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kali. It is the muriate, then, and not I am also supported in these arguthe subcarbonate, of soda, which is ments by the following observations ; contained in sponge; which I have I subjected a large piece of new further proved by very considerably sponge to minute examination, and increasing its discutient effects by the discovered that many of those subaddition of that salt.
stances which are felt in new sponge But the more modern and generally and supposed to be stones or extrareceived opinion is, that it is an ani- | neous matter encircled by it in its mal composition, and recent disco- growth, were small but perfectly formveries have placed it among the pro ed shells, of different genera, which I ductions of those numerous and won- carefully separated and have preserva derful animalculæ, the zoophytes.- ed, and find them to be of the same We have seen the effect of their la- shape precisely with those beautiful bours in the once merely curious, but and large ones which decorate our now dangerous, coral rocks, one of mantel-shelves. One of these I exwhich extends upwards of a thousand amined, and found the sponge followmiles; and, in spite of the threaten- ing through all its windings, till it ing billows of the ocean, is slowly terminated in that part which I supforming a new continent in its very posed to have been the recess of the bosom.
little inhabitant, wbich would make it Probability and possibility have appear that it also formed its first also united to let the matter rest here, nutriment. and it is now considered not as a sub-1 The difference in the quality and ject of investigation, but as an estab- porosity of sponge, which is so great lished fact.
as to make a considerable difference That it is an animal composition, I in its value and use, also favours this allow. But I am inclined to think opinion, a difference wbich could not the zoophytes have the unmerited cre-exist to such an extent, if it were the dit of its production, as it appears to production of any one species of ani. belong to the large crustaceous fishes, mals; of the truth of which, the nests and to be the nest in which they de- of birds, the houses of beavers, &c. posit their spawn; and if we considerare a strong proof. Should this meet the situation of the young of these the eye of any of your philosophical fishes, it will appear very necessary, readers, and call forth the result of as they are without fins, and thus de deeper and more successful researches prived of voluntary locomotion to any than my own in this obscure departextent; and as they are from the be- ment of God's creation, I shall be ginning enclosed within their shells, amply rewarded.
S. D. W. and would be thus liable to be wafted from the place where the instinct of their progenitors had placed them.
OBSERVATIONS ON THE PEDIGREE, We know that the eggs of the
COUNTRY, AND TIME, OF JOB. shark are secured by those strong MR. Editor. tendinous filaments, which are known SHOULD you think proper to insert in to our anglers by the name of Indian your magazine the following endeagrass, and that the muscle is secured vour to throw some light upon the in its resting-place by the beard (so probable descent, circumstances, and called) at the root of the tongue, and country of Job, you will oblige that after these parts are perfected your's, &c.
EUGENIUS. for their intended use, they lose the
Stoke-upon-Trent, Nov. 1824. sensibility of animal structure, and are excluded from the economy of the VERY many have been, and still are, body which gave them origin; and the opinions entertained respecting being thus deprived of nutrition, they the book of Job; some supposing acquire a durability for which the the whole to be ideal,-others insistsponge also is very peculiar, and sing upon its reality. Of those who cease to be operated upon by the have agreed as to its being a relation same agents as purely animal matter, of facts, some have conjectured the and are therefore surcharged by ma- characters thereof to have been of one ceration in æther, alcohol, or water, country and descent, while others wbich is never the case with vegetable maintain them to bave been of very substances.
| different. The general opinion, how
ever, appears to have been in favour | during the time the descendants of of Job himself being a descendant of Jacob were in Egypt, and before God Nahor, the brother of Abram; but it had separated them under Moses as is equally, if not more probable, that his peculiar people, and given them Job was descended from Abraham the law. Job and his friends appear through Isaac, and through Esau, the to have had the universal law of worbrother of Jacob: or, in other words, ship by sacrificial rite, and no other is that he was of the generation of Esau, alluded to in the work; they appear as recorded in the 36th chapter of also to have lived so early as not to Genesis ; a minute examination of bave fallen into idolatry, but to have this chapter, in comparison with the abhorred it.-Chapter xxxi. verse 26 book of Job, will readily induce, from to 28. the great similarity of names of per- Without much trouble, also, a sisons and places, a belief that Job and milarity of names and parts of names his friends were closely connected is discoverable between Job's otber with the generations of Esau.
friends and others of Esau's posterity. In support of this opinion, it may Not, however, to perplex the reader, be remarked, that Job is said to have thus much may suffice to the elucidalived at Uz; a place, it may be pre- tion of their origin. The subject may sumed, from reference to 28th verse be perused by the curious with inof the 36th chapter of Genesis, deriv-| terest and satisfaction. ing its name from one of the sons of Seir, whose descendants Esau's pos
AN ENIGMATICAL FRAGMENT. terity expelled their country, and themselves possessed, naming it after THERE is a being who is a citizen of their own head, Edom, generally. the world, who travels incessantly.
The principal of Job's friends is The air is not more subtile; water is named Eliphaz, and described as be- not more fluid. He removes every ing a Temanite. Esau's immediate thing_replaces every thing. He is son was of the same name, and his mute, yet speaks all languages, and is grandson by that Eliphaz was named the most eloquent of orators. He apTeman. Now, admitting the fact of peases all quarrels, all tumults, and the prevalence of naming their lands he foments and encourages all laws and children after their forefathers, and lawsuits. He excites courage, and making allowance for lapse of and instigates cowardice; braves time and intervening generations, all seas, breaks down all barriers, here are two conjunctive presump- and will never sojourn any where. tions in favour of the opinion of Job He diminishes all geographical disand his friends being so descended. tances, and increases all moral ones.
But to approximate more nearly He makes rougher all social inequalito Job himself. It is said, of the ties, or levels them. He has power kings who reigned in Edom, of Esau's over all trades. He procures repose, race, verse 33, that there was one and banishes sleep. He is the strong named Jobab, a name not dissimilar arm of tyranny, and the guarantee of to Job of Uz, which it has been shewn independence. Virtue despises, and was, or might have been, a place in yet cannot do without him. His prethe dominion of Edom, formerly call- sence gives birth to pride; his abed Mount Seir. It is further remark-sence humbles it. He is audacious, ed, that this Jobab was succeeded by imperious, and impudent; he is benea person of the very same country as volent, and willing to relieve. He is the eldest friend of Job, viz. a Te-| the best of friends, and the most danmanite.
gerous of enemies; the wisest, and That Job and his friends were of most fatal, of advisers. At the voice high state and authority in their lands, of the prodigal he transforms his land may be inferred from the whole of and house into dust which may be their arguments in conversation with given to the winds; and he assists each other, particularly Job, as of the provident man to heap up his Toyal state and dignity, from the savings. Innocent himself, he corwhole of the 29th chapter of the book rupts innocence. He provokes all bearing his name.
crimes, protects all vices, and attacks It may readily be concluded, that all virtues. He is not less the idol of the events of his sufferings took place ? universal worship. Nations, indivi
duals, contend for his exclusive pos- | say by “ Septuagenarius of Chichessession, although be is their mutual ter," on the “ State of the Soul beand necessary interpreter. He causes tween Death and Judgment.” As I pleasure and satiety. He is equally happen to differ from the author on a serviceable to caprices and wants, as few points, and have observed your to tastes and passions. He gives liberality in admitting the pro and con nourishment and toys to infancy; and of a question to your columns, I have he is nourishment and toys to old age. set my reasons upon paper, and hope He conveys bread to the mouth of the they bear sufficiently on the point, for paralytic, and daggers to the hand of insertion. ibe assassin. He is deaf to the poor As I am of opinion with Septuagewho implore him ; and forces himself narius in the former part of his essay, upon the rich who prostitute him. I omit going over the ground; but in He is the maker of many marriages, his fourth column, I find the following and the divider of numerous families. passage :-“ Shall then, after this His natural disposition is to travel gradual progress from an atom to the unceasingly. He is fit for every kind man of the highest attainments and of service, but, withal, a wanderer. most cultivated intellect, who is, howIf he comes to you, it is but to leave ever, after all, in his natural state, you. If you retain him, he is good but a fallen depraved creature; shall for nothing he sleeps. Take care such a one then expect the graduatory that he returns, for he knows how to scale to cease with him, and at his do every thing; he is successful in death to jump at once into the state all. If you want employment, orders, of an angel in heaven ?” titles, honours, or even absolutions, / Now, bere is a question, which, address yourself to him ; he knows taken in connexion with bis preceding all the magazines; he has all the “graduatory scale,” carries a strongkeys. Are you weak, or powerful? | ly negative meaning, in spite of the No matter, he will make you either a succeeding qualification. To treat it Croesus or an Irus. Are you a Ra- then as a negative, I would refer all cine, or a Cavois-a Rochefoucault, inquiring minds for an answer to the or the Jew Samuel ? No matter, he three or four first chapters of the will open to you the pavilions of the first volume of Scott's Christian Life ; Tuilleries. Are you the niece of Ma- which (if any thing can) will satisfy zarine, or of Villars-of Isaac, or of of the possibility-nay, probability, Praslin ? No matter, he will make amounting to a strong moral certainty, you a duchess. He is indispensable: that the graduatory scale (which Sepwithout him, princes would be obliged tuagenarius has so prettily stated) to make their own shoes; the ugly can be perfected upon earth in the Martha would have remained unmar- mind of a Christian, so as to leave ried; Bouvard would be a mechanic; him but the slender veil of the body and Rhodope would be a modest wo- between mortality and heaven. man. He is in the midst of all good That there is a locality to hell and and all evil. He burned Copenha- paradise, is not, I believe, doubted gen, and built St. Petersburg. He by those who have examined the subis inactive, and yet the universal (ject with attention. Scripture warmover. He is inanimate, and the rants us in supposing it, and speaks soul of the world. In the plenitude of a “great” separating “ gulf;" but of his power, would he bestow health, Septuagenarius says, in the words of he sends Hippocrates; would he defy Bishop Pearson,-“ There is a vast death, he raises pyramids. Lastly, distance between these two; nor is it sprung from the dust, he is regarded | likely that the angels, which see the as a divinity. But of whom or what face of God, should be sent down are you speaking ?--Of Money! from heaven to convey the souls of
the just into that place where the face STRICTURES ON “ CONJECTURES ON
of God cannot be seen."-When that THE STATE OF THE SOUL BETWEEN
place is pointed out, I shall freely give DEATH AND JUDGMENT.”.
in to Septuagenarius's hypothesis ;
but, till then, I must beg leave to MR. EDITOR.
agree with David, who has so beautiSIR,-In your magazine for Septem- fully expressed his opinion in the ber, Vol. VI. col. 819, there is an es- 139th psalm,--" Whither shall I go
« State of the Soul between Death and Judgment.”
from thy Spirit? or whither shall I distance; as it appears from the diaflee from thy presence? If I ascend logue which occurred, that they were up into heaven, thou art there: if I (humanly speaking) within conversamake my bed in hell, behold, thou art tion distance, and also within sightthere. If I take the wings of the the one party, of the punishment they morning, and dwell in the uttermost had escaped ; the other party, of the parts of the sea, even there shall thy felicity they had lost: no trifling in. hand lead me, and thy right hand crease to their “ weal or wo." shall hold me If I say, Surely the Of the hypothesis of Septuagenadarkness shall cover' me: even the rius, namely, that disembodied spinight shall be light about me. Yea, rits may inhabit the various planets, the darkness hideth not from thee; | he himself says, “it is but conjecture but the night shineth as the day : the after all ;" and, binting at the opinidarkness and the light are both alike ons of others, he continues, “ Neither to thee."
their's nor mine can be absolutely The two instances of Enoch and supported throughout on scriptural Elijah are brought forward as bearing grounds, though I think it may be inapon the question, “ that, when the ferred from them, that the soul will in former was translated, and the latter some state survive the body." This incarried up in a chariot to heaven, ference is as unassuming as any Christhey seem not to be conveyed to a tian would wish it to be. If I had place where there was no vision of God." | been writing the sentence, I would My quotation averts the force of this have changed may for must, and objection. But, independently of that, would have concluded with him, that I do not consider Enoch and Elijah every hypothesis which attempts to to be fair instances; the body and localize the situations of those places, soul not having been separated, as in or that state, must be conjecture; and the case of those under our considera- that, not because scripture will not tion ; but rather, having been (at the absolutely support it, but because it time of translation) subjected to that will not support it at all. change which St. Paul speaks of, il To give my whole reasons for not Cor. chap. 15, verse 52,-“For the agreeing with Septuagenarius in bis trumpet shall sound, and the dead hypothesis, would be too great a tresshall be raised incorruptible, and we pass on your columns. I will, howshall be changed. For this corruptible ever, remark on one or two points. must put on incorruption, and this first. He says, “ The spirits of mortal must put on immortality,” those who have been justified and they were in the state of our Saviour, sanctified on earth, having first been when, just after the reassumption of restrained to the region of the earth, his body, he said to Mary, “ Touch | till the spirits of those relatives and me not, for I am not yet ascended others they had left in this inortal unto my Father.” And being thus state had joined them, &c. then befitted in body as well as spirit, they took themselves to the planets." Now, might enter immediately into the en- | I submit that this, if true, would lead joyment of the kingdom prepared for to a rather ludicrous conclusion, viz. them from the foundation of the that the planets are (comparatively world.
speaking) inhabited by none but such But to return. The “great gulf,” | as have no earthly relations. For or, as Septuagenarius says, “ the Mr. S. no doubt, means, that parents vast distance,” (which, if he had not could not depart without their chilextended its import beyond the war-dren, “ dear next to heaven itself.”' rant of sacred scripture, would mean But those children will, most likely, the same thing,) was, in the words of be restrained to the region' of the Abraham, “ fixed so, that they which earth by the same ties as their pawould pass from hence to you, can-rents. So that I'may safely conclude not; neither can they pass to us who on this hypothesis, that, if I (or you, would come from thence.” This im Mr. Editor) wish for a habitation in ports both the locality of the places, some planet, we must beware of the and the impossibility of access from matrimonial bond, there appearing no one to the other; but that impossibi medium between adieu to it, and tarlity is stated expressly to be occa- rying for the full procession of our sioned by the “ gulf,” and not by the ancestors and offspring ; which may
not be completed till the day of judg- | .3dly. When he appeared to his disment.
ciples, the doors being shut. As Again. As to the planets Ceres, Septuagenarius has stated this, he Juno, Pallas, and Vesta, when three appears to have confounded two disonly of them were known, a celebrat tinct occurrences ; for be says, Jesus ed astronomer calculated (from a cer “ vanished from them when the doors tain proportion he had invariably were shut;" whereas there is no such found in the sizes of planets as com- thing in the bible account. But tbis pared with their distances) that they is evidently a mistake. And if it must be the ruins of a planet, of a were even thus, it was as easy for the certain size, which had been shattered Saviour, to whom all power was delihy concussion with a comet, or from vered in heaven and in earth, to hold some equivalent cause; and he com- | their eyes that they should not see puted still farther, from their relative him, as to hold those of the two discipositions and sizes, that there must ples going to Emmaus that they should be a fourth, crossing a particular not know him. space in its orbit. The event fully But as to his appearing under a difanswered his expectations, and war- ferent form when the doors were shut; rants us in supposing, as the most I know not on what grounds Septuaprobable conjecture, that they are the genarius asserts it, therefore will not ruins of some planet, as he concluded, undertake to controvert it farther than and not a habitation“ expressly fur-saying, that it is not mentioned in nished” for souls.
scripture, nor do I see any grounds 'Tis asserted, col. 828, that our for its being supposed. blessed Lord “ appeared in three dif- ! There is another instance of our ferent forms” to his disciples : 1st, Saviour's appearing to his disciples, “ when the doors were shut;" 2d, which Mr. S. has not noticed, though " to the two disciples going to Em apparently much more to his purpose. maus;" 3d,“ to Mary in the gar I mean his appearing to them on the den."
sea-shore as they were a-fishing. But To begin with this last:—The firm neither here are we to suppose that belief that Mary had of his being then he appeared under a different form; actually dead, would naturally pre-but, rather, that the imperfect light vent her recognizing him as Jesus, (for they had spent the night fishing, especially on a transient view, and and it was then but dawn of day) she evidently had no more; but, ab- prevented them from recognizing their sorbed in sorrow and reflection on Lord and Master, who was at a disher loss, had just glanced her eye on tance on the shore. him, and then turned her head away. I will suggest a reason I have for For, when the Saviour in his wonted concluding, with Dr. Horsley, that the manner called her by her name," she place where our Saviour descended turned,” and instantly recognizing during death is situated in the centre him, now when her attention was of our earth. 'Tis this: There was aroused, would have embraced his an earthquake at the moment of feet in rapture, had she not been pre his giving “up the ghost," and an vented by his voice, saying, “ Touch earthquake when his soul and body me not, for I am not yet ascended were reunited, or at his resurrection, unto my Father.”
which means the same thing. The 2dly. As to his form when he ap- earthquakes I consider to have been peared to the two disciples on their caused by his passing to and from way to Emmaus. 'Tis evident that that place, by whatever name it be it was not different from that he ap-called. peared in before death; for, 'tis said, I take my leave with saying, that I 56 their eyes were holden, that they would not have obtruded these objecshould not know him.” So that the tions to Septuagenarius's hypothesis reason of his appearing to them to be or essay, did I not think it has a tena stranger, was, because of their eyes dency to remove the hope of a Chrisbeing holden by a supernatural affec- tian too far from him, certainly farther tion, not because of any actual change than Christianity was ever intended to in his figure: and in accordance with do, and at best portrays it in too feethis view of it, as soon as “ their eyes. ble a light and in too dark a bue. were opened, they knew him."
Z. Z. A.