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often when the individual is rejoicing | divided in the same manner. I shall over its dissolution, and surveying devote this paper, therefore, to a conwith pleasure the places where it sideration of the place from which I used to reside, but which are now write, as an epitome of communities “ empty, swept, and garnished,” he, of more importance. unexpectedly and to his great dismay, We have great men in our town, at finds it in some corner of his heart least those who assume the authority still in vigorous existence. Pride is and state of great men. Such is old no respecter of persons nor places; gouty Darnside, who has been in the it can live under a plain garment, as East Indies, and has come home well as an elegant one; in the cottage merely to be the torment of all his acas well as the palace; and can rankle quaintance, Such are, 'Squire Blasin the breast of the beggar as well as ter, the churchwarden, who gets drunk in that of the sovereign.

twice a week for the benefit of church Finally, humility is a grand peculi and state; Sir Jacob Lobster, the arity of the gospel of Jesus Christ. It magistrate, who is feared by every is not recognized in the ethics of hea- one who has heard his name; and then philosophers; they do not ap- Mr. Surly, the physician, whom all pear to have had a name for it. It is speak against, because he wishes it to well known that the Latin word humi- be acknowledged that he is superior lis signifies low, mean, base, vile. The to all. Redeemer of the world was himself. There is also a parcel of honest the most illustrious example of this tradesmen, who may be said to comengaging virtue. Whether we consi- | pose a local house of commons for us, der the ineffable grandeur of his cha- just as the individuals above-men, racter, or the depth of his humiliation; tioned may figure out a house of lords, his utter disregard of worldly wealth with Sir Jacob as king at their head and splendour; or his kind conde- These are people who kpow little scension to the meanest and most more about the church than the way despised of mankind, we cannot but into it, and what kind of building it strongly realize the fact, that, he was is; which knowledge they have acindeed“ meek and lowly in heart." quired by frequenting it twice on eveAnd yet, in the meekness and humi- ry Sunday,—who bawl against radility of Christ, we discover nothing cals and oppositionists, because in grovelling, or weak, or mean. On their imaginations they are classed all occasions he manifested the most with toads and vermin; and who have dignified firmness; the most unyield- scolding wives, fat daughters, and ing, yet the most becoming confi- gaping sons. dence; “ leaving us an example, that As a weight in the other scale, we we should follow his steps."

have also an opposition party in our place. There is a thin tallow-faced

mortal, who sticks manuscript handTHE CAMERA OBSCURA,

bills in his window about taxes, and (Continued from col. 137.)

poor's rates, and Easter offerings, &c. No. XVI.The Town.

and who, by such conduct, joined to

the fame he has acquired by quarrel" It is common to overlook what is near, by ling with every one who would quar

keeping the eye fixed upon something re-rel with him, has set three parts out mote."

DR. JOHNSON.

of four of our population at loggerThis world is composed of things heads. We have also another glibgreat and things small, and it not un- tongued gall-hearted sage, who seems frequently happens that the small are to have the newspapers at his fingerbut epitomes of the larger ones. This ends, and, (for he never could be peris seen in the various communities suaded to work for his livelihood,) we behold on the earth:- The world who spends all his time in going from itself is a collection of different indi- house to house, and person to perviduals, who have different interests; son, talking about Cobbett, and and in it we see policy and regulation Canning, (it used to be Castlereagh, on a large and extensive scale; but but he is dead,) and spreading infidethe smallest village in our land con- lity and revolutionism together, retains what I may call the germ of joicing when others are sad, and being such policy and regulation, and is sad when others are merry. These

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English Law--Threatening Letters or Writings.

238

are but agents. They are employed | as they can lay their hands upon; and by others higher in rank than them- will sit whole days in an alehouse, selves people who would not be listening to foolish and unmeaning openly seen in any personal and petty tales, which are served up with oaths transaction. They write the hand- and curses for the dessert; and relatbills for the first gentleman, and pay | ing stale jokes, which (no one knows for the printing of the nonsense which how) they tenaciously remember. If is sometimes published in bis name, any thing, they incline rather, in a and supply the second with Cobbett's political light, to the ministerial side Register and infidel works, and stuff of the house; but trouble themselves his head full of accounts of America with nothing, literally nothing. Their and France.

wives are slatterns, their homes are · The commonality are also as much pigsties, and their children dirty and divided in character and opinion as unkempt from Monday morning to their more conspicuous neighbours. Saturday night. I wish their numbers I will class them under four heads, were fewer. two of them comprising political cha | The Good. Perhaps this class say racters, and two not so:

as little about politics as the one The Disaffected. These are they | last mentioned. They hear, and are who discourse about they know not not tronbled; attempt to do their own what; attend the Socinian meeting- duty, and leave other people to themhouse, when they attend any place of selves, unless they can do them any worship; hate the vicar of the parish, service. They understand more about as they would any other man who the bible than the newspaper, more was vicar; subscribe together for the about their God than political governBlack Dwarf; teach their children ment; live soberly, righteously, and that the king is a fool, and that they godly in this present life ; get honestshould be kings themselves if they ly their own livelihood, keep their fahad their rights, and that it is a shame milies in neatness and comfort, and to see so many rich and honourable die respected by their neighbours, and men in the world; that Oliver beloved by their Maker. Cromwell was a saint, and Charles I. What a world we live in! What a devil; and in short, are lovers of motley groups of individuals we beanarchy and confusion, because they hold in it! In looking over the most prefer darkness to light, and do confined tract, we find food for laughmoreover all the mischief they can. ter, or reproof, pity, contempt, or ad

The Loyal,-are as ignorant as the miration! All are huddled together, others, and are loyal merely from and jostled one against another ; die, prejudice. Their fathers were so, and and are buried; and are hcard of no they are so likewise. They hate their more, till before a Judge they shall all neigbbours, the disloyal, because they appear to be classed as they really never come to church, and always deserve to be. spoil sport, and cast a damp upon

(To be continued.) their joy. They are for the most part industrious, and work for the support of their families, much to their credit.

ENGLISH LAW-THREATENING LETThey bawl for church and state, with

TERS OR WRITINGS. as much wisdom and discretion as MR. Editor, the gentlemen before-mentioned as a Sir,--Continuing so long to occupy a house of commons. They think king place in your valuable miscellany, I George the best, wisest, and most ho- perhaps ought to apologize for intronourable of men; send their children ducing subjects so devoid of amuseto the church charity-school; bow ment to the greater part of your readwhen they meet any of the members ers; but as I write merely for the inof the upper or lower houses ; and information of those who peruse these short, are loyal, pudding-loving per- columns, I have no other plea to offer, sonages.

than that of my being most truly anxThe Careless.--These heed scarcely ious to contribute my humble endeaany thing but eating and drinking ; vours, along with the many of your very never think or speak of either king or able correspondents, in rendering the parliament, and are idle, worthless Imperial Magazine such a source of beings. They smoke as much tobacco I knowledge, that your subscribers may from thence be enabled to kyow how | the perfect work of Christ, in the matto act in certain particular cases, and ter of justification or salvation ; in also cautioned against any infringe- short, for teaching the Gentiles, that ment upon the laws of our country. except they were circumcised, and

The practice, Mr. Editor, of sending kept the law, they could not be saved. threatening letters, has been checked But to bring the matter to an issue, by the following statutes:

he introduces the manner of the justi° 9 Geo. I. c. 22, sending letter with fication of Abraham, the father of the out name, or with fictitious name, de- faithful; and shews that he was jusmanding money, venison, or other va- tified not in circumcision but in unluable thing, or rescuing any offender circumcision. For it is written, in custody for the same, &c. is felony “ Abraham believed God, and it was without benefit of clergy. This sta- counted to him for righteousness. tute is extended by statute 27 Geo. II. Know ye therefore, that they who are c. 15, to sending such letter, threaten- of faith, the same are the children of ing to kill any persons, or burn their Abraham,” Gal. iii. 6, 7. They are houses, &c. though no valuable thing his spiritual children, supernaturally be demanded.

and free-born like Isaac, and not like 12 Geo. I. c. 34, and 22 Geo. II. c. Ishmael, who was born in bondage, 27, writing or sending any letter, or because he was the son of the bondother writing, or message, to masters, woman, by persons employed in the woollen, “ Tell me therefore,” says the aposfelt, hat, silk, mohair, fur, hemp, flax, tle,“ ye that desire to be under the linen, cotton, fustian, iron, or leather law, do ye hear or understand, the manufactures; made felony and trans- law?” Do ye know what is meant by portation.

Abraham and his family? “ For it is 32 Geo. II. c. 24, Sending or deli- written, that Abraham had two sons ; vering letter, or writing, with or with the one by a bond-maid, the other by out name, or with fictitious name, a free-woman.” Gal. iv. 21, 22. Do threatening to accuse another of of- you understand what this signified, fence punishable with death, trans what it figured out? . . portation, or infamous punishment; In the first place, how were these with intent to extort money, goods, children born ? The one by the bondwares, or merchandises, punishable woman was born after the flesh, or as a misdemeanor, or with transporta according to the mere laws of nature; tion. :

the other in a supernatural manner, EDWARD Cromwell Brown. and according to a promise which East Retford, Feb.3, 1825.

God made to Abraham, that Sarah should have a son. Abraham, at an

early period, received a promise from ESSAYS TO THE JEWS.

God, that in his seed should all the

families of the earth be blessed. This (Continued from col. 151.)

promise was renewed to him from Essay II.-Of the Allegorical Nature time to time. But between the anof the Abrahamic Covenant.

nunciation of the promise and its ac

complishment, a long period was alPURSUANT to the design of the fore- lowed to intervene. This delay weagoing essay, I proceed further to ried out the faith and patience of prove and illustrate the allegorical Sarah, who was desirous to have a nature of the Abrahamic covenant, child. She therefore gives her handfrom what the apostle Paul has writ- maid, Hagar, to Abraham to be bis ten on the subject in the fourth chap- wife, that she might obtain a child by ter of his epistle to the Galatians. her. But when Hagar saw that she The evident design of this epistle is, was with child, she despised her misto establish the grand doctrine of a tress Sarah. This, proved the cause sinner's justification by faith in Christ of disturbance in the family, and the Jesus, in opposition to the false doc- mistress exercising severity towards trine of those Jewish Christians, who, the servant, she fled from her prefrom a mistaken attachment to the sence. But the angel of the Lord met law of Moses, were for making a com- her in the wilderness, and desired her promise between the law and the gos- to return, and be subject to her mispel; for mixing the Levitical law with tress. Having done so, the time came

241

Essays to the Jews-Abrahamic Covenant.

242

that the child was born of the hand- / written, Rejoice, thou barren that maid, and they called his name Ish- | bearest not; break forth and cry, thou mael. And after the space of about that travailest not: for the desolate fourteen years, Sarah, according to hath many more children than she the promise of God, bare also a son, that bath an husband." Galatians iv. and they called his name Isaac. | 24–27.

These two children, as we have al Thus we perceive, that not only the ready said, were brought into exist-children, but the mothers also, were ence very differently. The one, by emblematical. As the one was a Hagar the bond-maid, was born after bond-maid, and the other a free-wothe flesh, or by mere natural descent man, so they respectively represented from Abraham ; the other, by Sarah bondage and freedom, or the two the free-woman, by a supernatural different dispensations under which power communicated to the parents | God intended to place mankind; the when they had arrived at that period one elsewhere declared to be the of life which rendered the birth of a letter, the other the spirit; the one child, according to the ordinary laws the ministration of condemnation, of nature, impossible.

the other the ministration of righteNow, though all this happened in ousness; the one to be done away or quite a natural manner, and appeared, abolished, the other to remain as a to one not acquainted with God's permanent system to the end of the transactions with Abraham, to arise world. 2 Cor. iii. . from the natural course of things; yet Hagar, the bond-maid, allegorically it was by the immediate appointment represented mount Sinai in Arabia, of God; and there was a grand em- whence the children of Israel received blematical design resting at the bot- the law, which answered to the earthtom of the whole transactions. The ly Jerusalem in the land of Palestine, births of these two children were em- which was in bondage with her chilblematical of the birth of the twofold dren; for so long as that dispensation seed of Abraham. His natural seed continued, there remained a yoke of in the line of Isaac and Jacob, was bondage on the necks of her children, emblematically set forth in the which neither they nor their fathers birth of Isbmael, which was after the could endure, or see properly to the flesh, and which shewed that it was end thereof. in the same natural manner that all But Sarah, the free-woman, alle Abraham's natural seed, in the above- gorically represented the Jerusalem mentioned line, should descend. But which is above, or the spiritual Jerubesides a natural seed, Abraham was salem, or new testament Church, conto have also a spiritual seed; for God sisting of believers of all nations, made or constituted him the father of which is free, with her children ; they many nations. Hence he is called all having received the adoption of the father of believers of all nations; sons, and being made free from the and believers of all nations are styled tutorage of the law, and put in posthe children of Abraham. The super session of all the glorious privileges natural birth of his son Isaac by Sa- of the gospel. rah, the free-woman, was therefore The prophet Isaiah, rapt in future emblematical of the supernatural or times, understanding this allegory of spiritual birth of believers ; for it is Sarah and her children, says, chap. said of them, John i, 12, “.That they liv. 1, “ Rejoice, thou barren, that are born, not of blood, nor of the will bearest not; break forth and cry, thou of the flesh, nor of the will of man, that travailest not; for the desolate but of God.”

hath many more children than she “Which things," says the apostle, that hath an husband." “ We there“are an allegory, for these are the fore, brethren," says the apostle, two covenants; the one from mount Gal. iv. 28, " after the manner of Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, Isaac, are the children of the prowhich is Hagar. For this Hagar is mise,” begotten by a divine or supermount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth natural power as he was. Whereas to Jerusalem which now is, and is in that state into which the false teachbondage with her children. But Je- ers are for bringing you, is only like rusalem-which is above is free, which that of Ishmael, who was born of a is the mother of us all. For it is bond-woman, and the offspring, whom

75.-VOL, VII,

he represented were kept in bondage, his weaning. No doubt, he pretended to the law, as to a tutor or school- that, by right of primogeniture, he was master, till the time appointed of the his father's heir, and therefore he ri. Father, when they should be no longer diculed the feast made in honour of under bondage, but receive the adop- Isaac as the heir, similar to what the tion of sons.

Jews did in the parable of the prodiThis blessed period of release had gal, (Luke xv.) together with Sarah's accordingly in the apostle's days ar- laying claim to the whole of the inherived. “For when the fulness of the ritance for her son. This action, I time was come, God sent forth his Son, say, was typical of the contempt with made of a woman, made under the which the Jews, Abraham's nataral law, to redeem them that were under posterity, would treat his spiritual the law, that we might receive the seed, and their hope of salvation adoption of sons." Gal. iv. 4, 5. through faith; typical also of the When the law had served its purpose, claim which the natural seed would as a schoolmaster or pedagogue till set up, of being the only heirs of God, Christ, it was then time that the chil- because they were first his people. dren, who hitherto differed nothing But the utter futility of any such from a bond-servant, should be no conclusion might have been clearly longer under such discipline, but made seen, had they only known their own free according to the determination scriptures aright, and understood what of the Father, and receive all the rights was intended by this allegory. “ For and privileges of the family.

what saith the scripture?" Gal. iv. 30. Thus does it appear that there was" Cast out the bond-woman and her a period fixed when the old Sinaic son; for the son of the bond-woman covenant or dispensation was to ter- shall not be heir with the son of the minate; which if the Jews had an free-woman." See Gen. xxi, 10, &c. derstood aright, they would have re- In this transaction was prefigured the joiced, and looked upon it as a period rejection of the Jews, the natural seed of release, a blessed jubilee, when of Abraham, from being the church every one, fettered as they were, and people of God, both for killing should break off his chains, and leap the Lord Jesus, and for persecuting at the sound of the trumpet from the apostles and Christians, his spimount Zion, which proclaimed his ritual seed. The Judaizers might liberty. But the Judaizers under- also in this transaction have seen the stood it not; therefore they thought determination of God to abolish and it was depriving themselves of a abrogate the old covenant; and of blessing to give up all connexion with course the exceedingly heinous nature the old covenant; and they endea of their guilt, in their attempts to voured with all their might zealously frustrate God's purpose and design. to affect the minds of the poor simple From all that has been said, the Galatians, to enter into the same apostle's conclusion, in the last verse, views with themselves respecting is undeniable. “ Well, then, brethese things.

thren, we are not the children of the But these very Judaizers, by thus bond-maid, but of the free-woman;" so rigidly retaining their errors, and and as her children, we are heirs of insisting so strenuously on the be- the promises, although not in bondage lievers at Galatia to submit to their to the law. scheme of doctrine, or they could not Now, this is the blessed situation be saved, inadvertently verified an- of all the people of God, whether they other remarkable part of the allegory; be Jews or Gentiles. They are now that is, the persecution of him who the sons of God. They are all equally was born after the Spirit, by him who the children of God by faith in Christ was born after the flesh. This cir- Jesus. And if they are Christ's, then cumstance was prefigured by Ishma- are they Abraham's seed, and heirs el's mocking at the weaning of Isaac. according to the promise. Gal. iii. “ But as then, he that was born after 26–29. the flesh, persecuted him that was This is the glorious “ mystery or born after the Spirit, even so it is dispensation of the grace of God now." Gal. iv. 29.

which, in other ages, was not made Ishmael's persecution of Isaac con- known to the sons of men, as it is now sisted in his mocking at the feast of revealed to his holy apostles and pro

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