not “Gouch,” as in No. 79. col. 600.) 80,--VOL, VII,

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