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In all such cases, the infinitive clause clearly comes under the category of an extension of the Predicate, on which it depends ; and should be so analysed.

There is still another case of the infinitive mood in such simple and frequently occurring expressions as these

I told him to come.

wish you to go. These are really cases of double or of complex Objects. In the phrase, I told him to come, we have him as the dative Object, and to come as the direct Object.

In the phrase, I wish you to go, the object of my wish is not you, nor the action of going, but what I wish is—you to go. Here therefore the whole expression may be taken as a direct object to the word wish.

Again, the compound pronoun what presents a somewhat peculiar case of analysis.

Thus the phrase, I do not know, what you have said, really means, I do not know that, which you have said, where we see that the what really involves in it the Object the first sentence, and the Subject of the second.

The proper way to mark it, therefore, would be to put a line through the middle of the word thus, I do not know wh!at you have said. To avoid this, I have put the mark before the word, regarding the second sentence as the expanded object of the first.

We may notice, under peculiarities of construction, an adverbial usage of the Adjective, Noun, and Participle, which might present difficulties in the detailed analysis of the sentences in which it occurs. Take the following examples :

1. He lived honest, and he died brave.
2. He lived a philosopher, and he died a hero.

3. He lived hoping, and he died despairing. There can be no doubt that, in each case, the adjective, noun, or participle, as the case may be, takes the place of an adverbial adjunct, all of them really indicating a secondary attribute, and qualifying the force of the verb. Hence they must be analysed as extensions to the Predicate, in every

instance. To specify all the peculiarities of construction which the English language presents would, of course, be quite impossible in the limits here assigned ; those above mentioned are some, which seem perhaps most likely to present difficulties to the student in the course of his attempts at grammatical analysis.

III. We come now to specify a third use to which it is our intention that the present little work should be applied ; and that is the practice of paraphrasing

There are two methods of paraphrasing, both highly valuable as an exercise in thought and composition

First, there is the simple paraphrase, in which the meaning of the author is rendered in as few and as simple words as possible. The great art here is, to comprehend the exact force of the passage to be paraphrused, and then to express it adequately and fully. The other kind is what we may term the florid paraphrase, in which the meaning of the passage is expanded and illustrated indefinitely.

To exemplify this, let us take the quaint but beautiful old poem of Vaughan, on page 5, entitled Virtue.

Simple Paraphrase. No day, however bright and beautiful, can last ; the dews will soon fall, and usher in its close. The rose, however rich in colour it may now be, is evanescent. Its root will wither in the ground, and it too will die. The spring is a lovely season, full of sweet odours exhaled from the opening buds. But the awakening voice of nature will soon become silent, and the springtime will be gone. It is the true and virtuous soul alone which is beyond the reach of death and decay. For it will live on with renewed vigour, when the earth is consumed by fire, and perishes.

Florid Paraphrase. Beautiful summer day! how peaceful art thou and bright! The heaven and the earth seem mingled together in joy and repose. But thy beauty cannot last; the evening will come; the dews will fall, like tears upon thy grave; and thy short career will be closed for ever. Lovely rose ! thy colours are almost too dazzling and brilliant to gaze upon ; but where is thy root? It lies buried deep in the earth, and is even now hastening to decay. Soon will thy beauty be past and gone. How welcome the spring! how balmy its odours ! how joyously nature seems to be opening and unfolding her secret treasures. But the voice of spring will fade away; its music will be hus and thou too must die. What then can rise superior to this power of death and decay? It is the true and the virtuous soul. This alone resists the common fate of all besides, nay will only then begin to live in the truest and highest sense, when the earth is consumed, and the elements melt with fervent heat.

In order to facilitate the use of paraphrasing, a number of small poems have been selected, each of which contains a moral sentiment, which is adapted either for rendering into simple prose, or expanding into a more florid description. When the student has finished these, he might go next to the Prisoner of Chillon of Byron or the Waterloo of Scott, and paraphrase the portions marked off by numbers. Lastly, he might select passages from Cowper and Milton, both of which will always afford ample scope for practice of this kind.


IV. The last thing I have to mention as being one of the purposes aimed at in this little work is, the exercise of criticism in relation both to the use of words, and to the characteristics of poetical style generally.

Hints for such criticism will be found in the notes at the foot of the page. There can be no doubt, I think, that the best English classics, if only studied with the same closeness, and illustrated with the same copiousness as is usually done with the Greek and Latin classics, would afford almost an equal amount of material for mental culture. We have, e.g. in our older writers, constant occasion for illustrating both the original and derivative force of words; for tracing the gradual changes which come over their meaning during the lapse of time; for noting the peculiarities of syntactical structure ; and for searching generally into the history and etymology of the language. There is one point, moreover, in which we occupy a SUPERIOR position, in regard to criticism when studying modern authors, than we do in the case of ancient ones: I mean, in the power we possess of judging of the purity and correctness of their style, and of pointing out faulty usages and constructions. This we can hardly presume to do in a dead language, but are quite competent to do in a living one. The student will find many hints of this kind interspersed through the notes, the object of which is to accustom him to look upon modern poetry with a critical eye, to trace out its beauties, and estimate its defects.

I have finally to request the patience of the student in case he should find some of the marks inserted in the text at first perplexing and difficult to verify. Many of the passages marked by them for analysis require a very careful study; and many are so equivocal in their syntactical structure, that they may be very variously interpreted and variously analysed. Here and there, there may likewise be an erroneous mark, which has escaped detection, but which will generally be set right, without difficulty, by the good sense of the reader. I trust, however, that there will be found comparatively little in this way to correct, as my friend and coadjutor, Dr. Ihne, has revised the proofs carefully after me, as well as furnished a large proportion of the notes.

therefore, in conclusion, commend this little book to the notice of teachers, as a new aid for carrying out that system of Analysis, with which most of them, it may be presumed, are already, at least to some extent, acquainted.

J. D. MORELL. BOWDEN, December 1860.

I now,

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