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613
Of the Cultivation of the Apple-tree.

614 rarely follow each other, these com- recovery of the tree; but even from monly get well rewarded for their pru- this, an evil, though of an opposite dence. A very little consideration, nature, arises : its powers are not however, will enable us to see that only recovered, but they are become the interest of the public, and even of luxuriant. The consequence is, as is the generality of the farmers, would observed in all very luxuriant trees, be much furthered, if, instead of a an abundant formation, not of fruit, large crop at distant and uncertain but leaf buds. It requires that the intervals, a moderate and regular disposition to the too abundant formabearing could be procured. The tion of these should be exhausted, bemeans whereby this may be obtained fore a reasonable hope can be enterwill occupy our attention in a subse- tained of another fruitful season. quent part of this paper.

Frequent experience proves that this Whoever will take the trouble to is the course which the apple-tree note down, for a few years, the ap takes, in passing from one abundant pearances that take place in the ap- crop to another; and that it must be ple-trees within the sphere of his ob- influenced, so far as it regards the servation, will be convinced that the length of the intermission, by the state failure of a crop scarcely ever arises of the health and irritability of the from a deficiency of blossom in the tree ; yet it is evident, from the history spring. It is well known to naturalists of the proceeding, that the extra plenthat all the flowers and fruit that are tiful bearing is, in fact, the principal to grow in one season, are formed in cause of the subsequent failures. Yet the bud in the autumn of the preceding it must be confessed, that this is not year. From the great abundance of the only cause; the nature of the this embryo formation above what, in weather must also be taken into acthe most fruitful season, the most pro-count. Within the sphere of my oblific trees are capable of bringing to servation, this has acted in the followperfection, it is quite clear that the ing manner : autumnal budding is the most easy Let the cold of winter be as severe process to which fruit trees are sub- as it may, so well is the delicate strucject. As if conscious that the de- ture of the future seed secured in its velopment of the fruit and the bring envelope, and so closely does it reing it to perfection required a more semble in its nature a torpid animal, laborious effort, trees are observed to that at this season it is never injured. make a natural, (I had almost said | About the month of March it begins voluntary,) separation of a part of the to awake; vascular action increases fruit; and when all does well, after a in April, and is communicated from further part has been pushed off for the bud in which it begins, along the want of room, the remainder goes on vessels of the tree; which, that they to perfection. A necessary conse- may the more readily receive the acquence of an inordinate call on the tion of the air and warmth, are placed vital energy of the tree, will readily be near the surface, and principally in perceived to be-a want of power to the bark. At this period, the temcontinue the same effort. This defi perature is subject to frequent and ciency of power may be so great as to considerable fluctuations; and blights render the tree incapable of performare particularly liable to prevail. Not ing the comparatively easy operation only whole clumps of blossom, but of forming fruit buds; in which case leaves, and even the smaller branches, the most favourable spring and sum- are frequently killed ; and, what to a mer can afford no hopes of a crop ; or hasty observer might appear inexif not quite so weak as this, it may be plicable, it often happens that trees quite unequal to the task of bringing the most sheltered, and small branches them to perfection ; and then, thongh in the most protected parts of these the blossom has been abundant, the trees, are the most injured. The reawhole is thrown off, (unless, as I have son of this phenomenon may be thus known, the tree sinks under the effort, explained: the increasing warmth of and dies with its flowers expanded, spring has caused the vessels to reand a blight has the blame of that sume their long suspended action ; which solely springs from the vital which action is most forcible in situaaction of the tree. Left in this state, tions that, from being sheltered, are a fine summer proves effective to the of the highest temperature. A check

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given to the circulation of the sap is every act of transgression, but we very soon sepsibly felt when a tree is shall content ourselves with observing in this most delicate of all its states ; | it in some of its assumed forms-proand that such a check is often given gressive advancement,-specious exby an alteration of the wind from the cuses,- and disguised dangers. west or south to east or north is fami- ! On the common concerns of life, liarly known to those who are employ- when a temptation is presented to the ed in taking the bark from oak-trees; mind, instead of turning away from it it compels them to suspend their la- with disgust, and, if we cannot conbour for a season, the stagnation of quer, flying, we look at it again and the fluid causing a greater difficulty in again, till we become familiarized by the separation of the rind. The con- gazing, and the temptation, losing its sequence to an apple-tree is a com- natural deformity, is therefore receivplication of evils: the bud, the leaves, ed into the bosom and cherished. The and even the smaller branches, cannot pressing necessities of life spread over survive the shock. This evil can only sin so specious a gloss, that we scarce be repaired when the extraordinary hesitate to commit it. The doctrine duties of the tree are suspended. of expediency is so alluring, and the

The preservation of life is the first influence which it exerts upon the law of nature, propagation of the spe- | moral powers so baneful, that we often cies is only a secondary object. A esteem that to be good which is evil. further sacrifice of the fructification Circumstances so alter the aspect of must then be made, in order that sin, that we are easily induced to compower may be obtained to repair the ply with the evil suggestions that arise injury. To this must be added, the in the bosom. Investing it with an necessary effect of the diseased action adventitious splendour, its evanescent in consequence of the abortion ; for glory dazzles and deceives us. Artrees are liable to general as well as raying a favourite vice in the semto local disease ; and I have seen what | blance of virtue, it stalks forth on the may be denominated general illness, broad road of destruction with unrendering the tree unproductive, in blushing effrontery. Professing to be consequence of severe checks given to guided by reason, sin throws around the circulation of the sap by the cold the god of man's idolatry, the glare of spring. Under circumstances such and the pomp of greatness. Piety beas these, the tree is liable to be at comes enthusiasm; morality, unnecestacked by a plague, that makes still sary restraint, disgraceful bondage ; further ravages on its vital powers. intemperance is dignified with the

The aphis is an insect which chiefly name of sociality,-friendly feeling ; if not entirely lives by sucking the pride becomes a nice sense of hojuices of vegetables, and particularly nour; and levity cheerfulness. These those which are labouring under some triumphs of sin over the credulity of degree of disease. There are a great man, are often extended by the habits number of species classed in this of thoughtlessness and indifference, genus, (apbis,) which are usually de- wbich are now so universally prevailnominated from the plants which they ing. Exercising no discriminating prefer as the objects of their depreda- energy, the vesture, in whose compli. tions; but in all, the consequence of cated folds sin hides its deformity, is their attacks is, that the plant which not rent asunder. they commonly find disordered, they! When Eve stood parleying with constantly leave so. I have seen the Satan in the garden of Eden, she was apple-tree very materially injured by deceived by his apparent candour. their depredations.

The act which, if boldly proposed, she (To be concluded in our next.) would have shuddered at the very

idea of committing, now that it was

arrayed in the garb of pleasure and AN ESSAY ON THE DeceiTFUL NATURE

advantage, she hesitated not to perOF SIN.

form. When David transgressed Deceitfulness seems to be one of against God, and injured Uriah, bis the essential qualities of sin. It is, moral perception was inoperative and then, of importance that we should be silent; but when the prophet had precorrectly acquainted with it. We sented the same act under a different might, perbaps, trace this quality in form, the passion, whose influence bad

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previously beclouded his reason, hav- | If we mark the footsteps of the backing subsided, bis anger was aroused slider, in the wildering maze in which against the iniquity, and by the artifice be bas wandered, we shall find that he of the propbet he convicted himself. | did not commence with gross acts of The impregnable walls with which he transgression. The sins of omission, thought his rank had encompassed rather than of commission, were those him, were instantly thrown down by of which he was guilty. The entrance the simple annunciation of “Thou art upon that course wbich, as be prothe man." Professing to be governed ceeded, gradually conveyed him farby a reverence for all that is godly, ther from the enjoyments of his God, and seemingly zealous for the divine was probably characterized by a negglory, how many have lived “ deceived lect of those duties which constitute the and deceiving !” Saul, king of Israel, vitality of religion in the soul. Mediwhen commanded to wait for the com- tation, examination, and prayer, were ing of Samuel, wearied by the pro gradually laid aside, because the enphet's delay, laid the victim on the joyments of the world, becoming so altar of sacrifice, and had his kingdom numerous, encroached upon that time wrested from him, because herein be which ought to have been devoted to disobeyed the injunctions of God. them. Saul of Tarsus' verily thought he was Perhaps they have been regarded doing God service, whilst he was com- merely as duties, without any refermitting devastation in the household ence to them as privileges. One only of God. And when the Saviour ap- may have been intermitted, and this peared among men, the pretext of his neglect plausibly excused by the cirpersecutors was Jehovah's glory. And cumstances in which he is placed, and has not the same external form been the professed reluctance he had to given to the rage of the enemies of neglect it. Conscience is easily paciChristianity in every age? Here sin fied, and the sin which has been comassumes its most dangerous disguise, mitted appears too trifiing to be rebecause the soul is beguiled with a garded. Having got over this first plea which will be found of no value act of transgression, the backslider at the throne of Jehovah. A profes- feels less compunction in committing sion of orthodoxy, and the scrupulous another. His feeling of pain becomes observance of the rites of any religious | less poignant by every act of transcommunion, often soothe the soul into gression; and, like the removal of the a state of quiescence and presumptu- congregated snows of the alpine reous security, every attempt to disturb gions by the undermining waters, a which is resisted. If a ray of heavenly food of iniquity soon rolls unrestraintruth, emanating from the oracles of ed over the soul. When we contemGod, should penetrate through the plate, with the most painful emotions, guise of sin, and illumine the caverns a character thus divested of all its of the heart; iniquity is seen offering moral dignity and glory, who can help at that altar, at which piety alone exclaiming “ Behold how great a ought to be the officiating priestess. matter a little fire kindleth!”

But sin steals upon us by gradaal In the case of the sabbath-breaker, advances. Like the cloud of Elijah, might we not trace his crime to the which appeared as a dark spot on the trifling aspect in which he first regardverge of the blue æther, but expanded it? When worldly enjoyments ing, soon concealed the bright heaven tempt him to “buy and sell, and get which the sun bad so recently lit up gain,” or walk abroad into the giddy with its glories,-sin commences with haunts of dissipation and of pleasure, trifles, increases in strength, and at having no moral principle to restrain last leads its votaries to rejoice in him, the barrier which education and iniquity.

habit may present is soon thrown “ Vice is a monster of so frightfal mien, down, and he forgets to keep holy the As to be bated needs but to be seen;

sabbath-day. One violation produces Yet seen too oft, familiar with her face, another, till its sacred hours are lost We first endore, then pity, then embrace."

amid the multiplicity of engagements Thus the spirit becomes gradually en- which it seems impossible to falfil shrouded in sackcloth, and we can within the six days of the week. Like neither trace any lineaments of beauty the oak of the forest, which has its nor perceive any emanations of glory. 'origin in the entombing of the acorn,

the habit of sin has its rise in one act, unwilling to enter upon the painful of transgression.

task as we were. Thus to-morrow ** Crimes lead to greater crimes, and link so and to-morrow roll on to the end of straight,

life, and the soul, cheated by the deluWhat first was accident, at last is fate:

sion, awakes when there is no future The unhappy servant sinks into a slave,

to rely on, in the region of despair. And virtue's last sad stragglings cannot save.”

| Excuses, Another proof of the deceitfulness

- often urged, of sin, we may gather from its specious They gain at last man's unreserved assent, excuses. Here we have the source of

Till bardened bis heart's temper in the forge

Of Just, and on the anvil of despair, falsehood, and a lamentable illustra-He's

He slights the strokes of conscience. Nothing tion of the natural proneness of the

moves, human heart to commit iniquity. In Or nothing mach, bis constancy in ill; the earliest age of childhood, a crime Vain tampering bas but fostered bis disease ;' is no sooner committed than falsehood | 'Tis desperate, and he sleeps tbe sleep of

death."

CowPER. is resorted to in order to concealit; and as we take our steps in life, the same Sin is ałso deceitful, because it disdisposition accompanies us, and even guises the danger which constantly when the heart is changed by divine attends it. The sentiment breathed grace, it is sometimes seduced by some in the revelations of God, is briefly sudden emergency, to resort to this expressed in the language of the destructive transgression. If we have prophet, “ The soul that sinneth, it mixed much in human society, we sball die ;' or in that equivalent senshall find that the excuses which are tence of Paul, “ The wages of sin is offered, are almost as various as the death.” complexion of the inind of the in- Sin, when she presents herself for dividual with whom we converse. If admittance at the gate of the soul, lawe look into our own minds, shall we bours to conceal the horrors which folnot find that we have often deluded low in her train. But if they should be ourselves by specious excuses, and discovered, she exerts all her influence thus endeavoured to allay the agonies to diminish their number, or to shew of remorse? Have we not thought that that they are not connected with her, the sin could not be very great, if it She denies the relationship which they was even sin which we had committed, claim. Magnifying the pleasure which since a countless multitude around us her society will afford us, she endeacommitted the same? The impunity vours to convince us that it will conwith which we have often seemed to tinue for ever. If the mind cannot escape, has not unfrequently carried cheat itself into the belief, that punishus over the barrier of virtue, and we ment will not be inflicted for every act have floated insensibly on the boister- of transgression, it endeavours to perous waves of the ocean of crime, suade itself that God does not see

The judgments of God do not always every act which it performs, or if he appear to be inflicted in this world should, that there are ways of escape for particular transgressions, and from his wrath. To how many is the therefore sin presents this as an argu- fear of punishment the only thing that ment for our entire exemption. Have deters them from the commission of we not thought, when we have wit crime ! Lessen the influence of that nessed the inconsistent acts of reli- fear, and they immediately fall away gious professors, that we might with to temptation. This is the point to impunity fall into the same or a simi- which Satan directs his attention, in lar transgression? Have we not sup- bis efforts to allure us from the paths posed, because so many around us of our God. Placing danger in the were guilty of gross acts of wicked- distant back-ground, and adorning ness, that the sins of our hearts were sin with every thing that is calculated too trivial to be regarded, comparing to attract, it envelops the former in ourselves with others, we have thought the gloom of ignorance, and throws we bad a right to exclaim “ Stand by, over the latter tbe false glare of the I am holier than thou.” If, however, world's evanescent glory. Sometimes these excuses prove not a magic in- the clouds of delusion so envelop the cantation to soothe the conscience, the sinner, that be persuades himself there repentance of a future day is resorted | is no hell to endure, no torment to to. The day arrives, but finds us as suffer. The awful terrors of a coming

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jadgment are treated as the cunningly have professedly other púrposes in devised fables of interested priests, view. We cannot with any assurance or the mere play of a gloomy imagina- of safety, turn over the pages of a tion, delighted with dwelling on objects modern volume on a scientific subject: of terror.

even in these we often meet with the Such then is the character of sin,- | most impious sentiments. Our mo. sin as it exists in man. Reader, does dern physiologists inculcate in their it thus exist in thee? On the hill of lectures the materiality of the human Calvary, Jehovah has planted a reme soul; and consequently endeavour to dy. Look to the cross of Christ, and overthrow the whole system of divine be ye saved.

Elca.

revelation. Our modern plays are marked by a profápation of the name

of heaven, and by the most pointed SOLITARY HOU Ř S. ridicale of every thing sacred; while sol (Continued from col. 573.)

our theatres and other places of public

amusement are the very hot-beds of - No, II.-On Infidelity.

viee and infidelity. In many of our “ Blest scheme! which life deprives of com

modern publications, professedly of a fort, death

religious nature, there ară sentiments Of hope; and which vice only recommends. If so, where, infidels, your bait thrown out ,

| inculcated, which have a powerful, To catch weak converts? where your lofty though, perbaps, indirect tendency to 49 boast

lead the mind to scepticism, if not to Of zeal for virtue, and of love to man?

| downright atheism; and perhaps more Appibilation I confess, in these." YOUNG.

mischief has been done to the cause of There is not an intelligent individual, religion by the pens of these demiwho feels interested in the happiness Christians, than by the works of avow of bis species, that does not hail with ed infidels. Among the more distin. feelings of delight, the astonishing guished unbelievers of our day, may improvements which are every day be numbered Byron and Shelley; but making in the arts and sciences. The it is highly probable, that more per man who has studied the history of the nicious consequences have resulted world, and who is intimately acquaint- from the works of some pretended ed with the wonderful discoveries of Christian writers, than even from such modern times, will readily admit, that poems as Queen-Mab and Don Juan. inote has in this respect been achieved Now, it requires no great exercise by the ingenuity of the human intel- of philosophy to account for this ; fot lect, in the last two centaries, than had in the writings of a reputed infidel, been effected during the former ages the mind, looking at nothing but prins of the world. 1

ciples that are correspondent to the But while we participate in the creed of their authors, is on its guard genuine satisfaction which these dis

against them; but with sceptical Chriscoveries impart, we cannot but regard tian writers this is not the case. From with feelings of a very opposite na- the imposing religious titles which ture, the alarming progress niade by they adopt for their works, suspicion the principles of infidelity. Every | is lulled asleep; and by these means, age of the world has indeed been more thousands, ere they were aware, have or less characterized by its influence. drunk the fatał potion, conveyed to Upwards of three thousand years ago, them under the semblance of wholean inspired servant of the Most High some medicine. Hence, many minds observed, “ Tbe fool hath said in his having been first tempted to doubt, and heart, there is no God.” But it seems then to deny the fundamental doctrines to have been reserved for the popula- of Christianity, have been gradually, tion of the nineteenth century, to make though insensibly, led to reject the the assertion in their publications, whole system of divine revelation.. and with their tongues. o recido Under such circumstances, it be. By the modern champions of infi comes the imperative duty of every delity, every exertion is made to pro Christian philanthropist, by openly · pagate its doctrines. The press teemas avowing himself the champion of the with publications replete with down-Cross, to contribute, whatever is in his Fight deism and atheism; in addition power, to counteract the lamentable to which, they soatter their poisonous progress of these banefal errors, from seeds throughout those books, which whatever source they issue. It is 79.-VOL. VII.

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