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world of passion and of feeling entire- every public speaker, when he soars ly different from that in which he lived aloft into the regions of poetry and and moved.

eloquence: but should the sensations Important as these causes doubtless become too acule--should they proare, they are yet inadequate to the ceed beyond a certain point, variable satisfactory solution of every pheno- in different constitutions—the operamenon of spectral illusion. The con- tions of the mind will be weakened or nexion of the mind with the body is so suspended. We migbt adduce the efintimate, that the diseases of the latter | fect produced by any powerful stimuderange the operations of the former.lant on the conception and imaginaSpectral illusion, under which phrasetion, as in the case of the drunkard, we include all those images of which who emits not the sparks of his genius we have the belief of reality, and till he has swallowed his potion. But which pass through the mipd during we shall content ourselves with citing the hours of unconsciousness-those the case of Sir Humphrey Davy, reof which we have a distinct conception corded by himself, and given by Hibin that state of the mind termed reverie bert in his Philosophy of Apparitions, -and those “airy nothings” to wbich in inhaling nitrous oxide. Having in our “mind's eye” we give a local been enclosed in an air-tight breathing habitation and a name during our box, of the capacity of about nine cuwaking moments--are accounted for by bic feet and a half, and allowed bimthe disorder of the physical powers, self to be babituated to the excitement and these again affecting the percep of the gas, which was carried on gration, conception, association, the me- dually, he left his place of confinemory, and imagination.

ment, having been there an hour and Information respecting the objects a quarter, during which period no less of perception, is usually supposed to a quantity than eighty quarts were be conveyed by the nerves, which per- thrown in: “The moment after I came vade every part of the body, to the out of the box," says he, “ I began to brain, the ultimate seat of sensation. respire twenty quarts of unmingled If the sense of touch is violently af- nitrous oxide. A thrilling, extending fected, as in the case of the separation from the chest to the extremities, was of one of the nerves of the finger, the almost immediately produced. I felt pulse will be lowered in consequence a sense of tangible extension highly of the blood being driven from the pleasurable in every limb; my visible brain, and fainting ensues. Again, if impressions were dazzling, and appathere is a determination of blood to rently magnified. I heard distinctly the head, the vividness of the sensa-every sound in the room, and was pertion is at first increased, probably in fectly aware of my situation. By deconsequence of the extension of the grees, as the pleasurable sensation inblood-vessels bringing the nerves on creased, I lost all connexion with extheir surface into closer contact with ternal things; trains of vivid visible the flesh in which they are embedded ; images rapidly passed through my but this acuteness of sensation being mind, and were connected witb words carried beyond the limits which the in such a manner as to produce senhuman constitution can sustain, insen-sations perfectly novel. I existed in sibility, paralysis, and even death, a world of newly connected and newoccasionally ensues. How it is that ly modified ideas. When I was awathe nerves thus communicate with the kened from this semi-delirious trance brain, and the brain is connected with by Dr. Kinglake, who took the bag the mind; though many conjectores | from my mouth, indignation and pride have been formed, no satisfactory so- were the first feelings produced by lation can be offered.

the sight of the persons about me. Cicero, when he declaimed in the My emotions were enthusiastic and forum against Cataline, felt the kin-sublime; and for a moment I walked dlings of anger. The blood rushed round the room perfectly regardless through his veins with greater velo- of what was said to me. As I recity; the excitement was great, and covered my former state of mind, I felt the sensations proportionately vivid, an inclination to communicate the dis

hence his ideas flowed with greater coveries I had made during the expeTapidity, and became increasingly pun- riment. I endeavoured to recall the gent. This is probably the case with | ideas, they were feeble and indis

197

An Inquiry into the Cause of Spectral Illusion.

198

tinct. One recollection of terms, how- | busy, and recalls to our view scenes ever, presented itself, and with the which have previously delighted or most intense belief and prophetic pained us. * It calls individuals from manner, I exclaimed, Nothing exists their tomb, and gives them re-existbut thoughts; the universe is com- ence. We seem to converse and to posed of impressions, ideas, plea | associate with them. A multitude of sures, and pains.”

instances will recur to the mind. One, The effect produced by the inhala- bowever, we must be allowed to mention of the atmospheric air arising tion, from its extraordinary nature from the fens of Lincolnshire, the Pon- and nseful tendency. tine marshes of Rome, and the savan- A minister who had gone some dispas of America, exhibits the counter tance from home to supply the pulpit part to this. The sluggish flow of the of another minister, had retired after blood through the veins which it occa- dinner to an alcove in the garden of sions, produces a corresponding dul- the house in which he was stopping : ness in the mind; and whilst under the being fatigued with the labours of the influence of the malaria, every attempt morning, he had fallen asleep; he bad at connected thought is unsuccessful. not long been unconscious of the exThe control of the will over the istence of the beautiful flowers that thought is for the time either par-displayed their gay colours around tially lost or totally suspended; hence him, when he thought he was addressthe imagination is tortured by the ed by a minister whom he well knew, most fantastic illusions.

and who was then in the zenith of his That the process of thought depends popularity, who seemed to stand bemuch on the state of the brain, is evi-fore him. The minister whose spirit dent from the result of severe appli- seemed to have visited this troubled cation to study: the blood rushes to scene, asked the other, who was sleepthe brain, and produces a sensation ing, what time it was ? and being anwhich we term headache; every slight swered, A quarter past four, he said, noise, which at any other time would “ Then I have been just one hour in not have affected us, becomes insap- hell.” This led to some further inquiportable, and we are no longer able ries respecting the cause ; to which to think with coherency. Again, if we the spirit, that an uncontrolled imagiare shut up in a warm room, the brain nation had created, replied, “ It is not is immediately affected by the alter because I have been unfaithful, or ation which the air produces in sen. | have not preached the gospel, that I sation.

am thus punished, but because I From these observations, it is evi sought not the glory of God, nor made dent that the mind is so intimately it my only aim.”+ In this case the connected with the body, that the conception of the individual was redisorder of the one will account for markably strong, and doubtless arose, disorder in the other.

in a considerable degree, from the From the illustrations adduced, previous current of thought and of the will seems to be the principal feeling.

| But conception is not only carried powerfully operates on the associat- beyond its usual intensity during our ing principle. This may, perhaps, be unconscious hours. The associating seen in that state of being which we principle is thrown into disorder, call sleep. It is not improbable that since scenes and occurrences of tosuch a state of uncoóscious existence day are mingled with those which took is produced by a flow of blood to the place in our infancy. The greatest head, for in the analogous cases of incongruities may be observed in all trance and of apoplexy, similar effects the creations of an uncontrolled fancy. seem to be produced by that cause. In the nightmare, the terrific visage

- Phantasy of the being that sits “ squat like a

At this lone bour invokes her spectral train, toad” upon the breast, is distinctly

Shadowy suggestions-incontrollable." formed by the conception, and this

JULIAN THE APOSTATE. feeling is produced by the altered

+ of this remarkable dream, and its awful state of the circulation of the blood,

accomplishment, which ought also to have arising from the posture in which we

ing from the posture in which we beep noticed, see an account in the Impperia! lie. When we dream, memory is Magazine, Vol. I. col. 961.- ED.

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In that state of mind which we term become so intense as entirely to dereverie, the most fantastic images are stroy existence. formed. We seat ourselves in that The extraordinary case of Nicolai, hallowed hour when“ light and dark the bookseller of Berlin, proves to ness with each commix” before the demonstration that spectral illusion glowing hearth, and

may often be traced to physical In the red cinders

causes. It is recorded by the author Me oft has fancy, ludicrous and wild,

to whom we have already referred, Soothed with a waking dream of houses, towers, and from whom we quote it; and it is Trees, charches, and strange visages,express'd; I

the more worthy of our attention from while with poring eye I gazed, myself creating what I saw.

its being given in the words of Nicolai

himself, who was a man of talent, "Tis thus the anderstanding takes repose capable of observing what passed in In indolent vacuity of thought.”

his own mind, and of tracing events If the mind can form these vivid to their causes. conceptions when the will is altogether “In a state of mind completely in abeyance, or its controlling powers sound, and after the first terror was but slightly excited; it seems proba-over, with perfect calmness I saw,” ble that if its whole power were put says this extraordinary man, “for in requisition, we could bring before nearly two months, almost constantly us more or less vividly every scene or and involuntarily, a vast number of shape which we might select from human and other forms, and even those with which our imagination fur- heard their voices.” nished us. The practice of doing! After stating that several unpleathis will of course increase the ease sant events had recently occurr'd, with which it is effected. This may which extremely distressed him, he perhaps account for what is called the observes second-sight, professedly possessed by “My wife and another person came some individuals in the Highlands of into my apartment in the morning, in Scotland.

order to console me; but I was too In fevers, and in other disorders, / much agitated by a series of incidents, ghosts are frequently the accompani- which had most powerfully affected ments of the sick chamber. The ma- my moral feeling, to be capable of niac too imagines himself a monarch | attending to them. On a sudden I or an hero, and the furniture around perceived, at about the distance of ten him, his officers and soldiers. Here steps, a form like that of a deceased the connexion of spectral illusion with person. I pointed at it, asking my physical causes is undeniable, and in wife if she did not see it? It was but many cases that have occurred, the natural that she should not see any same influence might have been traced, thing: my question therefore alarmed had they been more correctly recorded. her very much, and she immediately The seducer has often been visited by sent for a physician. The phantom the spectre of his deluded victim, continued about eight minutes. I whom his cruelty has forced to com grew at length more calm, and being mit the crime of self-murder; the extremely exhausted, fell into a restmurderer, by the spirit of the indivi. less sleep, which lasted about half an dual who has fallen by his ruthless hour. The physician ascribed the hand; the superstitious rustic, by apparition to a violent mental emosome image with which he is most tion, and hoped there would be no familiar. The boughless trunk of an return: but the violent agitation of my ancient tree stands prominent in the | mind had in some way disordered my gloom of darkness, and excites fear in nerves, and produced further consethe bosom, straining the eyeballs in quences which deserve a more minute fixed gazing; a disordered imagina- | description, tion soon moulds it into some being “At four in the afternoon, the form whose soul cannot rest till it has di which I had seen in the morning revulged the secret crime by which it appeared. I was by myself when this was sent from earth to hades.

happened, and being rather uneasy at Cases have not been wanting, of the incident, went to my wife's apartpersons whose sensations, arising from ment, but there also I was persecuted the vivid conceptions of immaterial | by the apparition, which, however, at objects and disembodied spirits, have intervals disappeared, and always

201

Providential Interpositions.

202 "successories...nesnosms.....mmoronowoscroscowoooon.................. presented itself in a standing posture, most of them being of an indifferent About six o'clock there appeared also shape, and some presenting a pleasing several walking figures, which had no aspect. connexion with the first. After the 1. The longer these phantoms confirst day the form of the deceased tinued to visit me, the more frequently person no more appeared, but its place did they return, while, at the same was supplied with many other phan- time, they increased in number about tasms, sometimes representing ac- four weeks after they had first apquaintances, but mostly strangers.-- | peared. I also begun to hear them Those whom I knew, were composed talk: these phantoms sometimes conof living and deceased persons, but versed among themselves, but more the number of the latter was compara- | frequently addressed their discourse tively small. I observed, the persons to me: their speeches were comnionly with whom I daily conversed did not short, and never of an unpleasant appear as phantoms, these represent- turn. At different times there aping chiefly persons who lived at some peared to me both dear and sensible distance from me.

friends of both sexes, whose addresses “ These phantasms seemed equally tended to appease my grief, which clear and distinct at all times, and had not yet wholly subsided: their under all circumstances, both when I consolatory speeches were in general was by myself, and when I was in addressed to me when I was alone. company, and as well in the day as Sometimes, however, I was accosted in the night, in my own house as well by these consoling friends while I was as abroad; they were, however, less engaged in company, and not unfrefrequent when I was in the house of a quently while real persons were speakfriend, and rarely appeared to me in ing to me. These consolatory adthe street. When I shut my eyes, dresses consisted sometimes of abrupt sometimes these phantasms would phrases, and, at other times, they were vapish entirely, though there were in regularly executed." stances when I beheld them with my He also states, tbat these phantoms eyes closed; yet when they disap- gradually vanished, when, by the appeared on such occasions, they gene- plication of leeches, fulness of blood rally returned when I opened my eyes. was diminished. Thus proving, that I conversed sometimes with my phy- spectral illusion may often be traced sician and my wife of the phantasms to the disorders of the mind, arising which at the moment surrounded me; from physical disease, or other prethey appeared more frequently walk- disposing causes, consisting as it does ing than at rest, nor were they con- in the objects of our conception or stantly present, they frequently did imagination becoming more vivid than not come for some time, but always those of sensation or perception. reappeared for a longer or a shorter

Elia. period, either singly or in company, the latter, however, being most fre

PROVIDENTIAL INTERPOSITIONS. quently the case. I generally saw human forms of both sexes, but they In the winter of 1765 a countryman usually seemed not to take the small near Sunderland, who was employed est notice of each other, moving as in in repairing a hedge near an old stone a market-place, where all are eager to quarry, went to eat his dinner, which press through the crowd; at times, he had brought with him, in a deep however, they seemed to be transact cavity or hollow place, to be sheltered ing business with each other. I also from the weather. As he went, he laid saw several times people on horse | down his hedging gloves, and threw back, dogs, and birds. All these phan them on one side. While he was at tasms appeared to me in their natural his repast, he observed a raven come size, and as distinct as if alive, exhi and take up one of the gloves, with biting different shades of carnation in which he flew away; and soon after the uncovered parts, as well as in dif- the bird returned and seized the other, ferent colours and fashions of their with which it flew off as before. The dresses, though the colours seemed man, upon this, rose up to see which somewhat paler than in real nature ; way the raven bad gone; and he was none of the figures appeared particu- hardly clear from the quarry, before Jarly terrible, comical, or disgusting, I he saw a large quantity of ground,

full of loose pieces of rock, tumble | Aurora Borealis.-Professor Hansteen condown, and cover the very spot he had siders the Aurora Borealis as a lawinous ring

surrounding the magnetical pole, with a radias just left, and where, if he had conti

varying from 20 deg. to 40 deg. and at the nued a minute longer, he must have

height of about 100 miles above the surface of been crushed to pieces.

the earth. It is formed, be thinks, by lumin.

ous columns shooting apward from the earth's Three miles from Blenheim, there is | surface, io a direction parallel to the inclina

tion of the needle, and to the direction of the a portrait of Sir Henry Lee, with a

earth's magnetism : these columbs render the mastiff dog which saved his life; the

astiff dog which saved his life ; We atmosphere quite opaque wbile they pass reason of which is this:-A servant | through it, and only become luminous after had formed the design of murdering they pass beyond it. From the outer or conhis master and robbing the house : / vex side of the ring, beams dart forth in a dibut the night he had fixed on, the dog,

rection nearly perpendicular to the arcb, and

ascend towards the zenith; and if they are so which had never been much noticed

long as to pass it towards the south, they colby Sir Henry, followed him for the

lect in the south in a sort of corona or glory, first time up stairs, got under his bed, which is situated in that point of the heavens and could not be got out; on which

to which the south pole of the needle points.

I Professor H. finds that the observations made Sir Henry suffered bim to remain. In

respecting the nortbern Aurora are well exthe dead of the night, the servant en

plained by this hypotbesis; and he has collecttered the room to execute his horrided facts to shew that a similar ring exists design, but was instantly seized by around the southern magnetic pole situated in the dog, and being secured, confessed

New Holland, the northern being in North his intention. There are some quaint

America. He infers farther, though the stock

of observations is rather deficient, that similar lines on the picture, concluding thus: laminous rings exist above the two extremities “ But in my dog, whereof I made po store, of the secondary magnetic axis, in Siberia and I find more love than those I trusted more." in Terra del Fuego.

State of Catholicism in England. It appears,

from an official statement jost published, that GLEANINGS.

there are 256 Catholic chapels in England, 71

charity and other schools, and 348 officiating Death of Alexander Tilloch, LL.D., F.S.A., priests. Of these, twelve chapels, one school, &c.—This amiable and worthy man, who has and eight priests, are in the county of Hants; long distinguished bimself in the literary world six chapels and five priests in Sussex; three as the conductor of the Philosophical Maga- chapels and two priests in Wiltshire ; six zine, and the author of many valuable works, chapels and six priests in Devonshire; seven departed this life on the mo:ning of Wednes chapels, one school, and eight priests in Dorday, Jan. 26, 1825, through a lingering decay setshire. In Lancashire there appears to be of nature. Of Dr. Tilloch we published a the largest number, there being eighty-one striking likeness in the third volume of the chapels, six scbools, and seventy-nine priests. Imperial Magazine, and we hope shortly to Gas Baths.-The establishment at Baden, of furnish our readers with an interesting memoir small apartments, in which the gas, disengaged of his life.

from the hot mineral waters, is collected, and Riding Lamps.-Mach curiosity was lately respired by invalids, has been found a most excited about nine o'clock one evening in the beneficial invention. Upwards of three hanStrand, London, by the appearance of a gen dred persons experienced great relief from lleman on horseback, from whose feet streams inbaling this gas, last summer; and a similar of light issued forth, and shewed the pave establishment is about to take place at the ment for several yards before and round the baths of the Pyrenees. bead of his horse, as clearly as in day-time. Natural History.-Accounts from Iceland The light proceeded from a set of lamps of his of last March relate a singular phenomenon in invention, one of which was fixed under each natural bistory, viz.--that the eruption of the stirrup, and having three sides darkened, volcanoes Orfildsjokelen and Kotlugjan hav. emitted in front a blaze wbich was prevented | ing ceased, the latter bad since discharged imby the rider's feet from rising to dazzle bis mense masses of water, with so much force eyes, and fell on the foreground with such that the neighbouring country had been inonpower as to make every hollow or impediment dated, and three men became the victims of visible, and render it as safe to ride in the this strange deluge. The last winter was not darkest night as in the brightest noon. The cold, although a great quantity of snow had lamps are supplied with common oil, and so fallen amidst terrible storms of wind. ingeniously arranged, that the light is not af Polar Observations.-A little work has been fected in the least by the motion of the horse. lately published at Paris, which will be very The gentleman had just ridden from Romford, interesting to astronomers and mariners. It in Essex, to London, and his lamps were in consists of tables for calculating the latitude as good order, and shone as brilliantly, as of a place by polar observations, constructed when he set out.

according to the formula of M. Littrow, the Culinary Exotic.-A new vegetable, called celebrated astronomer of Vienna. By these the asparagus potato, has been introduced into tables the logarithmetic operations wbich this country. "It comes into season just as the M. Littrow's method requires are greatly asparagus goes out.

facilitated.

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