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All these and more came flocking ; but with looks Downcast and damp ; yet such wherein appeared

Obscure some glimpse of joy, to have found their Chief 525 Not in despair, to have found themselves not lost

In loss itself ; , which on his countenance cast
Like doubtful hue : but he, his wonted pride

Soon recollecting, with high words,) that bore

Semblance of worth, not substance, | gently raised 530 Their fainting courage,) and dispelled their fears.]

Then straight commands,] that at the warlike sound
Of trumpets loud, and clarions be upreared
His mighty standard : | that proud honour claimed

Azazel as his right, a Cherub tall ; |
535 Who forthwith from the glittering staff unfurled

The imperial ensign ; | which, full high advanced,
Shone like a meteor, streaming to the wind,
With gems and golden lustre rich imblazed,

Seraphick arms and trophies ; all the while 540 Sonorous metal blowing martial sounds : |

At which the universal host up-sent
A shout, | that tore Hell's concave, | and, beyond
Frighted the reign of Chaos and old Night.]

All in a moment through the gloom were seen 545 Ten thousand banners rise into the air

With Orient colours waving :/ with them rose
A forest huge of spears ;| and thronging helms
Appeared, and serried shields in thick array
Of depth immeasurable :/ anon they move

a Trans. Verb, is more unusual than to range.

526. Understand : which circumstance did cast on Satan's countenance a like doubtful hue, viz., some obscure glimpse of joy.

539. Trophies.—Properly speaking, the devils could have none, for they had gained no victory.

540. Nom. Absol.

543. The reign.-A Latinism for realm. The realm of Chaos and Night fills up the space between Hell and Heaven, vi. 871, and the newly-created world. See ii. 932, ff.

545. Were seen rise. This is the Indirect Obj. with the passive verb. Gr. 77, Ex. 3.

546. Orient, originally eastern, is equivalent to splendid.

550 In perfect phalanx to the Dorian mood

Of flutes and soft recorders ; such as raised
To highth of noblest temper heroes old
Arming to battle ; , and, instead of rage,

Deliberate valour breathed, firm and unmoved 555 With dread of death to flight or foul retreat ;

Nor wanting power to mitigate and swage,
With solemn touches, troubled thoughts, and chase
Anguish, and doubt, and fear, and sorrow, and pain,

From mortal or immortal minds.] Thus they, 560 Breathing united force, with fixëd thought,

Moved on in silence to soft pipes, that charmed
Their painful steps o'er the burnt soil : , and now,
Advanced in view, they stand ; a horrid front

Of dreadful length and dazzling arms, in guise 565 Of warriours old with ordered spear and shield ;

Awaiting | what command their mighty Chief
Had to impose : ! he through the armëd files
Darts his experienced eye, and soon traverse

The whole battalion views ;] their order due ; 570 Their visages and stature as of gods ;

Their number last he sums. And now his heart
Distends with pride, and hardening in his strength
Glories :] for never, since created man,

Met such imbodied force, as named with these 575 Could merit more than that small infantry Warred on by cranes ; | though all the giant brood

Of Phlegra with the heroick race were joined |

550. Dorian mood, i.e., Dorian style of music.

551. Recorder a kind of flute.

555. Unmoved to flight or retreat by the dread of death.

572. Hardening in his strength glories.Milton uses his frequently for its. See Trench, English Past and Present.

573. Never since created man-A Latinisik for since the creation of man.

575. Small infantry - the Pygmics. Bentley remarks that the pyginies rode upon rams and goats. The term infantry is therefore inaccurate. Bentley corsequently rejects as spurious the words, from as named to cranes. A difficulty lies also in this word merit; but it is probably to be taken as equivalent to could be esteemed as anything more. Milton here again dwells upon the great number of devils. See i. 351.

That fought at Thebes and Ilium, on each side

Mixed with auxiliar gods : 1 and what resounds 580 In fable or romance of Uther's son

Begirt with British and Armorick knights :]
And all] who since, baptized or infidel,
Jousted in Aspramont, or Montalban,

Damasco, or Marocco, or Trebisond, I 585 Or whom Biserta sent from Africk shore,

When Charlemain with all his peerage fell
By Fontarabbia. | Thus far these beyond
Compare of mortal prowess, yet observed

Their dread Commander : / he, above the rest 590 In shape and gesture proudly eminent,

Stood like a tower : | his form had yet not lost
All its original brightness ; nor appeared
Less than Archangel ruined, and the excess

Of glory obscured :) as when the sun, new risen 595 Looks through the horizontal misty air

Shorn of his beams ; | or, from behind the moon,
In dim eclipse, disastrous twilight sheds
On half the nations,] and with fear of change

Perplexes monarchs.] Darkened so, yet shone 600 Above them all, the Archangel : 1 but his face

579. Auxiliar- helping.

580 to 587. All nominative enlargements to the Subj. were joined.

580. Bentley remarks,-Milton, indeed, in his prose works tells us, that in his youth he was a great lover and re:der of romances ; but surely he had more judgment in his old age than to clog and sully his poem with such romantic trash, as even then, when he wrote, was obsolete and forgot. To stuff in here a heap of barbarous words, without any ornament or poetical colouring, serving only to make his own argument, which he takes from the Scripture, to be supposed to be equally fabulous, would be such pedantry, such a silly boast of useless reading, as I will not charge him with.” Bentley

accordingly considers the whole passage spurious.

580. Uther's son-King Arthur. Amorica, the ancient name of Brittany.

581. Begirt, in imitation of the Latin cinctus.

585. Or [those) whom, &c.

588. Observe, in the sense of the Latin observare, to respect.

590. In shape and gesture proudly eminent, stood like a tower.-- Bentley proposes to read stature for gesture, because the latter word does not apply to a tower.

598. And the excess of glory obscuredProbably a Latinism for obscured as to the excess of glory.

Deep scars of thunder had intrenched ;| and care
Sat on his faded cheek, but under brows
Of dauntless courage, and considerate pride

Waiting revenge :/ cruel his eye,] but cast 605 Signs of remorse and passion, to behold

The fellows of his crime, the followers rather,
(Far other once beheld in bliss) condemned
For ever now to have their lot in pain :

Millions of Spirits for his fault amerced
610 Of Heaven, and from eternal splendours flung

For his revolt ;] yet faithful how they stood,
Their glory withered : | as) when Heaven's fire
Hath scathed the forest oaks, or mountain pines,

With singëd top their stately growth, though bare, 615 Stands on the blasted heath. He now prepared

To speak ;| whereat their doubled ranks they bend
From wing to wing, | and half enclose him round
With all his peers :] Attention held them mute.

Thrice he assayed, and thrice, in spite of scorn, 620 Tears, such) as Angels weep, | burst forth :) at last

Words, interwove with sighs, found out their way. I

[O myriads of immortal Spirits ! O Powers Matchless, but with the Almighty !] and that strife

Was not inglorious, though the event was dire, 1 625 As this place testifies, and this dire change

Hateful to utter :) but what power of mind,
Foreseeing or presaging, from the depth
Of knowledge past or present, could have feared
How such united force of gods, how such)

609. To amerce, to fine. Amerced=deprived of.

611. Connect the sentence thus :-To behold (605) his followers condemned (607), and from eternal splendours flung (610); yet (to behold) how they stood faithful, their glory being withered.

614. Growth.-The Abstract used instead of the Concrete, as i. 767. See Cowper, Task, i. 15, Note.

619. Comp. Ovid Metam., xi. 419.-Ter conata loqui, ter fletibus ora rigavit.

627. Foreseeing or presaging. The two words are complete synonyms.

628. Knowledge past or present, cannot mean past or present knowledge, but knowledge of the past and the present, whatever difficulties the grammatical structure may oppose.

628. Could have feared.-See 40, Note.

630 As stood like these, | could ever know repulse ?)

For who can yet believe, though after loss, |
That all these puissant legions,) whose exile
Hath emptied Heaven, / shall fail to re-ascend

Self-raised, and re-possess their native seat ?) 635 For me, be witness all the host of Heaven,

If counsels different, or dangers shunned
By me, have lost our hopes. But he,) who reigns
Monarch in Heaven, till then as one secure

Sat on his throne, upheld by old repute, 640 Consent or custom ;) and his regal state

Put forth at full,] but still his strength concealed,]
Which tempted our attempt, | and wrought our fall.]
Henceforth his might we know, and know our own ;

So as not either to provoke, or dread
645 New war provoked :] our better part remains

To work in close design, by fraud or guile,|
What force effected not : | that he no less
At length from us may find, who overcomes

By force, | hath overcome but half his foe.]
650 Space may produce new worlds ;| whereof so rife

There went a fame in Heaven that he ere long
Intended to create, and therein plant
A generation, whom his choice regard

Should favour equal to the sons of Heaven : 1 655 Thither,) if but to pry,] shall be perhaps

Our first eruption ; thither or elsewhere :)
For this infernal pit shall never hold
Celestial Spirits in bondage, nor the abyss

Long under darkness cover.] But these thoughts 660 Full counsel must mature : peace is despaired ; |

636. Counsels different, or dangers shunned. -A Latinism for the difference of counsels or the shunning of dangers. See 573, note.

647. No less has reference to 643, he, no less than we, bas to learn something

649. Has but half overcome his foe.

650. Whereof to create.- Whereof is used as a Partitive Pronoun, standing in place of an accusative, like the German deren.

651. Fame, report, fama


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