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1. 14. early sincerity. The Grand-Duke of Tuscany, weak in mind and insignificant in position, created general amusement by being the first member of the alliance to detach himself from it. This he did early in 1795.

l. 21. placed Leghorn, &c. Leghorn was seized by the French in June, 1796, notwithstanding the peace made by the Grand-Duke. They expected to seize abundance of English property, and, disappointed in this, pillaged their own allies.

P. 176, 1. 7. murdering piece.' The technical name for this species of pictures; like landscape.

1. 18. sunk deep into the vale, &c. Pius VI was over eighty years of age.

1. 34. regenerated law. Burke alludes to the revival of the study of Civil Law at Bologna.

P. 177, 1. 1. hideously metamorphosed. In 1798 the same process was extended to Rome itself.

1. 7. work which defied the power, &c. The drainage of the Pontine marshes had been attempted at intervals by several Popes : but no progress was made until the time of Pius VI, who restored the canal of Augustus and constructed the modern road on the line of the Appian way. It is not correct to say that the same task defied the engineers of ancient Rome. Their works had fallen into decay.

P. 178, 1. II. at all times-powerful squadron. The Mediterranean had been evacuated by the British squadron employed on that station in consequence of the demands of the war in the West Indies.

1. 15. despotic mistress of that sea. The Mediterranean a French lake.'

P. 179, 1. 5. himself the victim, &c. The allusion is to the assassination of Gustavus (III) by Ankarström, March 16, 1792.

1. 12. late Empress new Emperor. Catherine II had died Nov. 17, 1796, leaving Paul I her successor. Burke's expectations from Paul were justified. The unprincipled aggressions of France after the peace of Campo Formio drew him into the alliance: and the tide of events on the continent was first changed by the Italian campaign in 1799, in which Suwarrow bore so inportant a part.

P. 180, 1. 19. As long as Europe, &c. Though the possessory interest of Europe in America has practically ceased, time has confirmed Burke's diplomatic dictum that 'America is to be considered as part of the European


I. 23. attempts to plant Jacobinism instead of liberty. The allusion is to the arrogant bearing and intrigues of the French envoy in the United States, where the French confidently hoped to Jacobinize the government as in Holland and Genoa. The Directory instructed their representative to take no notice of Washington, and to appeal to the people.

P. 181, I. 26. if any memory, &c. The qualification was necessary. This antiquated distinction of parties, fading early in Burke's career (cp. vol. i. p. 4, 1. 10), was now mere matter of history.

P. 182, 1. 1. by their union have once saved it. An ingenious account of the desertion of the Portland Whigs, with Burke at their head, in 1792.

1. 19. other party. The followers of Fox.

P. 183, 1. 32. distinguished person. Lord Auckland, a shrewd man bred to the law, had risen to some eminence as a diplomatic agent of Mr. Pitt's.

P. 187, 1. 30. when the fortune of the war began to turn. In 1793.

P. 188, 1. 15. noble person himself. Lord Auckland. In the debates of the early part of 1795 he had opposed the peace proposals.

1. 24. no foundation for attributing, &c. Lord Auckland sent to Burke a copy of the pamphlet on the day of its publication (Oct. 28, 1795), with a note confessing the authorship, but stating that as regards the public he neither sought to avow the publication nor wished to disavow it. Burke's remarks on the authorship were therefore justifiable.

1. 32. riggs of old Michaelmas. Stormy weather about that time. (Rigs = capricious tempests.)

P. 189, 1. 5. Speech from the throne. The speech on the opening of the Session in 1795.

P. 191, 1. 30. *As to our Ambassador, this total want of reparation for the injury was passed by under pretence of despising it.

• It is the cowish terror of his spirit
That dares not undertake: he'll not feel wrongs
That tie him to an answer.'

Lear, Act iv. sc. 2. P. 193, 1. 9. non omnibus dormio. The allusion is to a story contained in Plutarch's Eroticus, of one Galba, and Mæcenas: "Notep cal ó 'Pwuaios εκείνος Κάββας είστία Μαικήναν, είτα δρών διαπληκτιζόμενος από νευμάτων προς το γύναιον, απέκλινεν ήσυχη την κεφαλήν, ως δή καθεύδων, εν τούτω δη των οικετών τινος προσρυέντος έξωθεν τη τραπέζη, και τον οίνον úpaipovuévov, daßréyas, “Kakódejov," citev, Ook olola, Óti póva Maikhvą kaleúdw;”.

1. 26. two confidential communications. Both delivered to Delacroix by Lord Malmesbury on Saturday morning, Dec. 17, 1796. The first contained the proposed terms of peace so far as they related to France, the second so far as they related to Spain and Holland. The Confidential Memorials were not signed by Lord Malmesbury, though his signature was affixed to the note to which they were appended : and the Directory returned the memorials to him on Sunday stating that they could recognize no unsigned documents, and demanding an ultimatum properly signed, within twenty-four hours. On Monday, Lord Malmesbury returned the memorials properly signed, with a statement that they contained not an ultimatum, but a project subject to discussion. Later in the same day he received the peremptory notice to quit Paris in forty-eight hours.

P. 196,1. 20. German War. So called at first : afterwards best known as the Seven Years' War.

P. 197, 1. 33. the Empire and the Papacy. Neither of the two Cardinal powers of mediaeval Europe, now in their political decay, were so formidable to progress as is now often supposed. The continual attacks directed against them proceeded mainly from the politicians, and date back long before 1789.

P. 198, 1. 21. body of republics. Alluding especially to the Ligurian and Cispadane Republics in Italy. The establishment of the Parthenopaean Republic confirmed Burke's augury.

I. 26. universal empire-universal revolution. In a very short time the justice of the charge was confessed by the best friends of France. No sooner was the peace of Campo Formio signed than the attacks on Rome, Switzerland, and Naples, made it clear that faith would be kept by the Directory on no other terms than a submission to republican principles.

P. 199, 1. 10. Scrap of equivalents. His contemptible list of proposed cessions to France in exchange for the Austrian Netherlands.

P. 200, l. 15. very dubious struggle. The result of the war in the rest of the West Indies was still doubtful.

P. 202, 1. 24. family of thieves. The allusion is to the division of power between the two assemblies--the Council of Ancients and the Council of Five Hundred. P. 203, 1. 10. The identical men, &c.

Da riguardo servil, da melensaggine

Vinte per uso,-un anima non hanno
Capace d'una bella scelleraggine.'

Casti, Animali Parlanti, Cant. xi. 1. 11. original place - dirtiest of chicaners. The allusion is to the two lawyers Reubel and Lepaux.

P. 205, 1. 8. The slothful man,' &c. Proverbs xxii. 13.
I. 27. whiff and wind of it, &c.

• With the whiff and wind of his fell sword
The unnerved father falls.'

Hamlet, Act ii. Scene 2. 1. 23. open subscription-of eighteen millions, proposed by Mr. Pitt, December 7, 1795. For every £100 in cash the subscriber became entitled to £120 3 per cents., and £25 4 per cents., with further addition in the Long Annuities. The loan was notoriously not an open competition. It was placed in the hands of the mercantile house of Boyd. The circumstances attending the loan were brought to light by Mr. W. Smith in a motion for a Committee of Enquiry. An ample account may be seen in the Parliamentary History.

P. 206, 1. 11. Ne te quaesiveris extra. Persius, Sat. i. 7.
P. 207, 1. 7. ritually, i.e. formally, properly.

1. 25. very lucrative bargain. The premium on the loan amounted to no less a sum than £2,160,000!

P. 209, 1. 6. The love of lucre, &c. i.e. as productive of capital. Burke may have had the following passage in his ear when he wrote the above clause: •The inclination is natural in them all, pardonable in those who have not yet made their fortunes: and as lawful in the rest as love of power or love of money can make it. But as natural, as pardonable, and as lawful as this inclination is, where it is not under check of the civil power, or when a corrupt ministry,' &c. Swift, Examiner, No. xxiv.

1. 15. 'with all its imperfections,' &c. This well-known phrase from Hamlet is a favourite quotation with Burke. See vol. i. p. 185, 1. 5.

P. 211, 1. 25. "wherever a man's treasure,' &c. Luke xii. 34.
P. 219, 1. 2. ·Modo sol nimius,' &c. Ovid, Met. Lib. v. 483.
P. 220, 1. 22. How war, &c. Milton, Sonnet xvii. 1. 7.

P. 221, 1. 7. Proving its title, &c. Among many embodiments of this commonplace, Shakespeare's is perhaps the best :

• Therefore, brave conquerors! for so you are,

That war against your own affections,
And the huge army of the world's desires,' &c.

Love's Labour's Lost, Act i. Scene 1. 1. 28. 'palmy state.' Cp, note, p. 7, 1. 13, ante.

1. 29. brighter lustre than in the present, &c. Burke alludes to the English campaign in the Low Countries under the Duke of York. The British contingent took the field at the investment of Valenciennes, which surrendered to the Duke of York, July 28, 1793. A month after, the Duke was besieging Dunkirk: but was forced to raise the siege suddenly by the arrival of overwhelming reinforcements to the enemy. He took the lead in the succeeding year, capturing all the posts between Courtray and Lille; and the English contingent was distinguished in the repulse of the French at Tournay, May 10, 1794. The English ranks were greatly thinned by the terrible fighting at Turcoing, on the 18th and 22nd, while the severe losses they inflicted on the enemy drew from the Convention a decree denying all quarter to the British and Hanoverian troops. Moreau and several other French generals, to their honour, refused to execute this savage decree. A month afterwards, the decisive battle of Fleurus gave Flanders to the French. At the head of an overwhelming number of troops, Pichegru drove the Duke into Holland. The states of Holland having submitted to the French early in 1795: and the English army, pursued by Macdonald and Moreau, had to retreat through a practically hostile country into German territory. They embarked at Bremerhaven for England, 1795.

P. 222, 1. 9. distant possessions. West Indies.
1. 12. neighbouring colonies. The British West Indies.

one sweeping law, &c. That of August, 1793, which decreed a levy of the people en masse until the enemy should be driven from the soil of the Republic.

1. 31. invasion. The alarm of invasion naturally began to be felt as England was gradually deserted by the Allies, as a consequence of the great development of France, and her bitterness against England. After the Peace of Campo Formio England was left absolutely alone, and the probability of invasion was redoubled.

P. 223, l. 4. forty years ago. In the time of the elder Pitt and his vigorous war-policy.

P. 224, 1. 20. much more to dread. See Burke's famous Letter to a Noble Lord.

1. 29. The excesses of delicacy, &c. The argument is amplified in a note of Southey's: • It is the lowest class which supplies the constant consumption of society. It is they who are cut off by contagious diseases, who are poisoned in manufactories, who supply our fleets and armies. The other class of society are exempt from most of these chances of destruction, yet they produce little or no surplus of population, and the families of all such as have been truly illustrious soon become extinct. The most thoughtful people taken as a body are the least prolific. An increase of animal life depends on something more than animal passion, or the abundance of the means of subsistence.'

P. 225, 1. 3. whose name, &c. These touching words allude to the recent death of the author's only son in 1794.

1. 1. the ancients. Burke alludes to his favourite philosopher, Aristotle.

P. 234, I. 14. The allusion is to the statutory registration of deeds in that county.

P. 238, 1. IT. 'migravit ab aure voluptas.' Hor. Ep. ii. 1. 187.

P. 239, 1. 7. all the three theatres. The famed old ones of Drury Lane and Covent Garden, and the Little Theatre' in the Haymarket, made popular by Foote and Colman.

1. 28. my first political tract. The Observations on the State of the Nation.' See ante, p. 195. The publication of the quarto edition of his works evidently attracted Burke's attention anew to this early production.

P. 251, 1. 5. The different Bills. The first bill, originated by a private company, was introduced in the previous session (1795-6), supported by the leading merchants, and by the East India Company. It was defeated by the interest of the corporation of London. The second bill, containing the rival scheme of the corporation, was introduced early in 1797.

P. 254, 1. 25. bore—the sudden rush of a high tidal wave up a creek or river.

P. 256, 1. 30. Famish their virtues, &c. The image belongs to Young: 'Eusebius, though liberal to the demands of vature, rank, and duty, starves vice, caprice, and folly.' Letter on Pleasure, iii.

P. 257, 1. 4. mines of Newfoundland. The fisheries. The expulsion of the French from St. Pierre and Miquelon (see Introduction) had thrown them exclusively into English hands.

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