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phers, the most subtile rational facul- , can be, because they spring from the ties of the greatest and most exalted | Author of it; but superior to reason, human intelligence, cannot compre we must expect to find them, since hend the nature of gravity. This is they are a communication of such agreeable to their own concession matters of fact, respecting the spiritual Shall we then, who are thus at a loss and eternal world, as need not have in the most common events of our life, been communicated, if the knowledge refuse our belief in the sublime myste- of them could have been acquired ries of the Creator of heaven and from any other quarter. earth, because they are not within The facts with which we have bethe grasp of our contracted intellects? come acquainted in the natural world, Reason positively decides against it would appear stupendous, were they

J. L. C. communicated merely on the evidence

of testimony; they fail to astonish us, ON THE REVERENCE WHICH IS DUE TO chiefly because they have been arrived REVEALED TRUTH.

at, step by step, by means of their (By the Rev. Robert Hall.)

analogy to some preceding one. We In the statement of the peculiar doc-have climbed the eminence by a slow trines of Christianity, there are two progression, and our prospect has inextremes to be avoided. The one is, sensibly widened as we advanced, inthat of pusillanimously shrinking from stead of being transported thither intheir bold originality, and attempting stantaneously by a superior power. to recommend them to the acceptance Revelation conducts us to the truth of proud and worldly-minded men, by at once, without previous training, the artifices of palliation and disguise; without any intellectual process pre--the other extreme is, that of stating ceding, without condescending to afthem in a metaphysical form, mixing ford other proof than what results from doubtful deductions with plain asser the veracity and wisdom of the Creations, and thereby encumbering them tor; and when we consider that this with needless subtleties and refine- truth respects much sublimer relations ments. We should neither be ashamed and concerns than those which subof the dictates of the Spirit, nor “ add sist in the material world, that it reto his words, lest we be reproved,” gards the ways and counsels of God, They will always appear with most respecting man's eternal destiny, is it advantage, and carry the most con- surprising it should embrace what viction, when they are exhibited in greatly surpasses our previous contheir native simplicity, without being jectures, and even transcends our permixed with heterogeneous matter, or fect comprehension ? with positions of doubtful authority. To a serious and upright mind, bow.

In our apprehension, the true way ever, its discoveries are no sooner of contemplating the peculiar doc- made, than they become supremely trines of Christianity, is, to consider acceptable : the interposition of the them as facts believed on the authority Deity in the great moral drama is seen of the supreme Being;not to be proved to be absolutely necessary; since none by reason, since their truth does not but infinite wisdom could clear up the result from any perceptible relation in intricacies, nor any power short of our ideas, but they owe their existence | omnipotence relieve the distress it entirely to the will and counsel of the produced. These very truths, which Almighty Potentate. On this account, some ridicule as mysteries, and others we never consider it safe to rest their despise as dogmas, are to the entruth on a philosophical basis, nor lightened," sweeter than honey, or the imagine it is possible to add to their honeycomb;" apart from which, whatevidence by an elaborate train of ever else is contained in the Bible, reasoning. Let the fair grammatical would be perfectly tasteless and inimport of scripture language be in- sipid. Though he receives every comvestigated, and whatever propositions munication from God with devout and are, by an easy and natural interpre- / grateful emotions, he feels no hesita: tation, deducible from thence, let tion in confessing, that it is on these them be received as the dictates of parts of revelation he especially exinfinite wisdom, whatever aspect they ults and triumphs; it is these, whicb, bear, or whatever difficulties they pre- in his estimation, entitle it to the sent. Repugnant to reason they never appellation of “marvellous, light."

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enchantingly, the like was never heard. THE CAMERA OBSCURA,

Perhaps some of my readers are think(Continued from col. 523.)

ing that these expectations were disNo. XX.-The Theatre.

appointed ; if so, I will very shortly “ Away went Gilpin, neck or naught,

undeceive them. They were to the Away went bat and wig ;

utmost fulfilled. The novelty of the He little dreamt when he set out,

thing caused the house to be full, and Of running such a rig.” CowPER. the plain countryfied simplicity, (call It is my custom, when the weather it stupidity if you please,) of the auis fine, and the darkness of winter dience, was unable to detect the faults prevents me not, to take a solitary of the actors; and their praise was walk just after tea, at that time which consequently in almost every mouth. is generally denominated the cool of The first effect of all this, was a the evening. It' was at the close of a fresh importation of women of ill fame fine half-summer, half-autumnal day, and worse deed) to our place. Hithera few years since, that, as I was re- to our own town and immediate neighturning home from one of these excur bourhood bad supplied themselves sions, a thin, pale young man, with from themselves, with these slackremarkably shabby, but which had, virtued ladies; but now the demand been fashionable apparel on bis back, was greater, and recourse was bad to a perfectly yellow-coloured shirt, that the larger towns, not far distant, wbich peeped from the top of his waistcoat, exported females to stand at the doors and shoes that seemed never to have of the theatre when the performance been blacked,-thrust a hand-bill into was concluded, and cater up all they my hand. I opened it immediately, could by fair speeches and invitations. and found that its intention was to I am a simple man, and I thought announce the fact, that a company of that, by coming into our town (which players would commence their per- is small, and which has a good proformances the next evening, in a new portion of religion,) they might be theatre which had been recently erect- bettered, and their morals improved. ed in our town. I returned home in process of time, those who might with the paper in my hand; and laying be called the young sparks of the it before me on a table in my parlour, place, began to doff their simplicity, read it carefully through ; and as I and from listeners having become took my spectacles from my nose, I learners, now set up for teachers. after the operation, I thought to my. Such a spirit spread among them, as self, that I would carefully watch the I would not attempt to describe. progress of play-acting, and observe Shakspeare, and Kean, and Macreathe effect which it had upon our dy, and Kemble, and Siddons, were population, and from such an observa. continually in their mouths; and such tion, taken with an unprejudiced a man spoke well on such a night, mind, found an opinion of the ad-1 and another sang badly at another vantages and disadvantages emanat- time. They all had a judgment, whereing from the stage. The result of this soever they procured it from, and all observation I will now lay before my an opinion. As these opinions were, readers.

for the most part, various, in the dayI soon found, that I was almost the time they caused frequent strifes and last person in the place who knew quarrels among the parties holding about the players beginning their them; and thus a nightly play was the achievements; for before I received cause of a daily broil. Criticism the handbill, tbe whole tale had been stepped forth, and she seated herself carried from one person to another, in the hearts of all, and to one she and all people were thoroughly ac- gave one counsel, and to another a quainted with the incident. There different one ; she blinded the eyes of was great anticipation of success. / some, and enlarged the optics of The different actors were lauded to others; as she left judgment bebind the skies. This man, was a most in- her, passion always stalked before comparable tragic performer; and her, and when she and her leader that, shone forth unparalleled in a worked together, I cannot tell what comic character. This woman, could miscbief they made. Then another command an audience in almost any evil ensued. capacity; and that, could sing so! Before the actors came to the town, 79.-VOL. VII.

20

the people were, for the most part, that a certain personage, one of my very regular in their habits, and gene- neighbours, not remarkable for wit, rally went to bed at night at a reason who had a small apartment adjoining able time. But now the case was his shop, which was used as a countaltered. It was late, very late before ing-house, was unexpectedly called the parties came from the play-house, upon to attend a customer in the said and when they did come, the different shop, and being at the time busily houses to which they belonged were employed in reading Shakspeare's put in confusion. There were people “ Hamlet,” walked very hurriedly up sitting up waiting for them, and then to the person on whose account he it was very late indeed before they had been summoned, and standing went to bed ; and thus there were directly before him, on the opposite trouble and uneasiness on all hands. side of the counter, addressed him My own case, once, at this period, with, may form a good illustration of what

Sir, my good friend, I'll change that name I am saying. I do not know whether with you; I have yet mentioned to my readers And what makes you from Wittenbargh, my sister Johanna. If not, I am sure

Horatio ?" I have done her an injustice; for she Then came an imitation of the manners is as regular and tidy an old maid as which were recommended by theatriever lived. It came to pass, however, cal representations. We had a whole that she took a fancy to see a play acted host of careless, fearless, bragging, in our town: I cannot tell whether the swaggering, swearing, drinking, licenfancy sprang from female curiosity or tious youngsters -- followers in the yanity, one source is as prolific as the noble train of Tom and Jerry; and other. She accordingly went; and I a numerous company of idle gentry was obliged to sit up till I don't know sprang up, who had pushed into their what time, that I might let her into the skulls an idea that they were superior house after the said play was finished; to trade, and might do nothing to for she had taken our servant to ac- procure a livelihood; and the plain company her there and home again. simplicity of religion was estimated by So up I sat; and to soothe my irritated the views which are given of its counpatience, I smoked, whilst waiting for ter-part in the “Hypocrite.” There her, sixteen pipes of tobacco, instead have been hypocrites in religion, but of three, and drank six tumblers of religion is a thing so much naturally brandy and water instead of one- opposed to men's passions and prewhich drinking and smoking, I am judices, that it is very detrimental to sorry to say, did but increase my | its interests to say any thing against its vexation. I promised her that I would professors, wbich is either donbtful or expose her folly some day or other, | general. But to return, we had a and now I have had my revenge. new tailor fresh from London, who

Then, to see the pale and disease came to rig out the men, and an army like looking faces which most of the of milliners to beautify and improve shopkeepers presented every morning, the women, so that it might naturally was truly pitiable. It was quite won- be expected that we became altered derful to notice how they yawned, and for the better in every respect. rubbed their eyes, and blew their

“ Last scene of all, poses, as they took the shutters down

That ends this strange, eventful history.” belonging to their respective habita- At the time in wbich the rage for tions. Poor fellows, it was so late play-acting was at its greatest height, when they returned from the theatre, a very injurious political feeling was that they had been obliged to rise at its height also. It was at the period without scarcely having any sleep. in which the trial of the late queen And the attendance of dramatical re- was pending, and the inhabitants of presentations was the cause, in eleven the town were divided into two parties, cases out of twelve, of inattention to who entitled themselves “King's men" business. Instead of posting books, and “ Queen's men,” Party rage rau the tradesmen were reading plays ; high, and in a very little time ran into instead of taking that rest which was the theatre also. pecessary to fit them for the proper It was one night, that certain indi. discharge of secular duties, they were viduals, in the house, called for“God seeing them -acted. It is reported, save the King' to be sung. It was

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commenced, and a pretty row there | reason why our orchards are suffered was over it. But it was very soon to fall under such great neglect, is unfortunately observed, that some in- solely because the cultivators of the dividuals in the place did not take off soil are ignorant of a method whereby their hats, and immediately a cry of the apple-tree may be made more “hats off," was bellowed from a multi- | flourishing and productive. tude of mouths. The oppositionists I have for several years kept an atwere determined to persist in their tentive eye on the state, and particuopposition; and, therefore, a contestlarly on the fertility, of the orcbards in ensued. A man's bat was kpocked my neighbourhood, and I have nooff, and twenty more directly followed ticed that such a moderate crop, as, if it. There was retaliation immediately. made into cider, would return a due Blows fell full thickly. Bottles flew profit to the farmer above the rent of about in a most wondrous manner, his land, does not occur more frehovering for a short time over the quently than about once in two years; heads of the combatants, and then rarely, perbaps, so often; and that lighting down among them, as if tired such an abundance as reduces very with the alertness which they, the considerably the value of the article, said bottles, had displayed. Women does not happen more than once in squalled, and men hooted. The lights | four or five years. were put out, and therefore the war Authentic tradition, however, renwas carried on in the dark, with sticks, ders it certain that there was a period and fists, and legs, &c. &c.; and if, at when the produce of the orchard was this moment, the whole assembly had more abundant and sure. Aged perbeen petrified, and remained in that sons have informed me, that certain state for general observation, almost orchards which they have pointed out, all the attitudes into which the human have, within their remembrance, probody can be twisted and contorted, duced such a quantity of cider as now would be seen as existing ; and if, as it would require the accumulation of has been said, language can be frozen, seven years to equal. Neither let it and all that was uttered at this period be imagined that this assertion had its was consolidated into a mass, such a origin in the querulous feelings of confusion and clashing of terms would decrepitude, similar to the case of the exist, as to beggar description. individual who thought that the taste

The first effect of this was, that one of peaches had altered since the days man entered an action against another of his youth. The persons to whom I for thrashing him, which was tried at allude, were able to specify the actual the next county assizes ; and the last, number of hogsheads; and could also that the players left the town.

assign what I believe to be a sufficient (To be continued.)

reason for the change.

About the period to which I refer,

the produce of the orchard was so of the cultIVATION OF THE APPLE

abundant, and furnished so large a TREE.

part of the ordinary drink of the coun(By J. Gouch, F.L.S.)

try, that the minister of the day, Sir In all that part of the west of England Robert Walpole, imagined be bad diswith which I am acquainted, although covered a new and eligible article for a considerable portion of the land is set taxation. He therefore persuaded apart for the growth of the apple, and the legislature to pass an act, which although those engaged in the employ- not only laid a tax on this ancient and ments of agriculture appear to bave favourite beverage, but also spread a sufficient regard for cider, if we may wide the doors of the country gentlejudge by the quantity they are observ- men and their tenants to the visits of ed to consunie, yet it is observable that the inquisitors of the revenue. The the orchards are very generally in a public were determined to disappoint state far from flourishing, and that no the expectation of the minister. But very strenuous efforts are made to though the method adopted for this bring them into an improved condi- | purpose was quite effectual, it must tion. The value of cider as a drink be admitted that it was not a prudent for agricultural labourers is well one. It would have been sufficient to known ; the sale is always sure ; I am leave the fruit to perish on the ground, therefore led to believe that the true but they went further, and by saw

ing off the trees near the ground, they grow. This leads him to set convinced Sir Robert of the hope- about either ploughing or digging the lessness of his expectation of a soil, and scattering on it a good porrevenue from this sonrce. The tion of manure. A crop, commonly of cider act was, in consequence, re- potatoes, is then made to occupy the pealed, but the effect has been con- ground. All his neighbours will join siderable even to the present day. in encouraging him in this practice ; The length of time that must elapse and if he has recourse to books, he before new trees could be rendered will cominonly find them declaring in productive, would probably induce his favour. However, in spite of these many to put the land to some other authorities, I have found the following use; the skilful cultivators were evils to arise from this course of praccalled away by death ; those who tice: in a short time the soil shrinks were coming forward in life lost the from the roots, and they become exopportunity of acquiring practical in- posed, or nearly so ; it is then scarcely struction from the lessons of the aged; possible to avoid doing them an inand thus the most successful method jury, and that too in a part in which of cultivation sunk into oblivion. It they are least able to bear it; that is, is in this way that I have been ac. near to the place where they are united customed to account for the ignorance to the trunk. Again, there is some that now prevails, in comparison with reason to suspect, that when the the knowledge which our ancestors ground close to a tree is frequently possessed, relative to the method of loosened, a greater disposition is treating the apple-tree. When I have shewn to throw up suckers ; which conversed with farmers on this subo always prove injurious to the parent ject, I have found them ready to listen tree. Another, and that not the leastevil to what might be said in recommenda- is, that the bat or the working instrution of increased attention to the ment of the labourer will frequently subject; but I have observed, very come in contact with the depending generally, that all they imagine neces- branches, by wbich means it is not sary to be done is, to supply a suffi- uncommon to see very extensive incient quantity of manure. By mixing | jury inflicted. this with the soil, they say the rain The writing of this paper would will carry it down within reach of the have been a loss of labour on my part, roots; and the desired effect will neces- if I had only designed to point out the sarily follow. Very 'inconsistently, neglected, and, consequently, unprohowever, a crop of some kind or other ductive state of the orchards, and the is made to follow ; in consequence, injuries which commonly result from very little of the manure is left to the deficient management to which descend to that depth, whither if it had they are subjected. My intention is reached, it might have been useful; to point out a plan, whereby I believe but whither, by the ordinary influence these evils may be removed. But beof the descending moisture, even if | fore I proceed to develop this, with not previously interrupted by a crop, its proofs and illustrations, it will be I am well convinced it would never proper to state what it is that I conreach.

sider as the object to be attained. It is not my intention to occupy According to the present method of much space in pointing out the errors proceeding, a scanty crop of apples is of the practice adopted in the cultiva- most frequently to be expected, with tion of the apple-tree, because, so far high prices for cider in consequence as the generality of farmers within my of the scarcity. At other times, perknowledge are concerned, they are haps once in four or five years, a very guilty of no positive error whatever. large quantity is obtained; a circumTheir error is merely negative; they stance that is usually attended with a do nothing at all. There is a practice, depreciation of price, so far as it rehowever, that perhaps is general, re- gards those who, from any cause, are garding rather the ground than the obliged to sell'; while those who postree, that I have observed to have a sess a greater degree of foresight, or bad effect. When the trees are un- who are not hard driven by other productive, it is very natural that the causes, wait patiently to see what farmer should wish to get some ad- the promise of tbe next year's crop vantage from the ground in which may be. As two very abundant years

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