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LETTER IV. P. 261, I. 20. eternal duration. See for examples the conclusion of Horace's Odes and Ovid's Metamorphoses.

1. 34. Parisian September. The allusion is to the memorable September of 1792.

P. 264, 1. 3. Second edition. Burke waited to watch the effect of Lord Auckland's work on the public. It had been out about two months when the criticism was begun.

1. 14. Qualis in aethereo. Tibullus, Lib. iv. Carm. 2.

1. 18. simple country folk. Burke was no longer in Parliament: he lived in retirement at Beaconsfield.

P. 267. The style here, as in many other parts, is that of a speech in debate.

P. 269, 1. 19. Esto perpetua. Father Paul Sarpi's dying prayer for his country (Venice). See Dr. Johnson's Life of him.

P. 270, 1. 24. restored the two countries, &c. Thomson alludes to the idea, 'Liberty,' Part iv.:

“Since first the rushing flood
Urged by almighty power, this favoured isle
Turned flashing from the Continent aside,

Indented shore to shore responsive still.'
P. 272, 1. 7. That strain I heard,' &c. Milton, Lycidas.

1. 9. a style which, &c. Burke somewhat unfairly contrasts the flimsy style of Auckland's pamphlet with that of Grenville's Declaration. The compositions were in different kinds.

P. 274, 1. 6. first republic in the world. Holland.
1. 18. Pomoerium. The limit of the precincts of ancient Rome.
1. 29. boulimia. See ante, p. 150, 1. 3.
P. 275, 1. 12. Doctor in Molière. See Le Malade Imaginaire.'

P. 276, 1. 13. opinion of some. See the opening of the first chapter. That empires fall by their own weight is not only an ill-formed analogy, but formed on false premises. A tree, or a building, never falls by its own weight until some other cause has done its work.

P. 277, 1. 10. once to doubt,' &c. Othello, Act iii. sc. 3.

1. 24. excellent Berkeley. Bishop Berkeley's Queries, mainly directed to the condition of Ireland, make an important epoch in the history of Political Economy.

P. 279, 1. 15. dare not be wise. "Sapere aude.' Horace, Epistles, i. 2. 40. 1. 18. •To-morrow and to-morrow,' &c. See Macbeth, Act v. sc. 5.

P. 280, 1. 32. the famous Jurieu. Pierre Jurieu (1637-1713) a Protestant theologian of some eminence, had satisfied himself by study of the Prophets and Apocalypse that the year 1689 would witness the final triumph of Protestantism over Rome. As the time approached, so jubilant were the par. tisans of his views that a medal was struck in his honour with the legend * Jurius Propheta.' The year 1689 however, passed without seeing his predictions fulfilled. Jurieu reapplied himself to his studies, and discovered that he had made an error of twenty-six years, and that 1715 was the real date of the second advent of the Messiah and the fall of Antichrist. Before this date the prophet died. Among his numerous writings is a curious one entitled Les Soupirs de la France esclave qui respire après la liberté.' It denounced the tyranny of Louis XIV, and asserted the sovereignty of the people.

1. 34. Mr. Brothers. Richard Brothers was a harmless fanatic who prophesied and published various pamphlets containing his prophecies. In 1792 · he was commanded by the Lord God to go down to the House of Parliament and acquaint the members for their own personal safety and the general benefit of the country that the time of the world was come to fulfil the 7th chapter of Daniel.' But on his publishing his prophetic mission to George III to deliver up his crown, that all his power and authority might cease,' he was taken up on a warrant, on suspicion of treasonable practices. One member of Parliament, a Mr. Halhed, believed in him, and repeatedly strove to bring his wrongs before the house.

P. 281, 1. 7. gemitus Columbæ. Cooings. Isaiah lix. 11 (Vulg.).

P. 282, 1. 14. untimely wisdom, &c. •Eventus ille stultorum magister,' Livy.

P. 285, l. 33. Jourdan Coupe-tête. Matthew Jourdan, the illiterate ruffian who devastated the Comtat Venaissin, and executed the horrible * Massacre de la Glacière' at Avignon. The Revolutionary Tribunal rid the world of him in 1794.

1. 34. whose Predecessor, &c. Joseph the Second.

P. 286, 1. 33. Juignie-Cardinal de Rochefoucault. Juigné, Bishop of Chalons, had taken part in the famous sitting of the 4th of August, 1789, and proposed a Te Deum in celebration of it. He was now in exile at Constance. As to the Cardinal de Rochefoucault, see note to vol. ii. p. 135, 1. 21.

P. 287, 1. 1. their very beings. Perhaps borrowed from what Grattan had said of the famous preacher Dr. Kirwan: 'In feeding the lamp of charity he had almost exhausted the lamp of life.' Speech on the Address, Jan. 19, 1792.

P. 288, l. 3. DEspremenil. D'Espremenil had been a minister before the Revolution. On the establishment of the Convention he had retired to the country, and ceased to take any part in politics. From his country seat he was suddenly called before the Revolutionary tribunal, condemned, and executed, in 1794.

1. 5. Malesherbes. The famous ally of Turgot, in his plans for saving France by timely fiscal and constitutional reforms. He had been the king's advocate at his trial. After the king's execution, he also retired to the country: whence he was brought before the Revolutionary tribunal, con-
demned, and executed with D’Espremenil. Sainte-Beuve calls him 'ce
Franklin de vieille race.'

P. 289, 1. 3. 'last that wore the imperial purple. The prophecy was
to meet with a striking fulfilment.

P. 290, 1. 4. humility and submission-silent adoration-trembling wings.
As in the fine passage page 163, Burke is using classical materials. Pope,
Essay on Man, i. 91:

• Hope humbly then; with trembling pinions soar:

Wait the great teacher Death, and God adore.'
1. 30. old Trivulzio. The famous old general was then (1515) in his
seventy-fourth year. The battle of Marignano was fought by him at the
head of a French army. It gained Francis I, for a short time, possession of
the whole Duchy of Milan.

1. 31. battle of Marignan. Burke quotes from memory the famous de-
scription of this battle in Mezeray, Book iii : • Il se trouva sur le champ
quatorze mille Suisses morts et pres de quatre mille François : ceux-là pour
la plus grande part brisez de coups de canóns ou percez de traits d'arbaleste,
et ceux-cy fendus et hachez par d'horribles et larges playes. Aussi Trivulce,
qui s'estoit trouvé à dix-huit batailles, disoit que celle-cy estoit une bataille de
géants, et que toutes les autres n'estoient en comparison que des jeux
P. 291, 1. 7. Origenist, &c. So Young, Satire vi:

• Dear Tillotson! be sure, the best of men!
Nor thought be more than thought great Origen-
“Though once upon a time he misbehav'd,

Poor Satan! doubtless he'll at length be saved." '
P. 292, 1. 8. usurper, murderer, regicide. Claudius. See Hamlet, Act
iii. sc. 3.

1. 29. massacre at Quiberon. The captured French emigrants, not being
recognised as belligerents, were all shot. Burke alludes to this in the Third
Letter, p. 170, where he speaks of the practised assassin Hoche.'

P. 293, 1. 12. Tædet harum, &c. Terence, Eun. ii. 3. 6.
1. 21. Muscadin. Perfumed with musk.
1. 29. Tetrarchs. Cp. p. 174, 1. 25.
P. 294, 1. 30. pride, pomp, and circumstance.' Othello, Act iii. sc. 3.

P. 296, l. 5. Anacharsis Cloots. Jean Baptiste Clootz, or, properly,
Klotz, a wealthy German settled in Paris, and greatly inflamed with revolu-
tionary ideas. He assumed the name Anacharsis in honour of the philosophic
Scythian, when travelling in Europe before the Revolution. His early
exploit is abundantly described by Burke. He afterwards added to his
assumed title of ‘Ambassador of the Human Race' that of Personal Enemy
of God.' By a decree of the 26th of August, 1792, the title of citizen was
conferred upon him: on which occasion he thanked the French people at

the bar of the Convention, and pronounced a panegyric on the regicide Ankarström. Cp. note to p. 179, 1. 5, ante. He perished a victim to the Terror, March 23, 1794.

P. 297, 1. 6. their Cotterel. Sir Clement Cotterell was a high official of the Court of George III.

1. 10. gaudy day. An annual festival.

P. 298, 1. 9. grown philosophick. This keen sarcasm refers not only to the late Emperor, Joseph the Second, and to Louis XVI, but to such living sovereigns as the Grand Duke of Tuscany. See p. 175, where he is spoken of as a 'pacific Solomon.'

P. 298, 1. 13. Cappadocia. Burke of course means that Prussia had become to France what Cappadocia was to Rome; a humble province of the regicide empire.

1. 14. Fudean representation. Burke likens Austria to Judea, as he has just likened Prussia to Cappadocia.

1. 21. daughter. Marie Antoinette.

1. 34. Moriamur, &c. The story of the unanimous enthusiasm of the Hungarian Diet is apocryphal. The words were used by Francis Stephen, Maria Theresa's husband, and a certain number of the nobles repeated it after him: but the majority murmured, and demanded a readjustment of taxation.

P. 300, 1. 28. Lord Auckland-Duke of Bedford. The latter was one of the leaders of the opposition in the Lords, and the author of the attack on Burke's pension which led to the Letter to a Noble Lord.'

P. 302, l. 4. I do not believe, &c. Burke is right. Washington bore no hatred to Great Britain.

1. 31. infernal altar. The allusion is to the story of Hannibal, as stated by Livy. Cp. note to p. 6, 1. 16.

P. 303, I. II. an Author who points, &c. Tacitus. The quotation is from Ann. Lib. VI. C. 44.

P. 304, l. 31. Marquis de Montalembert. This veteran soldier was still living, and actively employed in the service of the Republic. He wrote more than one · Military Treatise.'

P. 305, 1. 14. Mire sagaces, &c. Horace, Odes, Lib. ii. 5. 22. 1. 20. old coarse bye-word. God sends meat, and the devil sends cooks.'

1. 23. Thomas Paine. The author of the Rights of Man had been installed as a member of the Convention.

1. 34. house that he has opened. Burke goes on in his happiest vein of humour, to apply to Paine the amusing lines of Swift on the old and the new Angel Inns.

P. 306, 1. 22. light lie the earth, &c. Cp. ante, p. 40, 1. 7. 1. 32. Republic of Europe. The argument is amplified in the First Letter.

P. 307, l. 14. I have reason to be persuaded, &c. Cp. the earlier pages of the Reflections (Select Works, vol. ii.). Thiers, in his History, says that the French political clubs were modelled on those of England.

1. 20. formal distributionsmoral basis. See the arguments in vol. ii. p. 203, and following.

P. 308, 1. 7. Astræa. The goddess of Justice, said to have quitted the earth when the Golden Age ceased.

P. 309, 1. 1. I have heard that a Tartar believes, &c. Butler, Hudibras (Part i. c. 2):

So a wild Tartar, when he spies
A man that's handsome, valiant, wise, .
If he can kill him thinks t inherit

His wit, his beauty, and his spirit.' So Shaftesbury, Essay on the Freedom of Wit and Humour :-'For, in good earnest, to destroy a philosophy in hatred to a man implies as errant a Tartar-notion as to destroy or murder a man, in order to plunder him of his wit, and get the inheritance of his understanding.'

1. 9. tontine of Infamy. A happy stroke. A Tontine (so named from its inventor) is a lottery in which the longest livers divide the produce of the stock, with its accumulations. Cp. vol. ii. p. 290, l. 16.

1. 22. Murderers and hogs, &c. This grim humour is borrowed from Bacon's 'Spurious' Apophthegms, No. 16.

1. 26. Pantheon. Cp. ante, note to p. 72, 1. 6.

P. 312, 1. 17. regardants. A villain regardant' is the old legal term for an ordinary serf.

1. 18. even the Negroes, &c. Burke goes too far. At this time the condition of the negroes in the British West Indies, which Burke had been the first to characterise adequately, in a juvenile production forty years before, was being widely discussed.

1. 33. more at large hereafter. See the Second Letter.

P. 314, 1. 10. genethliacon. A birth-song. Burke's observation is correct. It was the strength of the opposition in the Assembly, and the goodness of their cause, that led to the Revolution of Fructidor, and the triumph of the war-party, in 1797. P. 317, 1. 21. splitting this brilliant orb,' &c. :

•Give me my Romeo, and when he shall die,

Take him and cut him out in little stars,
And he shall make the face of heaven so fine,
That all the world shall fall in love with night.'

Romeo and Juliet, Act iii. sc. 2. P. 321,1. 4. eundem Negotiatorem, &c. The Roman negotiator or factor was usually a slave.

1. 10. master Republick cultivates the arts, &c. The allusion is to Virgil's well-known lines:

• Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento;
Hae tibi erunt artes.'

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