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Essays to the Jews-Abrahamic Covenant.


Mem, David Gam to be a gay, I was written partly on a wirewove never-do-well sort of scoundrel, like sheet of foolscap, partly on the back Jack Bunce in the Pirate,-brave, but of a bill for butcher's meat, sent in rather dishonest. Twin John Catty, by John Hodgkinson, butcher, of the the Welsh Rob Roy, to be introduced market-town of Bradgate, which had, at the commencement of the first vo- | by some accident, fallen into Sir Rolume: brave and determined, bold and bert's hands, and partly on the front generous; fine description of his re- of the same, whereby the names of treat into the mountains of Radnor some gallant Cambrian heroes were sbire, to be very patriotic. To be a oddly enough mingled with sirloins of sort of anderplot of his love for the beef, veal cutlets, rump steaks, and lady of Llanyrcoot, Owen's daughter, legs of mutton. Some other papers named Gyneth, who is to be heroine." appeared to possess considerable in

" Mem. Meyrick's Cardigan to be terest, both for myself and the public, added to my library: some good and I considered that the best vehicle scenes to be collected from the views

for their publication would be a dewhich I may press into service.

servedly popular magazine. I shall, “I have just received a tale, called

therefore, in future papers, present The Fair Witch of Glas Llynn.' pub- my readers with the best gleanings of lished by Fearman, Bond-street, Lon- / Sir Robert's collection. don. All about Owen, but wretched

ARTHUR HOWARD. stuff. Mine will quite supersede. Can

July 16, 1824. avy thing he made of the Cyınmrodorian? I might make Owen a member.”

ESSAYS TO THE JEWS. “ So saying, Gyneth drew a dagger Essay I.-On the Abrahamic Covenant. from her belt, and plunged it into the traitor's breast. He fell down the

When we consider the distinguished

place which the history of the patrirock, and expired with a hideous groan; whilst bis followers, enraged

arch Abraham holds in the sacred voat tbis unhappy catastrophe, un

lume, the importance of a right unsheathed their blades, swearing with

derstanding of the various transac

tions of God with him, in the capacity fury to revenge the death of their

of the father of the Israelitish nation, leader. Sir Simon de Mountfort

and the father of believers of all ages, cried aloud, “ No mercy! Kill, burn, and slay his cruel murderers. Re

" | must be fully manifest, both as it re

spects Jews and Christians. And in venge him truly with your daggers, and take a Cambrian life for every

considering this subject, it is truly a drop of blood that hath oozed from

happy circumstance that the inter

pretation is not necessarily required his death-wound. His band replied

to rest on mere human authority ; but with a loud cheer, and, preparing for

the subject has been fully unfolded by the combat, determined to obey to its

the apostles of our Lord, who had the utmost extent his vengeful mandate ; but the undaunted Gyneth stepping

: true and infallible meaning of the

Jewish scriptures communicated to forward, cried, “What! is this the

them by inspiration, and who have English chivalry, of which the wan

furnished us with this infallible interdering minstrels, who have visited

pretation in their writings in the New your land, speak so highly? Ye are

Testament. On the writings of the two hundred, we are but forty; then

Old Testament scriptures, particularly let but forty encounter us in the com

those of Moses, they have founded bat, and we shall see -'"

those sublime and enlarged views of " Fine opening chapter on the the doctrines of the gospel, and of the causes of Glendower's rising for re- divine dispensations, which they have bellion, as some call it, in the style of so clearly elucidated in their writings, Sir Walter Scott's Ivanhoe. I have

so that their explications of the Jewish been polishing the sentences for the

scriptures, and the conclusions which last ten months. Mem. To request

they have drawn froin them, form a the reviewers to make their extracts principal part of the gospel revelation, from that chiefly, as it is quite a fa- | Nor can there be any objection to the vourable specimen.”

latter class of writers more than to This fine opening chapter, which I the former, since both equally laid shall in time present to my readers, claim to the same, divine authority,

74.--VOL, VI.

'and were equally privileged in afford of time, representations of things ing the same divine credentials in at- which are not the objects of sepse, or testation of the doctrines they taught which are future, but which have or explained.

some affinity to the things made use God's transactions with Abraham, of to represent them. In this method according to the relation of Moses, of instruction, the characters and acconsist of a variety of promises made tions of remarkable persons, and the to him in the form of a covenant, or ordinary events of their life, were, on stipulation, on the part of God, name- some occasions, considered as prefily, -Tbat he would exceedingly bless gurations of more distant persons and Abraham-And that in him all the fa- events, to which they had a resemmilies of the earth should be blessed blance." Thus Abraham, in respect - That he should be the father of a of the faith and obedience which he numerous offspring, and very fruitful exercised in uncircumcision, was a -That he would give to Abraham, type of believers of all nations; hence and to his seed after him, all the land he is called their father. Melchizeof Canaan for an everlasting posses- dec, David, and Jonah, in like mansion. That besides all this, he would ner typified Christ in certain events also make or constitute Abraham the of their life; and the apostle Paul defather of many nations-That in his clares, Gal. iv. 24, that Abraham's seed, all the nations of the earth two wives and sons were allegorical should be blessed-And that he would representations of the two covenants, be a God unto him, and to his seed and of the persons placed under these after him, throughout theirgenerations. covenants. The characters, actions,

This much, in these transactions, is and events which constituted this engaged for on the part of God. And kind of allegory, though existing apon the part of Abrabam, to shew us parently in the ordinary course of that the things promised to him in the things, were so ordered of God, as to covenant, depended on his continuing be fit emblems of those future persons to believe and obey God, and on bis and events, the knowledge of which training his children after him to keep God intended to communicate to the the way of the Lord, and to do justice world.” and judgment,—the Lord said con- ! But, besides this kind of allegory, cerning him, Gen, xviii, 19.“ I know which may be called natural, there is him, that he will command his cbil- in scripture what may be called the dren and his household after him, to instituted allegory ; that is, certain ackeep the way of the Lord, and to do tions appointed or instituted by God, justice and judgment, that the Lord to be performed under such and such may bring upon Abraham that which circumstances, for the purpose of prehe hath spoken of him.”

| figuring future persons and events. The passages which contain God's of this sort were all the Levitical satransactions with Abraham occur in crifices, particularly the paschal lamb, the book of Genesis, namely, Gen, John xix. 36, and all the rites of worxii, 1–3,7; xiii. 14–17; xv. 1–18; ship appointed by Moses, wbich, as xvii. 1-14, 19, 21; xviii. 19; xxii. the apostle tells us, Heb. x. I, were 1, 2, 10-18.

shadows of good things to come. These various passages contain the “ This account of the ancient scrippromises, or stipulations, or covenant, ture allegory, it is the more necessary which God made with Abraham, when to remark,” adds Dr. Macknight, “ behe engaged to be a God unto him and cause from what our Lord and his to his seed after him, throughout all apostles have said concerning the generations.

promises in the covenant with Abra“ To understand these promises," ham, it appears that that transaction, says Dr. Macknight, “in the whole besides its first meaning which termiextent of their meaning, the reader nated in the persons and events liteshould recollect, that, in the early rally spoken of, had an allegorical or ages, before the art of writing was in second and higher meaning, which vented, the most approved method of was to be accomplished in persons communicating and preserving know- and events more remote. For examledge, was by allegory; that is, by ple: Abraham's son Isaac, though he making sensible objects which were was not yet born, was considered in present, or not very distant in point the covenant as a type of his sced by 149

Essays to the Jews-Abrahamic Covenant.


faith. In like manner, Isaac's super-I “ The distinction of Abraham's seed natural birth, accomplished by the into two kinds, is intimated by our power of God, typified the regenera. Lord himself, John vii. 39, where he tion of believers by the same power ; | told the Jews who sought to kill him, and the land of Canaan, promised to that notwithstanding they were the the natural seed as their inheritance, natural offspring of Abraham, they was an emblem of the heavenly coun-1 were not his children, unless they did try, the inheritance of the seed by the works of Abraham. The same faith. In short, the temporal bless-distinction is taught still more plainly ings promised in the covenant to the by the apostle Paul, who calls Abranatural seed, had all an allegorical or ham's natural progeny, his seed by the second meaning, being images of those law, the law of marriage; but his seed better blessings which God intended by the appointment of God, who gave to bestow in a more remote period on believers of all nations to him for Abraham's seed by faith."

seed, that which is by the faith of AbraThe promises in the covenant with ham, Rom. iv. 16, that the promise Abraham, thus allegorically inter | might be sure to all the seed, not to preted according to their true inten- | that only which is of the law, but to tion, throw great light on the gospel that also which is by the faith of revelation, in which there are many Abraham, who is the father of us all.' allusions to that covenant; not to In Jike manner, the same apostle, by mention that the accomplishment of telling us, Rom. ix. 8, the children its promises in their literal meaning of the flesh, these are not the children to Abraham's natural seed, is a strik- of God, but the children of the proing proof of the divine original, both mise are counted for the seed,' hath of the covenant itself, and of the gos- insinuated that Abraham had two pel which it prefigured.

kinds of children or seed, and that Having thus hinted at the allegori- the seed by the promise,' a father of cal meaning of the Abrahamic cove- many nations I have made or constinant, which we intend more fully to tuted thee,' are the children of God, to establish in the next Essay, we must whom alone the promises in the covesay a few words before concluding nant, in their second and highest the present, respecting the twofold meanings, belong." seed of Abraham, at which we have as Here, then, Christian or Gentile yet only hinted. Macknight, speak- believers are taught an important lesing of the promises given to Abraham son. If there be two distinct seeds respecting his seed, after some re- included in God's covenant with marks on the original expressions, Abraham, a natural and a spiritual, says, that “ he (Abraham, namely,) the question then occurs, To which of was to be the father of many nations them do we Gentiles belong? And the by the constitution or appointment of answer is, Not to the natural, but to God; and that he was to be so ex- the spiritual, provided we be possessceedingly fruitful by procreating chil-ed of the faith of Abraham. But then dren, that nations were to be made of again it occurs, If we ourselves be him, and kings were to come out of connected with Abraham only by him. In this diversity of expression, faith, and if this connexion be only God intimated to Abraham, that he spiritual, and not carnal, how comes was to have two kinds of seed; one by it to pass that our children, who are the constitution or appointment of connected with us only by carnal deGod, in respect of which he was to be scent, can be included in a covenant a father of many nations; and another which we ourselves had no interest in by natural descent, in respect of which till we believed ? Would not this be he was to be exceedingly fruitful in connecting carnal things with spirichildren. This account of Abrabam's tual, and to the spiritual part of Abraseed merits attention, because the ham's seed joining a carnal part, promises in the covenant being made, which seems incompatible, not to say Dot to Abraham alone, but to his with these passages merely, but with seed; in their first or literal mean the very nature of the things? It is ing they belonged to his natural seed, true, the Jews, the carnal seed, might but in their second or highest mean- have spoken of their natural deing, they were promises to his seed by scendants being also included in the faith."

I covenant along with themselves; but the spiritual cannot admit of such a i emotions of their hearts, fanned their thing without destroying its constitu- natural inclination towards piety, love, tion altogether.

and devotion, and offered pleasing (To be continued. )

occupations, accompanied by enjoy

ments without remorse. It is difficult 3, Elder-street, Edinburgh,

to describe the prodigious revolution Nov. 25, 1824.

which this moment produced.

Christianity, though strict in prinTHE INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY ciple, enjoined indulgence and charity UPON THE PAIR SEX.

towards fellow-creatures, and it re(From the French of T. A. De Segur.)

placed the reign of the senses by that

of the mind. Ancient policy and pbi. By L. Man, of Liverpool. | losophy had connected every thing AMONG the patriarchs, women were with the interest of society; but the only considered as mothers and house- new legislation shewed this world as keepers ; among the Egyptians, they unimportant, and future life as the enjoyed a higher rank, but still only only object that deserved to engage in as much as they were the sources our cares, and to animate our hope. of pleasure; in Greece they were All was thereby purified. Men besometimes neglected, as in Athens, came ashamed of licentiousness, and and sometimes rudely exposed to the women became more modest; they gaze of men, as in Sparta, where a valued chastity, and imposed saericold and mistaken policy degraded fices upon themselves ; they practised them by an unnatural arrangement; meekness and humility, that they in Rome they acted a nobler part might rise the higher; and their faults during the early periods of the repub- grew less in number, by their willinglic, but afterwards they were given ness and obligation to confess them. up to every seduction and danger; Every Christian wished to bridle his they shared the downfall of the em-desires, and to set limits to his paspire, and they became corrupted with sions ; duties became pleasures, wise it. Such had been the gradual pro institutions were organized, vows gress of manners, and the condition were pronounced, indissoluble conof women, until the reign of Tiberius. nexions were formed; marriage, which

At last, Christianity was introdu had been merely an arrangement of ced: this opened to mankind a sure convenience, became a sacred and road to morality, and to present, as solemn tie, sanctified at the altar, and well as to future happiness; a nearer protected by the laws; pure and simapproach to the supreme Being, as ple morals offered assistance in misan object of glory; and sweet conso- fortune, whilst weakness and innolations upon earth, with eternal en cence were sure of meeting with symjoyment in heaven, as the final pros pathy and encouragement. Peace pect.

seemed to have descended upon the Until then, women had been unde- earth, to stille hatred and to forbid cided in their desires ; their very revenge, inviting mortals to love and thoughts had been subjected to the to support each other; whilst religion male sex; they knew of no lucid in- united all true believers, and formed tervals, but the transitory glimpses of an immense chain, which extended pleasure, and they lived in hopeless even unto the throne of the Deity. expectation. Christianity taught them! The new religion must have been to govern their passions and their particularly interesting to females. It minds; they were animated by a pure, not only established a more equal but ardent flame, and became in- balance between the two sexes; but spired with the love of God, whereby it corresponded, in some measure, they enjoyed that anticipated bliss, with that love of acquiring and exertwhich faith imparts even in the midst | ing influence, wbich is ever prevailing of misfortune.

in women. To make converts is culIt was particularly on the tender tivating this inclination, and females souls of females, that the law of Christ have always been more active in that could exert its power; and women occupation than men. were actually the foremost in em- | England, France, a part of Germabracing its dogmas, which corre- ny, Hungary, Bohemia, Poland, Russponded so well with all the secret sia, and, during some time, even Persia


The Mendicant-A Tale.


received the gospel through the hands their husbands; and if they consoof the fair; and thousands of prose- crated themselves to retirement, they lytes were the happy fruits of well-depended only upon their Maker: in employed charms and graces. That short, they had been slaves, and the innate sensibility, which love perverts new law made them free. into passion, was, by religion, transformed into sweet and consoling pity. The desire to see others as happy as THE MENDICANT—A TALE. they were themselves, and to relieve

“ Let not ambition mock their useful toil, misfortune wheresoever they could, Their homely joys and destiny obscure; inspired them with an almost super Nor grandeur bear with a disdainful smile patural ardour in the cause of righte The short and simple appals of the poor.” ousness. Sacred asylams for the un

GRAY. fortunate were instituted, patronized, \ A few years have now elapsed since, and maintained by then: ; affection as I was, one winter's evening, taking and pity triumphed over the repug- my accustomed walk along a sequesnance, wbich they must have felt attered lane, highly fenced on each side the sight of hideous objects; and they with a thorn hedge, and viewing with administered succours which became admiration the starry heavens glowing doubly sweet by the manner in which with living sapphires, and the moon they were bestowed, Evils were re shining with cloudless majesty, my medied, complaints were heard, tears attention was suddenly arrested by met with sympathy, and indigence the sound of something proceeding was assisted. Even the persecutions, from behind the hedge, on my to which Christians were exposed, right; which, on nearer approach, only served to develop female virtue proved to be the sound of a human the more conspicuously.

voice, uttering, in strains the most Calm and triumpbant, religion had sorrowful, a long string of bitter comwon their hearts, and called forth plainings, which was concluded in the their tenderness; but troubles, threats, words of our far-famed poet:and proscriptions electrified their cou

" When shall I lay this weary bead, rage, and elevated their sentiments :

And acbing beart, beneath the soil, urged by holy zeal, they were fore To slumber in that dreamless bed, most in precipitating themselves on

From all my toil ?” the burning piles which tyranny had Here the speaker paused; and I, prepared. Thus, thanks to this in afraid of being detected in the situaspired devotion, and its persuasive tion I was then in, boldly stepped doctrine, Christianity inflamed more across the hedge, and approached and more their susceptible and feeling near to the person who had been thus hearts, by its very mystery and incon-speaking. He proved to be a veneceivable agency. The same beings, rable looking old man, with a fine who had formerly rivalled the splen- open countenance, a long white beard, dour of their ornaments by their which flowed down upon his breast, charms, and bad lived in the midst of and a bright piercing eye; whilst beincense and homage, did then cover side bim lay a large stick, and a walthemselves with hair-cloth; and, for- let, containing, what I supposed to getting their attractions, as well as be, provisions which had been given their weakness, they set death at de- him by his more opulent neighbours. fiance, and asked for it: they dis Having stammered out the best apomissed the cares of this life, and logy I was able, for thus intruding on plunged with sanctified enthusiasm his solitude, he observed, “ I suppose into the hidden abysses of futurity. you have overheard my complaining,

There is, however, nothing wonder and have been, no doubt, astonished ful in this prodigious courage. The at hearing me (wbo am, as you see, religion which they so ardently de- an old beggar) repeat that verse of fended, protected their weakness; it poetry.” I replied, that it had exintroduced a new circle of ideas and cited my surprise, and that I should institutions, and a fresh social order, feel very much obliged to him if he in which they might occupy a more would have the goodness to tell me decent place, and be more indepen- how he had acquired the lines.dent of men. If they remained in the “ Well,” said he,“ before I can tell world, a sacred law united them to you how I came to have an opportu

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