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Best mode of examining the Field of Bannockburn, 319. - Line of

Edward's March, 319. — Place where he encamped, 319. - Remarks, 320.

DEATH OF SIR JAMES DOUGLAS IN SPAIN. Obscurity which hangs over the Particulars of this Event; Illus

trated by some Passages in the Chronicle of Alonso XI., 321. Remarks on these Extracts, 322. — Account of Barbour corroborated by the Chronicle, 323. — Conclusion, 324.

RANDOLPH, EARL OF MORAY. His minute Directions regarding his Sepulture, 325. - Quotation from an Ancient unpublished Charter.

FEUDAL GOVERNMENTS OF EUROPE, Coincidences in the Feudal Governments of England, France, and

Scotland, 326. - Struggle between the King and the Nobles, 327. - In France, 327. - In Scotland, 328. — Influence of the Personal Character of the King, 329. - Miseries of the Feudal Sys. tem, 330,

JAMES IV.'s TOURNAMENT FOR THE BLACK LADY. MS. Accounts of the High Treasurer of Scotland, collected by the

Rev. Mr. Macgregor Stirling ; James IV, and his Blackamoors, 331. - Tournament for the Black Lady; Articles of Defiance sent to France, 332. - Items in the Accounts illustrative of the Tournament, 333. — Dunbar's Poem on the Blackamoor, 334.

JAMES IV. AND THE FLYING ABBOT OF TUNGLAND. James's Passion for Empirics of all Kinds, 335. — Lesly's Account

of the Abbot of Tungland's Attempt to fly, 335. - History of John Damidne; his pretended Skill in Alchemy, 336. — His Familiarity with the King, 337. - Other strange Characters who haunted the Court, 333. — The King's Passion for Surgery.

ARRIVAL OF THE GIPSIES IN SCOTLAND. Curious Letter of James IV. upon this subject, 339.

ANCIENT SCOTTISH Games. Value of the Accounts of the High Treasurer in illustrating Scottish

Sports and Pastimes, 340. — James IV. an enthusiastic Lover of Music, 341. - Common Games, 341. - Obscure Games, 342.Tale-tellers, 343. - Singular Mixture of Levity and Austerity in the Character of this Monarch ; St. Duthoc's Relic, 343. - His Iron Girdle probably apocryphal, 344.- Conclusion.

*JAMES THE FIRST.

1424_1437.

The return of James the First to his vlominions had been sigộalized, as we have seen *, by å memorable example of retribuitive jussice; from the sternness of which the mina revols with horror. We must be careful indeed to regard his conduct to the house of Albany, not through the more humane feelings of our own age, but in relation to the dark feudal times in which he lived. To forgive, or rather not to revenge an injury was a principle which in such days was invariably regarded as a symptom of pusillanimity. James had a long account to settle with the house of his uncle. The blood of his brother, the broken heart of his father, the usurpation of his hereditary throne for eighteen years, and the scenes of rapine and cruelty which had been permitted to take place during his captivity in England, all called upon him to whet the sword of justice with no ordinary edge; to make an impression upon a people accustomed to laxity and disorder, which should powerfully affect their minds, and convince them that the reign of misrule was at an end. In assuming the government, his object was to be feared and respected; but making every allowance for such considerations, and taking fully into view the circumstances under which he returned to his kingdom, it is impossible to deny that in the catastrophe of tke family of Albany, the King appears to have attended to the gratiócation of personal revenge, as much as to the satisfaction of offended justice.

* Vol. ii. pp. 314, 315. VOL. III.

The effects however of his conduct upon a feudal age were such as might easily have been anticipated, anď within a wonderfully short interval matters appeared to be rapidly approaching that state when as:James himself frad predicted” the key should keep the castle, and the braken bush the cow.” The tirst cares -of the monarch were wisely directed to the internal administration of the country. From_without he had at present nothing to dread. England was at peace, the marriage with Jane Beaufort had secured the interest of the governors of that kingdom, during the minority of Henry the Sixth. France was the ancient ally of Scotland, and the commercial interests of the Netherlands were too essentially promoted by their Scottish trade not to be anxious to preserve the most friendly relations.

James therefore was permitted to direct his undivided attention to his affairs at home, and his great principle seems to have been to rule the country through his Parliament; to assemble that great national council as frequently as possible, to enact or to revive wholesome and salutary laws, suited to the emergency in which he found his kingdom, and to insist on their rigid observance. In the same Parliament which beheld the downfal of the house of Albany, we have seen that the administration of justice and the defence of the kingdom formed two principal subjects of consideration; and his attention to the commercial interests of the state was equally active, though not equally enlightened. The acts of the legislature upon this subject are pervaded by that jealousy of exportation, and the narrow policy in restricting the settlement of Scot. tish merchants in foreign parts which mark an unenlightened age. During the detention of the monarch in England, the Flemings as allies of that kingdom, had committed repeated aggressions on the Scottish merchant vessels, and the king on his return had removed the staple of the Scottish commerce to Middleburg in Zealand. Soon after, however, an embassy from the States of Flanders arrived at the Scottish Court, with the object of procuring the restoration of the trade, and James not only received the Envoys with distinction, but consented to their request on the condition of more ample privileges being conferred on his subjects who traded to these parts*.

About this time the Queen was delivered of a daughter, and with an affectionate recurrence to the virtues of the sainted consort of Malcolm Canmore, the Princess was christened Margaret. The event was received with almost as much satisfaction in France as in Scotland, and Charles the Seventh, anxious to procure the assistance of that country in his protracted struggle with the arms of England, immediately opened a negociation for the marriage of the Dauphin with the infant daughter of James. Stewart of Derneley, Constable of the Scottish Army in France, and the Arch

* Fordun, vol. ii., p. 484.

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